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1.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-14, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666148

RESUMO

The Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) is a national register in which twins, multiples and their parents, siblings, spouses and other family members participate. Here we describe the NTR resources that were created from more than 30 years of data collections; the development and maintenance of the newly developed database systems, and the possibilities these resources create for future research. Since the early 1980s, the NTR has enrolled around 120,000 twins and a roughly equal number of their relatives. The majority of twin families have participated in survey studies, and subsamples took part in biomaterial collection (e.g., DNA) and dedicated projects, for example, for neuropsychological, biomarker and behavioral traits. The recruitment into the NTR is all inclusive without any restrictions on enrollment. These resources - the longitudinal phenotyping, the extended pedigree structures and the multigeneration genotyping - allow for future twin-family research that will contribute to gene discovery, causality modeling, and studies of genetic and cultural inheritance.

2.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 230, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota composition is known to be influenced by a myriad of factors including the host genetic profile and a number of environmental influences. Here, we focus on the environmental influence of cohabitation on the gut microbiota as well as whether these environmentally influenced microorganisms are associated with cardiometabolic and inflammatory burden. We perform this by investigating the gut microbiota composition of various groups of related individuals including cohabitating monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs, non-cohabitating MZ twin pairs and spouse pairs. RESULTS: A stronger correlation between alpha diversity was found in cohabitating MZ twins (45 pairs, r = 0.64, p = 2.21 × 10- 06) than in non-cohabitating MZ twin pairs (121 pairs, r = 0.42, p = 1.35 × 10- 06). Although the correlation of alpha diversity did not attain significance between spouse pairs (42 pairs, r = 0.23, p = 0.15), the correlation was still higher than those in the 209 unrelated pairs (r = - 0.015, p = 0.832). Bray-Curtis (BC) dissimilarity metrics showed cohabitating MZ twin pairs had the most similar gut microbiota communities which were more similar than the BC values of non-cohabitating MZ twins (empirical p-value = 0.0103), cohabitating spouses (empirical p-value = 0.0194), and pairs of unrelated non-cohabitating individuals (empirical p-value< 0.00001). There was also a significant difference between the BC measures from the spouse pairs and those from the unrelated non-cohabitating individuals (empirical p-value< 0.00001). Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated between the various groups of interest and the results indicate the presence of OTUs with an environmental influence and one OTU that appeared to demonstrate genetic influences. One of the OTUs (Otu0190) was observed to have a significant association with both the cardiometabolic and inflammatory burden scores (p's < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Through the comparison of the microbiota contents of MZ twins with varying cohabitation status and spousal pairs, we showed evidence of environmentally influenced OTUs, one of which had a significant association with cardiometabolic and inflammatory burden scores.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608377

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Inter-individual differences in cortisol production and metabolism emerge with age, and may be explained by genetic factors. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to inter-individual differences in cortisol production and metabolism throughout adolescence. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study of twins. SETTING: Nationwide register. PARTICIPANTS: 218 mono- and dizygotic twins (N=109 pairs) born between 1995-1996, recruited from the Netherlands Twin Register. Cortisol metabolites were determined in 213, 169 and 160 urine samples at the ages of 9, 12 and 17y, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The total contribution of genetic factors (broad-sense heritability), and shared and unshared environmental influences to inter-individual differences in cortisol production, and activities of 5α-reductase, 5ß-reductase, 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and cytochrome P450 3A4. RESULTS: For cortisol production rate at the ages of 9, 12 and 17y, broad-sense heritability was estimated as: 42%, 30% and 0%, respectively and the remainder of the variance was explained by unshared environmental factors. For cortisol metabolism indices, the following heritability was observed: for the A-ring reductases (5α-and 5ß-reductases), broad-sense heritability increased with age (to>50%), while for the other indices (renal 11ß-HSD2, global 11ß-HSD and CYP3A4), the contribution of genetic factors was highest (68%, 18% and 67%, respectively) at age 12y. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of genetic factors to inter-individual differences in cortisol production decreased between 12 and 17y, indicative of a predominant role of individual circumstances. For cortisol metabolism, distinct patterns of genetic and environmental influences were observed, with heritability that either increased with age or peaked at age 12y.

4.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with metabolic alterations, which adversely impact cardiometabolic health. Here, a comprehensive set of metabolic markers, predominantly lipids, was compared between depressed and nondepressed persons. METHODS: Nine Dutch cohorts were included, comprising 10,145 control subjects and 5283 persons with depression, established with diagnostic interviews or questionnaires. A proton nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics platform provided 230 metabolite measures: 51 lipids, fatty acids, and low-molecular-weight metabolites; 98 lipid composition and particle concentration measures of lipoprotein subclasses; and 81 lipid and fatty acids ratios. For each metabolite measure, logistic regression analyses adjusted for gender, age, smoking, fasting status, and lipid-modifying medication were performed within cohort, followed by random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Of the 51 lipids, fatty acids, and low-molecular-weight metabolites, 21 were significantly related to depression (false discovery rate q < .05). Higher levels of apolipoprotein B, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, diglycerides, total and monounsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid chain length, glycoprotein acetyls, tyrosine, and isoleucine and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, acetate, and apolipoprotein A1 were associated with increased odds of depression. Analyses of lipid composition indicators confirmed a shift toward less high-density lipoprotein and more very-low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride particles in depression. Associations appeared generally consistent across gender, age, and body mass index strata and across cohorts with depressive diagnoses versus symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This large-scale meta-analysis indicates a clear distinctive profile of circulating lipid metabolites associated with depression, potentially opening new prevention or treatment avenues for depression and its associated cardiometabolic comorbidity.

5.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

6.
JAMA Psychiatry ; : 1-11, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665216

RESUMO

Importance: Recurrent microdeletions and duplications in the genomic region 15q11.2 between breakpoints 1 (BP1) and 2 (BP2) are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. These structural variants are present in 0.5% to 1.0% of the population, making 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 the site of the most prevalent known pathogenic copy number variation (CNV). It is unknown to what extent this CNV influences brain structure and affects cognitive abilities. Objective: To determine the association of the 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 deletion and duplication CNVs with cortical and subcortical brain morphology and cognitive task performance. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this genetic association study, T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging were combined with genetic data from the ENIGMA-CNV consortium and the UK Biobank, with a replication cohort from Iceland. In total, 203 deletion carriers, 45 247 noncarriers, and 306 duplication carriers were included. Data were collected from August 2015 to April 2019, and data were analyzed from September 2018 to September 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The associations of the CNV with global and regional measures of surface area and cortical thickness as well as subcortical volumes were investigated, correcting for age, age2, sex, scanner, and intracranial volume. Additionally, measures of cognitive ability were analyzed in the full UK Biobank cohort. Results: Of 45 756 included individuals, the mean (SD) age was 55.8 (18.3) years, and 23 754 (51.9%) were female. Compared with noncarriers, deletion carriers had a lower surface area (Cohen d = -0.41; SE, 0.08; P = 4.9 × 10-8), thicker cortex (Cohen d = 0.36; SE, 0.07; P = 1.3 × 10-7), and a smaller nucleus accumbens (Cohen d = -0.27; SE, 0.07; P = 7.3 × 10-5). There was also a significant negative dose response on cortical thickness (ß = -0.24; SE, 0.05; P = 6.8 × 10-7). Regional cortical analyses showed a localization of the effects to the frontal, cingulate, and parietal lobes. Further, cognitive ability was lower for deletion carriers compared with noncarriers on 5 of 7 tasks. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings, from the largest CNV neuroimaging study to date, provide evidence that 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 structural variation is associated with brain morphology and cognition, with deletion carriers being particularly affected. The pattern of results fits with known molecular functions of genes in the 15q11.2 BP1-BP2 region and suggests involvement of these genes in neuronal plasticity. These neurobiological effects likely contribute to the association of this CNV with neurodevelopmental disorders.

7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518406

RESUMO

Humans are social animals that experience intense suffering when they perceive a lack of social connection. Modern societies are experiencing an epidemic of loneliness. While the experience of loneliness is universally human, some people report experiencing greater loneliness than others. Loneliness is more strongly associated with mortality than obesity, emphasizing the need to understand the nature of the relationship between loneliness and health. While it is intuitive that circumstantial factors such as marital status and age influence loneliness, there is also compelling evidence of a genetic predisposition towards loneliness. To better understand the genetic architecture of loneliness and its relationship with associated outcomes, we extended the genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis of loneliness to 511 280 subjects, and detect 19 significant genetic variants from 16 loci, including four novel loci, as well as 58 significantly associated genes. We investigated the genetic overlap with a wide range of physical and mental health traits by computing genetic correlations and by building loneliness polygenic scores in an independent sample of 18 498 individuals with electronic health record data to conduct a PheWAS with. A genetic predisposition towards loneliness was associated with cardiovascular, psychiatric, and metabolic disorders, and triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins. Mendelian randomization analyses showed evidence of a causal, increasing, effect of both BMI and body fat on loneliness. Our results provide a framework for future studies of the genetic basis of loneliness and its relationship to mental and physical health.

8.
Behav Genet ; 49(5): 432-443, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502010

RESUMO

Bullying comes in different forms, yet most previous genetically-sensitive studies have not distinguished between them. Given the serious consequences and the high prevalence of bullying, it is remarkable that the aetiology of bullying and its different forms has been under-researched. We present the first study to investigate the genetic architecture of bullying perpetration, bullying victimization, and their co-occurrence for verbal, physical and relational bullying. Primary-school teachers rated 8215 twin children on bullying perpetration and bullying victimization. For each form of bullying, we investigated, through genetic structural equation modelling, the genetic and environmental influences on being a bully, a victim or both. 34% of the children were involved as bully, victim, or both. The correlation between being a bully and being a victim varied from 0.59 (relational) to 0.85 (physical). Heritability was ~ 70% for perpetration and ~ 65% for victimization, similar in girls and boys, yet both were somewhat lower for the relational form. Shared environmental influences were modest and more pronounced among girls. The correlation between being a bully and being a victim was explained mostly by genetic factors for verbal (~ 71%) and especially physical (~ 77%) and mostly by environmental factors for relational perpetration and victimization (~ 60%). Genes play a large role in explaining which children are at high risk of being a victim, bully, or both. For victimization this suggests an evocative gene-environment correlation: some children are at risk of being exposed to bullying, partly due to genetically influenced traits. So, genetic influences make some children more vulnerable to become a bully, victim or both.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 219, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488809

RESUMO

Trials testing the effect of vitamin D or omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n3-PUFA) supplementation on major depressive disorder (MDD) reported conflicting findings. These trials were inspired by epidemiological evidence suggesting an inverse association of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) and n3-PUFA levels with MDD. Observational associations may emerge from unresolved confounding, shared genetic risk, or direct causal relationships. We explored the nature of these associations exploiting data and statistical tools from genomics. Results from genome-wide association studies on 25-OH-D (N = 79 366), n3-PUFA (N = 24 925), and MDD (135 458 cases, 344 901 controls) were applied to individual-level data (>2000 subjects with measures of genotype, DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition) lifetime MDD diagnoses and circulating 25-OH-D and n3-PUFA) and summary-level data analyses. Shared genetic risk between traits was tested by polygenic risk scores (PRS). Two-sample Mendelian Randomization (2SMR) analyses tested the potential bidirectional causality between traits. In individual-level data analyses, PRS were associated with the phenotype of the same trait (PRS 25-OH-D p = 1.4e - 20, PRS n3-PUFA p = 9.3e - 6, PRS MDD p = 1.4e - 4), but not with the other phenotypes, suggesting a lack of shared genetic effects. In summary-level data analyses, 2SMR analyses provided no evidence of a causal role on MDD of 25-OH-D (p = 0.50) or n3-PUFA (p = 0.16), or for a causal role of MDD on 25-OH-D (p = 0.25) or n3-PUFA (p = 0.66). Applying genomics tools indicated that shared genetic risk or direct causality between 25-OH-D, n3-PUFA, and MDD is unlikely: unresolved confounding may explain the associations reported in observational studies. These findings represent a cautionary tale for testing supplementation of these compounds in preventing or treating MDD.

10.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494793

RESUMO

Inferring a person's smoking habit and history from blood is relevant for complementing or replacing self-reports in epidemiological and public health research, and for forensic applications. However, a finite DNA methylation marker set and a validated statistical model based on a large dataset are not yet available. Employing 14 epigenome-wide association studies for marker discovery, and using data from six population-based cohorts (N = 3764) for model building, we identified 13 CpGs most suitable for inferring smoking versus non-smoking status from blood with a cumulative Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.901. Internal fivefold cross-validation yielded an average AUC of 0.897 ± 0.137, while external model validation in an independent population-based cohort (N = 1608) achieved an AUC of 0.911. These 13 CpGs also provided accurate inference of current (average AUCcrossvalidation 0.925 ± 0.021, AUCexternalvalidation0.914), former (0.766 ± 0.023, 0.699) and never smoking (0.830 ± 0.019, 0.781) status, allowed inferring pack-years in current smokers (10 pack-years 0.800 ± 0.068, 0.796; 15 pack-years 0.767 ± 0.102, 0.752) and inferring smoking cessation time in former smokers (5 years 0.774 ± 0.024, 0.760; 10 years 0.766 ± 0.033, 0.764; 15 years 0.767 ± 0.020, 0.754). Model application to children revealed highly accurate inference of the true non-smoking status (6 years of age: accuracy 0.994, N = 355; 10 years: 0.994, N = 309), suggesting prenatal and passive smoking exposure having no impact on model applications in adults. The finite set of DNA methylation markers allow accurate inference of smoking habit, with comparable accuracy as plasma cotinine use, and smoking history from blood, which we envision becoming useful in epidemiology and public health research, and in medical and forensic applications.

11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558840

RESUMO

Insights into individual differences in gene expression and its heritability (h2) can help in understanding pathways from DNA to phenotype. We estimated the heritability of gene expression of 52,844 genes measured in whole blood in the largest twin RNA-Seq sample to date (1497 individuals including 459 monozygotic twin pairs and 150 dizygotic twin pairs) from classical twin modeling and identity-by-state-based approaches. We estimated for each gene h2total, composed of cis-heritability (h2cis, the variance explained by single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cis-window of the gene), and trans-heritability (h2res, the residual variance explained by all other genome-wide variants). Mean h2total was 0.26, which was significantly higher than heritability estimates earlier found in a microarray-based study using largely overlapping (>60%) RNA samples (mean h2 = 0.14, p = 6.15 × 10-258). Mean h2cis was 0.06 and strongly correlated with beta of the top cis expression quantitative loci (eQTL, ρ = 0.76, p < 10-308) and with estimates from earlier RNA-Seq-based studies. Mean h2res was 0.20 and correlated with the beta of the corresponding trans-eQTL (ρ = 0.04, p < 1.89 × 10-3) and was significantly higher for genes involved in cytokine-cytokine interactions (p = 4.22 × 10-15), many other immune system pathways, and genes identified in genome-wide association studies for various traits including behavioral disorders and cancer. This study provides a thorough characterization of cis- and trans-h2 estimates of gene expression, which is of value for interpretation of GWAS and gene expression studies.

12.
Neuroimage ; 202: 116073, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386921

RESUMO

The human brain is active during rest and hierarchically organized into intrinsic functional networks. These functional networks are largely established early in development, with reports of a shift from a local to more distributed organization during childhood and adolescence. It remains unknown to what extent genetic and environmental influences on functional connectivity change throughout adolescent development. We measured functional connectivity within and between eight cortical networks in a longitudinal resting-state fMRI study of adolescent twins and their older siblings on two occasions (mean ages 13 and 18 years). We modelled the reliability for these inherently noisy and head-motion sensitive measurements by analyzing data from split-half sessions. Functional connectivity between resting-state networks decreased with age whereas functional connectivity within resting-state networks generally increased with age, independent of general cognitive functioning. Sex effects were sparse, with stronger functional connectivity in the default mode network for girls compared to boys, and stronger functional connectivity in the salience network for boys compared to girls. Heritability explained up to 53% of the variation in functional connectivity within and between resting-state networks, and common environment explained up to 33%. Genetic influences on functional connectivity remained stable during adolescent development. In conclusion, longitudinal age-related changes in functional connectivity within and between cortical resting-state networks are subtle but wide-spread throughout adolescence. Genes play a considerable role in explaining individual variation in functional connectivity with mostly stable influences throughout adolescence.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11623, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406173

RESUMO

Telomere shortening has been associated with multiple age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dementia. However, the biological mechanisms responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. In order to gain insight into the metabolic processes driving the association of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with age-related diseases, we investigated the association between LTL and serum metabolite levels in 7,853 individuals from seven independent cohorts. LTL was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the levels of 131 serum metabolites were measured with mass spectrometry in biological samples from the same blood draw. With partial correlation analysis, we identified six metabolites that were significantly associated with LTL after adjustment for multiple testing: lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C17:0 (lysoPC a C17:0, p-value = 7.1 × 10-6), methionine (p-value = 9.2 × 10-5), tyrosine (p-value = 2.1 × 10-4), phosphatidylcholine diacyl C32:1 (PC aa C32:1, p-value = 2.4 × 10-4), hydroxypropionylcarnitine (C3-OH, p-value = 2.6 × 10-4), and phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C38:4 (PC ae C38:4, p-value = 9.0 × 10-4). Pathway analysis showed that the three phosphatidylcholines and methionine are involved in homocysteine metabolism and we found supporting evidence for an association of lipid metabolism with LTL. In conclusion, we found longer LTL associated with higher levels of lysoPC a C17:0 and PC ae C38:4, and with lower levels of methionine, tyrosine, PC aa C32:1, and C3-OH. These metabolites have been implicated in inflammation, oxidative stress, homocysteine metabolism, and in cardiovascular disease and diabetes, two major drivers of morbidity and mortality.

14.
Child Dev ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364163

RESUMO

To examine the contributions of maternal and paternal age on offspring externalizing and internalizing problems, this study analyzed problem behaviors at age 10-12 years from four Dutch population-based cohorts (N = 32,892) by a multiple informant design. Bayesian evidence synthesis was used to combine results across cohorts with 50% of the data analyzed for discovery and 50% for confirmation. There was evidence of a robust negative linear relation between parental age and externalizing problems as reported by parents. In teacher-reports, this relation was largely explained by parental socio-economic status. Parental age had limited to no association with internalizing problems. Thus, in this large population-based study, either a beneficial or no effect of advanced parenthood on child problem behavior was observed.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411322

RESUMO

The prevalence of brain pathologies increases with age and cognitive and physical function worsen over the lifetime. It is unclear whether these processes show a similar increase with age. We studied the association of markers for brain pathology, cognitive and physical function with age in 288 cognitively normal individuals aged 60-102 years selected from the cross-sectional EMIF-AD PreclinAD and 90+ Study at the Amsterdam UMC. An abnormal score was consistent with a score below the 5th percentile in the 60-70 years old individuals. Prevalence of abnormal scores were estimated using generalized estimating equations (GEE) models. The prevalence of abnormal handgrip strength, the Digit Symbol Substitution Test and hippocampal volume showed the fastest increase with age and abnormal MMSE score, muscle mass and amyloid aggregation the lowest. The increase in prevalence of abnormal markers was partly dependent on sex, level of education and amyloid aggregation. We did not find a consistent pattern in which markers of brain pathology and cognitive and physical processes became abnormal with age.

16.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 22(4): 210-219, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379313

RESUMO

Twin registries often take part in large collaborative projects and are major contributors to genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis studies. In this article, we describe genotyping of twin-family populations from Australia, the Midwestern USA (Avera Twin Register), the Netherlands (Netherlands Twin Register), as well as a sample of mothers of twins from Nigeria to assess the extent, if any, of genetic differences between them. Genotyping in all cohorts was done using a custom-designed Illumina Global Screening Array (GSA), optimized to improve imputation quality for population-specific GWA studies. We investigated the degree of genetic similarity between the populations using several measures of population variation with genotype data generated from the GSA. Visualization of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the Australian, Dutch and Midwestern American populations exhibit negligible interpopulation stratification when compared to each other, to a reference European population and to globally distant populations. Estimations of fixation indices (FST values) between the Australian, Midwestern American and Netherlands populations suggest minimal genetic differentiation compared to the estimates between each population and a genetically distinct cohort (i.e., samples from Nigeria genotyped on GSA). Thus, results from this study demonstrate that genotype data from the Australian, Dutch and Midwestern American twin-family populations can be reasonably combined for joint-genetic analysis.

17.
Psychiatr Genet ; 29(5): 170-190, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464998

RESUMO

There are substantial differences, or variation, between humans in aggression, with its molecular genetic basis mostly unknown. This review summarizes knowledge on the genetic contribution to variation in aggression with the following three foci: (1) a comprehensive overview of reviews on the genetics of human aggression, (2) a systematic review of genome-wide association studies (GWASs), and (3) an automated tool for the selection of literature based on supervised machine learning. The phenotype definition 'aggression' (or 'aggressive behaviour', or 'aggression-related traits') included anger, antisocial behaviour, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder. The literature search was performed in multiple databases, manually and using a novel automated selection tool, resulting in 18 reviews and 17 GWASs of aggression. Heritability estimates of aggression in children and adults are around 50%, with relatively small fluctuations around this estimate. In 17 GWASs, 817 variants were reported as suggestive (P ≤ 1.0E), including 10 significant associations (P ≤ 5.0E). Nominal associations (P ≤ 1E) were found in gene-based tests for genes involved in immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. Associations were not replicated across GWASs. A complete list of variants and their position in genes and chromosomes are available online. The automated literature search tool produced literature not found by regular search strategies. Aggression in humans is heritable, but its genetic basis remains to be uncovered. No sufficiently large GWASs have been carried out yet. With increases in sample size, we expect aggression to behave like other complex human traits for which GWAS has been successful.

18.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294817

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: FTND (FagerstrÓ§m test for nicotine dependence) and TTFC (time to smoke first cigarette in the morning) are common measures of nicotine dependence (ND). However, genome-wide meta-analysis for these phenotypes has not been reported. METHODS: Genome-wide meta-analyses for FTND (N = 19,431) and TTFC (N = 18,567) phenotypes were conducted for adult smokers of European ancestry from 14 independent cohorts. RESULTS: We found that SORBS2 on 4q35 (p = 4.05 × 10-8), BG182718 on 11q22 (p = 1.02 × 10-8), and AA333164 on 14q21 (p = 4.11 × 10-9) were associated with TTFC phenotype. We attempted replication of leading candidates with independent samples (FTND, N = 7010 and TTFC, N = 10 061), however, due to limited power of the replication samples, the replication of these new loci did not reach significance. In gene-based analyses, COPB2 was found associated with FTND phenotype, and TFCP2L1, RELN, and INO80C were associated with TTFC phenotype. In pathway and network analyses, we found that the interconnected interactions among the endocytosis, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, axon guidance, MAPK signaling, and chemokine signaling pathways were involved in ND. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses identified several promising candidates for both FTND and TTFC phenotypes, and further verification of these candidates was necessary. Candidates supported by both FTND and TTFC (CHRNA4, THSD7B, RBFOX1, and ZNF804A) were associated with addiction to alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, and were associated with autism and schizophrenia. We also identified novel pathways involved in cigarette smoking. The pathway interactions highlighted the importance of receptor recycling and internalization in ND. IMPLICATIONS: Understanding the genetic architecture of cigarette smoking and ND is critical to develop effective prevention and treatment. Our study identified novel candidates and biological pathways involved in FTND and TTFC phenotypes, and this will facilitate further investigation of these candidates and pathways.

19.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1196, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168101

RESUMO

Several occurrences of the word 'schizophrenia' have been re-worded as 'liability to schizophrenia' or 'schizophrenia risk', including in the title, which should have been "GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, genetic overlap with psychiatric traits, and a causal effect of schizophrenia liability," as well as in Supplementary Figures 1-10 and Supplementary Tables 7-10, to more accurately reflect the findings of the work.

20.
J Innate Immun ; : 1-12, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230049

RESUMO

The incidence of bacterial infections and sepsis, as well as the mortality risk from sepsis, is sex specific. These clinical findings have been attributed to sex differences in immune responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to investigate sex differences in monocyte-derived cytokine production response upon stimulation with the gram-negative stimulus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using cytokine data from 15 study populations. Individual data on ex vivo cytokine production response upon stimulation with LPS in whole blood were available for 4,020 subjects originating from these 15 study populations, either from the general population or from patient populations with specific diseases. Men had a stronger cytokine production response than women to LPS for tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, IL-1ß, IL-1RA, and IL-10, but not for interferon-γ. The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor production response was lower in men than in women. These sex differences were independent of chronological age. As men had higher monocyte concentrations, we normalized the cytokine production responses for monocyte concentration. After normalization, the sex differences in cytokine production response to LPS disappeared, except for IL-10, for which the production response was lower in men than in women. A sex-based approach to interpreting immune responsiveness is crucial.

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