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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(35): 9734-9, 2016 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27528660


Methane (CH4) impacts climate as the second strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air quality by influencing tropospheric ozone levels. Space-based observations have identified the Four Corners region in the Southwest United States as an area of large CH4 enhancements. We conducted an airborne campaign in Four Corners during April 2015 with the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (near-infrared) and Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (thermal infrared) imaging spectrometers to better understand the source of methane by measuring methane plumes at 1- to 3-m spatial resolution. Our analysis detected more than 250 individual methane plumes from fossil fuel harvesting, processing, and distributing infrastructures, spanning an emission range from the detection limit [Formula: see text] 2 kg/h to 5 kg/h through [Formula: see text] 5,000 kg/h. Observed sources include gas processing facilities, storage tanks, pipeline leaks, and well pads, as well as a coal mine venting shaft. Overall, plume enhancements and inferred fluxes follow a lognormal distribution, with the top 10% emitters contributing 49 to 66% to the inferred total point source flux of 0.23 Tg/y to 0.39 Tg/y. With the observed confirmation of a lognormal emission distribution, this airborne observing strategy and its ability to locate previously unknown point sources in real time provides an efficient and effective method to identify and mitigate major emissions contributors over a wide geographic area. With improved instrumentation, this capability scales to spaceborne applications [Thompson DR, et al. (2016) Geophys Res Lett 43(12):6571-6578]. Further illustration of this potential is demonstrated with two detected, confirmed, and repaired pipeline leaks during the campaign.

Ann Pharmacother ; 36(2): 261-3, 2002 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11847945


OBJECTIVE: To report a case of acute cholestatic hepatitis following exposure to the inhalational anesthetic isoflurane. CASE SUMMARY: A 70-year-old healthy woman from Iraq developed acute cholestatic hepatitis 3 weeks following repair of the right rotator cuff under general anesthesia. There was no evidence for viral, autoimmune, or metabolic causes of hepatitis. No other medications were involved except for dipyrone for analgesia. The alanine aminotransferase was elevated to a peak concentration of 1533 U/L and the serum bilirubin reached a peak of 17.0 mg/dL. There was slow improvement over 4 months. Accidental reexposure by the patient to dipyrone was uneventful. DISCUSSION: The clinical and histologic picture of this case resembles halothane hepatitis, which has a significant mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Isoflurane, a common anesthetic agent, can cause severe cholestatic hepatitis.

Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Colestase/induzido quimicamente , Isoflurano/efeitos adversos , Fígado/patologia , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Biópsia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Colestase/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Isoflurano/administração & dosagem , Testes de Função Hepática , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/uso terapêutico