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1.
Cancer Med ; 10(20): 7233-7241, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559451

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preoperative autophagy inhibition with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in combination with gemcitabine in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been shown to be safe and effective in inducing a serum biomarker response and increase resection rates in a previous phase I/II clinical trial. We aimed to analyze the long-term outcomes of preoperative HCQ with gemcitabine for this cohort. METHODS: A review of patients enrolled between July 2010 and February 2013 in the completed phase I/II single arm (two doses of fixed-dose gemcitabine (1500 mg/m2 ) in combination with oral hydroxychloroquine administered for 31 consecutive days until the day of surgery for high-risk pancreatic cancer) was undertaken. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival analysis (OS) using Kaplan-Meier estimates were performed. RESULTS: Of 35 patients initially enrolled, 29 patients underwent surgical resection (median age at diagnosis: 62 years, 45% females). Median duration of follow-up was 7.5 years. There was a median 15% decrease in the serum CA19-9 levels following completion of neoadjuvant therapy and 83% of the cohort underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy, 7 (24%) patients had a concomitant venous resection. On histopathology, 14 (48%) patients had at least a partial treatment response. The median PFS and OS were 11 months (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 7-28) and 31 months (95% CI: 13-47), respectively, while 9 (31%) patients survived beyond 5 years from diagnosis; a rate that compares very favorably with contemporaneous series. CONCLUSION: Compared to historical data, neoadjuvant autophagy inhibition with HCQ plus gemcitabine is associated with encouraging long-term survival for patients with PDAC.

2.
J Vis Exp ; (174)2021 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459807

RESUMO

Malignant pancreatic tumors involving the celiac artery can be resected with a distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy and celiac axis resection (DP-CAR), relying on collateral flow to the liver through the gastroduodenal artery (GDA). In the current manuscript, the technical conduct of robotic DP-CAR is outlined. The greater curve of the stomach is mobilized with care to avoid sacrificing the gastroepiploic vessels. The stomach and liver are retracted cephalad to facilitate dissection of the porta hepatis. The hepatic artery (HA) is dissected and encircled with a vessel loop. The gastroduodenal artery (GDA) is carefully preserved. The common HA is clamped and triphasic flow in the proper HA via the GDA is confirmed using intra-operative ultrasound. A retropancreatic tunnel is made over the superior mesenteric vein (SMV). The pancreas is divided with an endovascular stapler at the neck. The inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) and splenic vein are ligated. The HA is stapled proximal to the GDA. The entire specimen is retracted laterally with further dissection cephalad to expose the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The SMA is then traced back to the aorta. The dissection continues cephalad along the aorta with the bipolar energy device used to divide the crural fibers and celiac nerve plexus. The specimen is mobilized from the patient's right to left until the origin of the celiac axis is identified and oriented towards the left. The trunk is circumferentially dissected and stapled. Additional dissection with hook cautery and the bipolar energy device fully mobilizes the pancreatic tail and spleen. The specimen is removed from the left lower quadrant extraction site and one drain is left in the resection bed. A final intra-operative ultrasound of the proper HA confirms pulsatile, triphasic flow in the artery and liver parenchyma. The stomach is inspected for evidence of ischemia. Robotic DP-CAR is safe, feasible and when used in conjunction with multi-modality therapy, offers potential for long-term survival in selected patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Robótica , Artéria Celíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Celíaca/cirurgia , Humanos , Pâncreas/cirurgia , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia
3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298647

RESUMO

Uveal melanoma is a cancer that develops from melanocytes in the posterior uveal tract. Metastatic uveal melanoma is an extremely rare disease that has a poor long-term prognosis, limited treatment options and a strong predilection for liver metastasis. Median overall survival has been reported to be 6 months and 1 year mortality of 80%. Traditional chemotherapy used in cutaneous melanoma is ineffective in uveal cases. Surgical resection and ablation is the preferred therapy for liver metastasis but is often not feasible due to extent of disease. In this review, we will explore treatment options for liver metastases from uveal melanoma, with a focus on isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP). IHP offers an aggressive regional therapy approach that can be used in bulky unresectable disease and allows high-dose chemotherapy with melphalan to be delivered directly to the liver without systemic effects. Long-term median overall survival has been reported to be as high as 27 months. We will also highlight the poor responses associated with checkpoint inhibitors, including an overview of the biological rationale driving this lack of immunotherapy effect for this disease. The persistent failure of traditional treatments and immunotherapy suggest an ongoing need for regional surgical approaches such as IHP in this disease.

4.
Biomolecules ; 11(6)2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204306

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal malignancy with a five-year survival rate of only 9%. PDAC is characterized by a dense, fibrotic stroma composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. This desmoplastic stroma is a hallmark of PDAC, representing a significant physical barrier that is immunosuppressive and obstructs penetration of cytotoxic chemotherapy agents into the tumor microenvironment (TME). Additionally, dense ECM promotes hypoxia, making tumor cells refractive to radiation therapy and alters their metabolism, thereby supporting proliferation and survival. In this review, we outline the significant contribution of fibrosis to the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, with a focus on the cross talk between immune cells and pancreatic stellate cells that contribute to ECM deposition. We emphasize the cellular mechanisms by which neutrophils and macrophages, specifically, modulate the ECM in favor of PDAC-progression. Furthermore, we investigate how activated stellate cells and ECM influence immune cells and promote immunosuppression in PDAC. Finally, we summarize therapeutic strategies that target the stroma and hinder immune cell promotion of fibrogenesis, which have unfortunately led to mixed results. An enhanced understanding of the complex interactions between the pancreatic tumor ECM and immune cells may uncover novel treatment strategies that are desperately needed for this devastating disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/imunologia , Matriz Extracelular/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica , Macrófagos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/terapia , Humanos , Macrófagos/patologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Células Estreladas do Pâncreas/imunologia , Células Estreladas do Pâncreas/patologia
5.
J Med Educ Curric Dev ; 8: 23821205211024074, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263057

RESUMO

As robotic surgery has become more widespread, early exposure to the robotic platform is becoming increasingly important, not only to graduate medical education, but also for medical students pursuing surgical residency. In an effort to orient students to robotic technology and decrease the learning curve for what is likely to become an integral part of residency training, we created a formal, elective robotic surgery curriculum for senior medical students. Throughout this 2-week fourth year rotation, students completed online training modules and assessment; mastered exercises on the simulator system related to the console, camera, energy, dexterity, and suturing skills; attended didactics; utilized the dual console during one-on-one simulation lab sessions with attending robotic surgery experts; and translated new skills to biotissue anastomoses as well as bedside-assisting in the operating room. During cases, students were able to have more meaningful observation experiences, recognizing the significance of various robotic approaches employed and utilization of specific instruments. Future aims of this rotation will assess student experience as it impacts readiness for surgical residency.

6.
J Immunother ; 44(5): 185-192, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33935273

RESUMO

Despite its increased application in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), complete response to neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) is rare. Given the critical role of host immunity in regulating cancer, we sought to correlate baseline inflammatory profiles to significant response to NAT. PDAC patients receiving NAT were classified as responders (R) or nonresponders (NR) by carbohydrate antigen 19-9 response, pathologic tumor size, and lymph node status in the resected specimen. Baseline (treatment-naive) plasma was analyzed to determine levels of 27 inflammatory mediators. Logistic regression was used to correlate individual mediators with response. Network analysis and Pearson correlation maps were derived to determine baseline inflammatory mediator profiles. Forty patients (20R and 20NR) met study criteria. The R showed significantly higher overall survival (59.4 vs. 21.25 mo, P=0.002) and disease-free survival (50.97 vs. 10.60 mo, P=0.005), compared with NR. soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha was a significant predictor of no response to NAT (P=0.045). Analysis of inflammatory profiles using the Pearson heat map analysis followed by network analysis depicted increased inflammatory network complexity in NR compared with R (1.69 vs. 1), signifying a more robust baseline inflammatory status of NR. A panel of inflammatory mediators identified by logistic regression and Fischer score analysis was used to create a potential decision tree to predict NAT response. We demonstrate that baseline inflammatory profiles are associated with response to NAT in PDAC, and that an upregulated inflammatory status is associated with a poor response to NAT. Further analysis into the role of inflammatory mediators as predictors of chemotherapy response is warranted.

7.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(5): 1822-1829, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002944

RESUMO

SMAD4, a tumor suppressor gene, is lost in up to 60%-90% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas (PDAs). Loss of SMAD4 allows tumor progression by upregulating autophagy, a cell survival mechanism that counteracts apoptosis and allows intracellular recycling of macromolecules. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an autophagy inhibitor. We studied whether HCQ treatment in SMAD4 deficient PDA may prevent therapeutic resistance induced by autophagy upregulation. We retrospectively analyzed the SMAD4 status of patients with PDA enrolled in two prospective clinical trials evaluating pre-operative HCQ. The first dose escalation trial demonstrated the safety of preoperative gemcitabine with HCQ (NCT01128296). More recently, a randomized trial of gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel +/- HCQ evaluated Evans Grade histopathologic response (NCT01978184). The effect of SMAD4 loss on response to HCQ and chemotherapy was studied for association with clinical outcome. Fisher's exact test and log-rank test were used to assess response and survival. Fifty-two patients receiving HCQ with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were studied. Twenty-five patients had SMAD4 loss (48%). 76% of HCQ-treated patients with SMAD4 loss obtained a histopathologic response greater than or equal to 2A, compared with only 37% with SMAD4 intact (p = 0.006). Although loss of SMAD4 has been associated with worse outcomes, in the current study, loss of SMAD4 was not associated with a detriment in median overall survival in HCQ-treated patients (34.43 months in SMAD4 loss vs. 27.27 months in SMAD4 intact, p = 0.18). The addition of HCQ to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with PDA may improve treatment response in those with SMAD4 loss. Further study of the relationship among SMAD4, autophagy, and treatment outcomes in PDA is warranted.

8.
HPB (Oxford) ; 23(8): 1269-1276, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The short-term morbidity associated with post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is well established, however data regarding the long-term impact are lacking. We aim to characterize long-term oncologic outcomes of POPF after pancreatic resection through a single institution, retrospective study of pancreatic resections performed for adenocarcinoma from 2009 to 2016. METHODS: Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, logistic regression, and multivariate analysis (MVA) were used to evaluate impact of POPF on overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS), and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC). RESULTS: 767 patients were included. 82 (10.6%) developed grade B (n = 67) or C (n = 15) POPF. Grade C POPF resulted in decreased OS when compared to no POPF (20.22 vs 26.33 months, p = 0.027) and to grade B POPF (20.22 vs. 26.87 months, p = 0.049). POPF patients were less likely to receive AC than those without POPF (59.5% vs 74.9%, p = 0.003) and grade C POPF were less likely to receive AC than all others (26.7% vs 74.2%, p = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: POPF patients are less likely to receive AC and more likely to have delay in time to AC. These factors are exacerbated in grade C POPF and likely contribute to decreased OS. These findings validate the clinical significance of the ISGPF definition of POPF.

9.
J Surg Oncol ; 123(2): 375-380, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135785

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The learning curve associated with robotic pancreatoduodenectomy (RPD) is a hurdle for new programs to achieve optimal results. Since early analysis, robotic training has recently expanded, and the RPD approach has been refined. The purpose of this study is to examine RPD outcomes for surgeons who implemented a new program after receiving formal RPD training to determine if such training reduces the learning curve. METHODS: Outcomes for consecutive patients undergoing RPD at a single tertiary institution were compared to optimal RPD benchmarks from a previously reported learning curve analysis. Two surgical oncologists with formal RPD training performed all operations with one surgeon as bedside assistant and the other at the console. RESULTS: Forty consecutive RPD operations were evaluated. Mean operative time was 354 ± 54 min, and blood loss was 300 ml. Length of stay was 7 days. Three patients (7.5%) underwent conversion to open. Pancreatic fistula affected five patients (12.5%). Operative time was stable over the study and lower than the reported benchmark. These RPD operative outcomes were similar to reported surgeon outcomes after the learning curve. CONCLUSION: This study suggests formal robotic training facilitates safe and efficient adoption of RPD for new programs, reducing or eliminating the learning curve.


Assuntos
Curva de Aprendizado , Duração da Cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/educação , Robótica/educação , Cirurgiões/educação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/métodos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Robótica/métodos
10.
Ann Surg ; 273(5): 966-972, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to present the outcomes of our decade-long experience of robotic pancreatoduodenectomy and provide insights into successful program implementation. BACKGROUND: Despite significant improvement in mortality over the past 30 years, morbidity following open pancreatoduodenectomy remains high. We implemented a minimally invasive pancreatic surgery program based on the robotic platform as one potential method of improving outcomes for this operation. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained institutional database was performed to identify patients who underwent robotic pancreatoduodenectomy (RPD) between 2008 and 2017 at the University of Pittsburgh. RESULTS: In total, 500 consecutive RPDs were included. Operative time, conversion to open, blood loss, and clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula improved early in the experience and have remained low despite increasing complexity of case selection as reflected by increasing number of patients with pancreatic cancer, vascular resections, and higher Charlson Comorbidity scores (all P<0.05). Operating room time plateaued after 240 cases at a median time of 391 minutes (interquartile rang 340-477). Major complications (Clavien >2) occurred in less than 24%, clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula in 7.8%, 30- and 90-day mortality were 1.4% and 3.1% respectively, and median length of stay was 8 days. Outcomes were not impacted by integration of trainees or expansion of selection criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Structured implementation of robotic pancreatoduodenectomy can be associated with excellent outcomes. In the largest series of RPD, we establish benchmarks for the surgical community to consider when adopting this approach.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(7): 3779-3788, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant therapy is increasingly used for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). It is unknown whether neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is more effective than chemotherapy (NCRT vs. NAC). We aim to compare pathological and survival outcomes of NCRT and NAC in patients with PDAC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Single-center analysis of PDAC patients treated with NCRT or NAC followed by resection between December 2008 and December 2018 was performed. Average treatment effect (ATE) was estimated after case-control matching using Mahalanobis distance nearest-neighbor matching. Inverse probability weighted estimates (IPWE)-based ATE was estimated for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Among the 418 patients (mean age 66.8 years, 51% female) included in the study, 327 received NAC and 91 received NCRT. NCRT patients had higher rates of locally advanced disease, number of neoadjuvant chemotherapy cycles, more chemotherapy regimen crossover (gemcitabine and 5-FU based), and were more likely to undergo open surgical procedures and/or vascular resection (all p < 0.05). After matched analysis, NCRT was associated with a significant reduction in lymph node positive disease [ATE = (-)0.24, p = 0.007] and lymphovascular invasion [ATE = (-)0.20, p = 0.02]. While NCRT was associated with significantly improved DFS by 9.5 months (p = 0.006), it did not affect OS by IPWE-based ATE after adjusting for adjuvant therapy (ATE = 5.5 months; p = 0.32). CONCLUSION: Compared with NAC alone, NCRT is associated with improved pathologic surrogates and disease-free survival, but not overall survival in patients with PDAC.


Assuntos
Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Idoso , Quimiorradioterapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The assessment of therapeutic response after neoadjuvant treatment and pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been an ongoing challenge. Several limitations have been encountered when employing current grading systems for residual tumor. Considering endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) represents a sensitive imaging technique for PDAC, differences in tumor size between preoperative EUS and postoperative pathology after neoadjuvant therapy were hypothesized to represent an improved marker of treatment response. METHODS: For 340 treatment-naïve and 365 neoadjuvant-treated PDACs, EUS and pathologic findings were analyzed and correlated with patient overall survival (OS). A separate group of 200 neoadjuvant-treated PDACs served as a validation cohort for further analysis. RESULTS: Among treatment-naïve PDACs, there was a moderate concordance between EUS imaging and postoperative pathology for tumor size (r = 0.726, P < .001) and AJCC 8th edition T-stage (r = 0.586, P < .001). In the setting of neoadjuvant therapy, a decrease in T-stage correlated with improved 3-year OS rates (50% vs 31%, P < .001). Through recursive partitioning, a cutoff of ≥47% tumor size reduction was also found to be associated with improved OS (67% vs 32%, P < .001). Improved OS using a ≥47% threshold was validated using a separate cohort of neoadjuvant-treated PDACs (72% vs 36%, P < .001). By multivariate analysis, a reduction in tumor size by ≥47% was an independent prognostic factor for improved OS (P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: The difference in tumor size between preoperative EUS imaging and postoperative pathology among neoadjuvant-treated PDAC patients is an important prognostic indicator and may guide subsequent chemotherapeutic management.

13.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(13): 3126-3134, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156749

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We hypothesized that autophagy inhibition would increase response to chemotherapy in the preoperative setting for patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We performed a randomized controlled trial to assess the autophagy inhibitor hydroxychloroquine in combination with gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants with potentially resectable tumors were randomized to two cycles of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine (PG) alone or with hydroxychloroquine (PGH), followed by resection. The primary endpoint was histopathologic response in the resected specimen. Secondary clinical endpoints included serum CA 19-9 biomarker response and margin negative R0 resection. Exploratory endpoints included markers of autophagy, immune infiltrate, and serum cytokines. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients in the PGH arm and 30 in the PG arm were evaluable for the primary endpoint. The PGH arm demonstrated statistically improved Evans grade histopathologic responses (P = 0.00016), compared with control. In patients with elevated CA 19-9, a return to normal was associated with improved overall and recurrence-free survival (P < 0.0001). There were no differences in serious adverse events between arms and chemotherapy dose number was equivalent. The PGH arm had greater evidence of autophagy inhibition in their resected specimens (increased SQSTM1, P = 0.027, as well as increased immune cell tumor infiltration, P = 0.033). Overall survival (P = 0.59) and relapse-free survival (P = 0.55) did not differ between the two arms. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of hydroxychloroquine to preoperative gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel chemotherapy in patients with resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma resulted in greater pathologic tumor response, improved serum biomarker response, and evidence of autophagy inhibition and immune activity.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Recidiva , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(3): 898-906, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), calculated using absolute platelet, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, has recently emerged as a predictor of survival for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) when assessed at diagnosis. Neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) is increasingly used in the treatment of PDAC. However, biomarkers of response are lacking. This study aimed to determine the prognostic significance of SII before and after NAT and its association with the pancreatic tumor biomarker carbohydrate-antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9). METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed all PDAC patients treated with NAT before pancreatic resection at a single institution between 2007 and 2017. Pre- and post-NAT lab values were collected to calculate SII. Absolute pre-NAT, post-NAT, and change in SII after NAT were evaluated for their association with clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The study analyzed 419 patients and found no significant correlation between pre-NAT SII and clinical outcomes. Elevated post-NAT SII was an independent, negative predictor of overall survival (OS) when assessed as a continuous variable (hazard ratio [HR], 1.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00003-1.00014; p = 0.006). Patients with a post-NAT SII greater than 900 had a shorter median OS (31.9 vs 26.1 months; p = 0.050), and a post-NAT SII greater than 900 also was an independent negative predictor of OS (HR, 1.369; 95% CI 1.019-1.838; p = 0.037). An 80% reduction in SII independently predicted a CA 19-9 response after NAT (HR, 4.22; 95% CI 1.209-14.750; p = 0.024). CONCLUSION: Post-treatment SII may be a useful prognostic marker in PDAC patients receiving NAT.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/imunologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/imunologia
16.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 145, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852512

RESUMO

The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), known as NETosis, was first observed as a novel immune response to bacterial infection, but has since been found to occur abnormally in a variety of other inflammatory disease states including cancer. Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women. In breast cancer, NETosis has been linked to increased disease progression, metastasis, and complications such as venous thromboembolism. NET-targeted therapies have shown success in preclinical cancer models and may prove valuable clinical targets in slowing or halting tumor progression in breast cancer patients. We will briefly outline the mechanisms by which NETs may form in the tumor microenvironment and circulation, including the crosstalk between neutrophils, tumor cells, endothelial cells, and platelets as well as the role of cancer-associated extracellular vesicles in modulating neutrophil behavior and NET extrusion. The prognostic implications of cancer-associated NETosis will be explored in addition to development of novel therapeutics aimed at targeting NET interactions to improve outcomes in patients with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/patologia , Trombose
17.
Oncoimmunology ; 8(9): e1605822, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428515

RESUMO

Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation results in the expulsion of granulocyte proteins and DNA into the extracellular space. This process is mediated by the enzyme peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PADI4) and translocation of elastase to the nucleus. NET formation, marked by increased levels of extracellular DNA, promotes pancreatic cancer proliferation and metastasis. Mice deficient in Padi4 demonstrate decreased pancreatic tumor growth, associated with a reduction in circulating extracellular DNA levels, diminished pancreatic stromal activation and improved survival in murine orthotopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Transplantation of Padi4-/- bone marrow into genetically engineered mice with Kras driven pancreatic adenocarcinoma (Pdx1-Cre:KrasG12D/+, KC mice) limits the frequency of invasive cancers when compared with syngeneic controls. DNA from neutrophils activates pancreatic stellate cells that form dense, fibrous stroma which can promote and enable tumor proliferation. DNase treatment diminishes murine tumor growth and stromal activation to reverse the effect of NETs within the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, deletion of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in pancreatic stellate cells abrogates the effects of DNA in promoting stellate cell proliferation and decreases tumor growth. Circulating neutrophil-derived DNA correlates with the stage in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, confirming the role of NETs in human pancreatic cancer. These findings support further investigation into targeting of NETs, PADI4 and extracellular DNA as a potential treatment strategy in patients with pancreatic cancer. Trial Registration: This study reports correlative data from a clinical trial registered with clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01978184 (November 7, 2013).

18.
Case Rep Surg ; 2019: 6381249, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263623

RESUMO

The high mortality rate associated with pancreatic cancer necessitates accurate and early detection methods. Computed tomography currently is the primary diagnostic modality used; however, subtle imaging features in concert with novel clinical presentations may obscure the initial diagnosis. Here, we describe a unique initial presentation of pancreatic cancer as a pancreatic leak, with subtle initial CT evidence of malignancy. An 83-year-old female with prior surgical history of open splenectomy and ventral hernia repair presented with two weeks of vague abdominal pain and leukocytosis. Initial CT revealed abdominal peripancreatic fluid collections. Interventional radiology-guided drain placement was performed, which revealed amylase-rich pancreatic fluid within the collections. Repeat CT scan revealed subtle pancreatic duct dilation with slow resolution of the fluid collections. Ultimately, endoscopic ultrasound identified an ill-defined pancreatic mass, revealed to be pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The patient subsequently underwent an open distal pancreatectomy. Diagnosis of pancreatic cancer relies heavily on cross-sectional imaging, with no screening tests currently available. However, subtle radiographic features and unique clinical presentations may delay accurate diagnosis and staging. EUS may be a useful tool for initial evaluation of high-risk individuals.

19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(8): 782-794, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: FOLFIRINOX is a standard treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer patients. The effectiveness of neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX in patients with borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) remains debated. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and patient-level meta-analysis on neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX in patients with BRPC. Studies with BRPC patients who received FOLFIRINOX as first-line neoadjuvant treatment were included. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), and secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, resection rate, R0 resection rate, and grade III-IV adverse events. Patient-level survival outcomes were obtained from authors of the included studies and analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: We included 24 studies (8 prospective, 16 retrospective), comprising 313 (38.1%) BRPC patients treated with FOLFIRINOX. Most studies (n = 20) presented intention-to-treat results. The median number of administered neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX cycles ranged from 4 to 9. The resection rate was 67.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 60.1% to 74.6%), and the R0-resection rate was 83.9% (95% CI = 76.8% to 89.1%). The median OS varied from 11.0 to 34.2 months across studies. Patient-level survival data were obtained for 20 studies representing 283 BRPC patients. The patient-level median OS was 22.2 months (95% CI = 18.8 to 25.6 months), and patient-level median progression-free survival was 18.0 months (95% CI = 14.5 to 21.5 months). Pooled event rates for grade III-IV adverse events were highest for neutropenia (17.5 per 100 patients, 95% CI = 10.3% to 28.3%), diarrhea (11.1 per 100 patients, 95% CI = 8.6 to 14.3), and fatigue (10.8 per 100 patients, 95% CI = 8.1 to 14.2). No deaths were attributed to FOLFIRINOX. CONCLUSIONS: This patient-level meta-analysis of BRPC patients treated with neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX showed a favorable median OS, resection rate, and R0-resection rate. These results need to be assessed in a randomized trial.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/classificação , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Irinotecano/efeitos adversos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Ann Hematol ; 98(7): 1603-1610, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020347

RESUMO

Platelets are activated in solid cancers, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), a highly aggressive malignancy with a devastating prognosis and limited therapeutic options. The mechanisms by which activated platelets regulate tumor progression are poorly understood. The nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a key inflammatory mechanism recently identified in platelets, which controls platelet activation and aggregation. In an orthotopic PDA mouse model involving surgical implantation of Panc02 murine cancer cells into the tail of the pancreas, we show that the NLRP3 inflammasome in circulating platelets is upregulated in pancreatic cancer. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of NLRP3 in platelets resulted in decreased platelet activation, platelet aggregation, and tumor progression. Moreover, interfering with platelet NLRP3 signaling significantly improved survival of tumor-bearing mice. Hence, the platelet NLRP3 inflammasome plays a critical role in PDA and might represent a novel therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Agregação Plaquetária , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Plaquetas , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inflamassomos/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Experimentais/genética , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia
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