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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(4)2022 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35205799

RESUMO

Analysis of plasma-derived cell-free DNA (cfDNA) might allow for the early identification of resistance in metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) patients receiving anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. We tested plasma samples from the Erbitux Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Strategy (ERMES) phase III trial of FOLFIRI+Cetuximab in first-line treatment of RAS/BRAF wild-type mCRC. Samples were collected at baseline (n = 37), at 8 weeks of treatment (n = 32), progressive disease (PD; n = 36) and 3 months after PD (n = 21). cfDNA testing was performed using the Idylla™ ctKRAS and ctNRAS-BRAF tests and the Oncomine Pan-Cancer Cell-Free Assay. Analysis of basal samples revealed RAS/BRAF mutations in 6/37 cases. A transient RAS positivity not associated with PD was observed at 8 weeks in five cases that showed no mutations at baseline and PD. The frequency of mutant cases increased at PD (33.3%) and decreased again at 3 months after PD (9.5%). The median progression-free survival (mPFS) of patients RAS/BRAF mutant at PD was 7.13 months versus 7.71 months in wild-type patients (p = 0.3892). These data confirm that the occurrence of RAS/BRAF mutations in mCRC patients receiving anti-EGFR agents is relatively frequent. However, the cfDNA dynamics of RAS mutations in patients treated with anti-EGFR agents plus polychemotherapy are complex and might not be directly associated with resistance to treatment.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 150(5): 837-846, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648657

RESUMO

In randomized clinical trials, the androgen-receptor inhibitor enzalutamide has demonstrated efficacy and safety in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This study captured efficacy, safety and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of enzalutamide in mCRPC patients in a real-world European setting. PREMISE (NCT0249574) was a European, long-term, prospective, observational study in mCRPC patients prescribed enzalutamide as part of standard clinical practice. Patients were categorized based on prior docetaxel and/or abiraterone use. The primary endpoint was time to treatment failure (TTF), defined as time from enzalutamide initiation to permanent treatment discontinuation for any reason. Secondary endpoints included prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response, time to PSA progression, time to disease progression and safety. PROs included EuroQol 5-Dimension, 5-Level questionnaire, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate and Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form. Overall, 1732 men were enrolled. Median TTF with enzalutamide was 12.9 months in the chemotherapy- and abiraterone-naïve cohort (Cohort 1) and 8.4 months in the postchemotherapy and abiraterone-naïve cohort (Cohort 2). Clinical outcomes based on secondary endpoints also varied between cohorts. Cohorts 1 and 2 showed small improvements in health-related quality of life and pain status. The proportions of patients reporting treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were 51.0% and 62.2% in Cohorts 1 and 2, respectively; enzalutamide-related TEAEs were similar in both cohorts. The most frequent TEAE across cohorts was fatigue. These data from unselected mCRPC patients in European, real-world, clinical-practice settings confirmed the benefits of enzalutamide previously shown in clinical trial outcomes, with safety results consistent with enzalutamide's known safety profile.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Nitrilas/uso terapêutico , Feniltioidantoína/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Benzamidas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Nitrilas/efeitos adversos , Feniltioidantoína/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/análise , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida
3.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(11): 749-756, 2021 11.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early access of medicines occurs with an uncertainty in the evidence even higher than the one experienced when price and reimbursement status is negotiated. Our aim is discussing the role of managed entry agreements (MEA) within early access programs (EAP) in Italy. METHODS: The discussion relied on a Focus Group, participated by twelve experts, including clinicians and representatives of regulatory authorities, regional and local pharmaceutical departments, pharmaceutical companies, and an association advocating for active citizenship. RESULTS: The Focus Group emphasised that the topic under discussion should be embedded into a more general reform of EAP in Italy. The 648 List mostly includes mature products and indications that are rarely launched into the market afterwards. The 5% Fund is affected by an important administrative burden uncertainty of the timing of reimbursement. CONCLUSIONS: Starting from the discussion on MEA and EAP, the Focus Group recommended a new legislation better regulating EAP, that early access concerns specific classes of medicines selected on the grounds of the need to guarantee a rapid access and to collect real world data, that early access can be accompanied by outcome-based and population-based MEA, and that MEA are embedded into the subsequent price and reimbursement negotiation.


Assuntos
Grupos Focais , Humanos , Itália , Preparações Farmacêuticas
4.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 167: 103501, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673219

RESUMO

Fighting cancer is an economically expensive challenge for both health care payers, and the patients and their families and the median costs for cancer care are rapidly increasing in the last decade. Although both direct and indirect costs of medical assistance have been a frequent source of distress and contention, however analysis of the non-medical expenses incurred directly by cancer patients has not received adequate attention. Developing a deeper understanding of so-called "out-of-pocket" costs may be necessary. Out-of-pocket costs for medical care range from 7 % to 11 % of medical costs for all payers. However, the range of out-of-pocket costs shows considerable variability in different studies. In this review, we reviewed available data concerning direct and indirect medical costs, including psychosocial ones.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gastrointestinais , Gastos em Saúde , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Humanos , Assistência ao Paciente
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e049128, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To measure and explain financial toxicity (FT) of cancer in Italy, where a public healthcare system exists and patients with cancer are not expected (or only marginally) to pay out-of-pocket for healthcare. SETTING: Ten clinical oncological centres, distributed across Italian macroregions (North, Centre, South and Islands), including hospitals, university hospitals and national research institutes. PARTICIPANTS: From 8 October 2019 to 11 December 2019, 184 patients, aged 18 or more, who were receiving or had received within the previous 3 months active anticancer treatment were enrolled, 108 (59%) females and 76 (41%) males. INTERVENTION: A 30-item prefinal questionnaire, previously developed within the qualitative tasks of the project, was administered, either electronically (n=115) or by paper sheet (n=69). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: According to the protocol and the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research methodology, the final questionnaire was developed by mean of explanatory factor analysis and tested for reliability, internal consistency (Cronbach's α test and item-total correlation) and stability of measurements over time (test-retest reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient and weighted Cohen's kappa coefficient). RESULTS: After exploratory factor analysis, a score measuring FT (FT score) was identified, made by seven items dealing with outcomes of FT. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the FT score was 0.87 and the item-total correlation coefficients ranged from 0.53 to 0.74. Further, nine single items representing possible determinants of FT were also retained in the final instrument. Test-retest analysis revealed a good internal validity of the FT score and of the 16 items retained in the final questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The Patient-Reported Outcome for Fighting FInancial Toxicity (PROFFIT) instrument consists of 16 items and is the first reported instrument to assess FT of cancer developed in a country with a fully public healthcare system. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03473379.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(9): e26220, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multidisciplinary tumor boards play a pivotal role in the patient-centered clinical management and in the decision-making process to provide best evidence-based, diagnostic, and therapeutic care to patients with cancer. Among the barriers to achieve an efficient multidisciplinary tumor board, lack of time and geographical distance play a major role. Therefore, the elaboration of an efficient virtual multidisciplinary tumor board (VMTB) is a key point to successfully obtain an oncology team and implement a network among health professionals and institutions. This need is stronger than ever during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a research protocol for an observational study focused on exploring the structuring process and the implementation of a multi-institutional VMTB in Sicily, Italy. Other endpoints include analysis of cooperation between participants, adherence to guidelines, patients' outcomes, and patient satisfaction. METHODS: This protocol encompasses a pragmatic, observational, multicenter, noninterventional, prospective trial. The study's programmed duration is 5 years, with a half-yearly analysis of the primary and secondary objectives' measurements. Oncology care health professionals from various oncology subspecialties at oncology departments in multiple hospitals (academic and general hospitals as well as tertiary centers and community hospitals) are involved in a nonhierarchic manner. VMTB employs an innovative, virtual, cloud-based platform to share anonymized medical data that are discussed via a videoconferencing system both satisfying security criteria and compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. RESULTS: The protocol is part of a larger research project on communication and multidisciplinary collaboration in oncology units and departments spread in the Sicily region. The results of this study will particularly focus on the organization of VMTBs, involving oncology units present in different hospitals spread in the area, and creating a network to allow best patient care pathways and a hub-and-spoke relationship. The present results will also include data concerning organization skills and pitfalls, barriers, efficiency, number, and types with respect to clinical cases and customer satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: VMTB represents a unique opportunity to optimize patient management through a patient-centered approach. An efficient virtualization and data-banking system is potentially time-saving, a source for outcome data, and a detector of possible holes in the hull of clinical pathways. The observations and results from this VMTB study may hopefully be useful to design nonclinical and organizational interventions that enhance multidisciplinary decision-making in oncology. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/26220.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(8)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923380

RESUMO

Over the last few decades, thanks to early detection, effective drugs, and personalized treatments, the natural history of cancer has radically changed. Thanks to these advances, we have observed how survival of cancer patients has increased, becoming an ever more important goal in cancer care. Effective clinical governance of survivorship care is essential to ensure a successful transition between active and post-treatment life, identifying optimization of healthcare outcomes and quality of life for patients as the primary objectives. For these reasons, potential intervention models must consider these differences to rationalize the available resources, including economic aspects. In this perspective, analyzing the different models proposed in the literature to manage this type of patients, we focus on the possible role of the so-called "community oncologist". As a trained health professional, also focused on longevity, he could represent the right management solution in all those "intermediate" clinical conditions that arise between the hospital specialist, frequently overworked, and the general practitioner, often biased by the lack of specific expertise.

8.
Future Oncol ; 17(18): 2315-2324, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663264

RESUMO

The international PRECONNECT Phase IIIb study demonstrated safety and efficacy of trifluridine/tipiracil in the management of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Post-hoc analyses in a national context are important because of the differences in disease management across countries. Post-hoc safety and efficacy analyses in the PRECONNECT Italian patient subset were conducted. Patients' quality of life was assessed from baseline to end of treatment. In Italy, 161 patients were enrolled. The median age was 64 years, with a performance status of 0-1. The most common hematological drug-related adverse events ≥grade 3 were neutropenia (41.0%) and anemia (13.7%). The median progression-free survival was reached at 3.0 months, with a disease control rate of 28.6%. The Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 score improved in 25.4% of the patients. Safety, efficacy and quality of life results confirmed trifluridine/tipiracil as a feasible and favorable treatment option for metastatic colorectal cancer patients.


Lay abstract PRECONNECT is an international study demonstrating the efficacy and tolerability of the drug combination trifluridine/tipiracil in adult patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated in everyday clinical practice. For this publication, the authors conducted an analysis performed on the 161 Italian patients enrolled in this study. These kinds of analyses are important because of the differences that may arise across different countries. The most common contraindications were not dangerous to health. Furthermore, 3 months from beginning the medication, half of the patients did not show a worsening of the disease and quality of life during treatment was maintained. Clinical trial registration: NCT03306394 (ClinicalTrials.gov).


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Timina/uso terapêutico , Trifluridina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 160: 103282, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675905

RESUMO

Oncological patients increasingly require second medical opinions to feel more likely confident with their oncologists and treatments, although this could lead to wrong opinions and delay in the start of treatments. Second opinions can be required also by physicians to obtain advices, especially in case of rare tumors. The request of new opinions is documented in radiology and pathology settings too, with not negligible discrepancy rate. Conversely, the role in general medical/surgical conditions has not been well established. Literature is poor of studies relative to second opinions or they are more focused on patient's motivations. For these reasons, AIOM (Italian Association of Medical Oncology) and AIOM Foundation faced this topic during the 7th Annual Meeting on Ethics in Oncology (Ragusa, 4-5 t h May 2018). In this position paper we report reasons, limits, advantages and outcomes of second medical opinion and the respective Decalogue in the oncological setting.


Assuntos
Oncologia , Médicos , Humanos , Itália , Encaminhamento e Consulta
10.
J Bone Oncol ; 26: 100341, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33425672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone remodeling is disrupted in metastatic disease, which affects > 70% of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. As a result, abnormal levels of specific bone turnover biomarkers (BTMs) are released. In this prospective ancillary analysis of the Italian real-world study ABITUDE, four markers were measured during abiraterone acetate plus prednisone (AAP) treatment in chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC men failing androgen-deprivation therapy. METHODS: Patients were enrolled if a blood sample was obtained before the first administration of abiraterone (baseline); ad-hoc blood samples were withdrawn during routine tests after 3, 6, and 12 months. A centralized lab measured bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP, osteoblast activity marker), type-I collagen-C-telopeptide (CTX-1, bone resorption marker), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D (vitD). At each time point, intra-patient variations vs baseline were compared by the signed-rank test (statistical significance: P-value < 0.05). RESULTS: Of 481 patients enrolled in ABITUDE, 186 (median age: 76 [range: 53-93] years) met the substudy criteria: 74.7% had bone metastases, 11.8% were on bone-targeted therapies (BTT) and 14.0% on vitD supplementation. BALP decreased significantly at month 6 (P = 0.0010) and 12 (P < 0.0001) and CTX-1 at month 6 (P = 0.0028); PTH increased at month 3 (P < 0.0001); no significant difference in vitD levels was observed. Similar findings were observed in BTT-untreated patients. The reduction in BALP and CTX-1 levels was more pronounced in patients with than without bone metastases; in the latter group, no significant variation in BALP and CTX-1 levels was observed. CONCLUSIONS: AAP seems to exert an effect on the microenvironment of metastatic but not of normal bone, which likely contributes to its antitumoral activity.

11.
Int J Oncol ; 58(2): 145-157, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491759

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus­2 (SARS­CoV­2) poses a threat to human life worldwide. Since early March, 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19), characterized by an acute and often severe form of pneumonia, has been declared a pandemic. This has led to a boom in biomedical research studies at all stages of the pipeline, from the in vitro to the clinical phase. In line with this global effort, known drugs, currently used for the treatment of other pathologies, including antivirals, immunomodulating compounds and antibodies, are currently used off­label for the treatment of COVID­19, in association with the supportive standard care. Yet, no effective treatments have been identified. A new hope stems from medical oncology and relies on the use of immune­checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). In particular, amongst the ICIs, antibodies able to block the programmed death­1 (PD­1)/PD ligand-1 (PD­L1) pathway have revealed a hidden potential. In fact, patients with severe and critical COVID­19, even prior to the appearance of acute respiratory distress syndrome, exhibit lymphocytopenia and suffer from T­cell exhaustion, which may lead to viral sepsis and an increased mortality rate. It has been observed that cancer patients, who usually are immunocompromised, may restore their anti­tumoral immune response when treated with ICIs. Moreover, viral-infected mice and humans, exhibit a T­cell exhaustion, which is also observed following SARS­CoV­2 infection. Importantly, when treated with anti­PD­1 and anti­PD­L1 antibodies, they restore their T­cell competence and efficiently counteract the viral infection. Based on these observations, four clinical trials are currently open, to examine the efficacy of anti­PD­1 antibody administration to both cancer and non­cancer individuals affected by COVID­19. The results may prove the hypothesis that restoring exhausted T­cells may be a winning strategy to beat SARS­CoV­2 infection.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Humanos
12.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 12(1): 163-167, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653216

RESUMO

AIM: This paper aims to analyze the usefulness of the G8 geriatric oncology questionnaire in patients with advanced/metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (aPAC) and its possible association with different clinical outcomes. METHODS: Patients age > 70 years were screened with the G8 tool and treated with intravenous nab-paclitaxel 125 mg/m2 and gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 for 3 consecutive weeks followed by one-week rest as prescribed after clinical evaluation by treating oncologists. Patient's charts were evaluated for type and severity of toxicity, 2 cycle rate of completion, discontinuation rate, delays, dose reductions, and other outcomes response rates, progression-free, and overall survival. Sensitivity, specificity, and possible correlations were analyzed. RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity of the G8 score for severe toxicity were respectively 55.9% and 50%. No association between all types of severe grade 3-4 toxicity, delays, or dose reductions, and the G8 score was present (p=0.622). ORR was 32.5% with no complete responses. Median PFS and OS were 4.5 months and 8.1 months, respectively. Correlation between G8 score and PFS was not statistically significant (p=0.0652). Correlation between G8 score and OS was statistically significant (p=0.0251). Although median survival of G8 fit patients was superior to that of G8 vulnerable patients (6.5 versus 4 months), the difference was not statistically different (p=0.1975). CONCLUSION: Clinical results in terms of response rate, survival outcomes, and side-effects were in the range reported by others. However, the G8 questionnaire is not a reliable diagnostic tool to predict the risk of severe toxicity, and clinical outcomes in older patients with aPAC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 12: 1758835920968725, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-world data on chemotherapy-naïve patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with abiraterone plus prednisone are limited, largely deriving from small retrospective studies. METHODS: ABitude is an Italian, observational, prospective, multicenter study of mCRPC patients receiving abiraterone plus prednisone in clinical practice. Chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC patients were consecutively enrolled at abiraterone start (February 2016 to June 2017) and are being followed for 3 years, with evaluation approximately every 6 months. Several clinical and patients reported outcomes were examined. RESULTS: In this second interim analysis, among 481 enrolled patients, 453 were evaluable for analyses. At baseline, the median age was 77 years and ~69% of patients had comorbidities (mainly cardiovascular diseases). Metastases were located mainly at bones and lymph nodes; 8.4% of patients had visceral metastases. During a median follow-up of 18 months, 1- and 2-year probability of radiographic progression-free survival were 73.9% and 56.2%, respectively; the corresponding rates for overall survival were 87.3% and 70.4%. In multivariable analyses, the number of bone metastases significantly affected radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival. During abiraterone plus prednisone treatment, 65% of patients had a ⩾50% prostate-specific antigen decline, and quality of life remained appreciably high. Among symptomatic patients according to the Brief Pain Inventory) (32%), scores significantly declined after 6 months of treatment. Overall, eight patients (1.7%) had serious adverse reactions to abiraterone. CONCLUSIONS: Abiraterone plus prednisone is effective and safe for chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC patients in clinical practice.

14.
Eur J Cancer ; 139: 81-89, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oligometastatic disease (OMD) identifies tumours with limited metastatic spread. OMD definition is not univocal and no data from clinical trials are available about the prognostic effect of OMD in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), the impact of locoregional treatments (LRTs) and the effect of chemotherapy intensification in these patients. The role of tumour burden (TB) in driving therapeutic choices is also debated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a pooled analysis of phase III TRIBE and TRIBE2 studies comparing FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab (bev) to doublets (FOLFOX or FOLFIRI)/bev. Patients were grouped in OMD versus non-OMD based on the European Society for Medical Oncology definition. Among patients with OMD, those with OMD/low TB were compared with all the others. RESULTS: Of 1187 patients enrolled, 1096 were classified as OMD (N = 312 [28%]) or non-OMD (N = 784 [72%]). Among patients with OMD, 126 (40%) were OMD/low TB. OMD was associated with longer progression-free survival (14.0 versus 10.1 months; p < 0.01) and overall survival (38.2 versus 22.0 months; p < 0.01). These results were confirmed in multivariable models. The benefit provided by FOLFOXIRI/bev compared with doublets/bev did not differ in accordance with OMD and TB (p for interaction >0.05). Patients with OMD underwent LRTs more frequently (p < 0.01) and those with OMD/low TB had higher chance to undergo LRTs after the first progression (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: OMD is a positive prognostic factor in mCRC. The benefit from the upfront treatment intensification is independent of the metastatic spread extent and TB. LRTs should be highly considered in these patients, mainly during the first-line therapy but also at later stages of treatment history in selected cases.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 822, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: FOLFOXIRI (fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan) plus bevacizumab has shown to be one of the therapeutic regimens in first line with the highest activity in patients (pts.) with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) unselected for biomolecular alterations. Generally, tumors co-opt the programmed death-1/ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) signaling pathway as one key mechanism to evade immune surveillance. As today, anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies are FDA approved only for DNA mismatch repair deficient/microsatellite instability-high (MMRd/MSI-H), which represent only about 5% among all mCRC. Nowadays, there are no data demonstrating anti PD-1 activity in proficient and stable disease (MMRp/MSS). A different target in mCRC is also the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A), which acts on endothelial cells to stimulate angiogenesis. VEGF-A inhibition with bevacizumab has shown to increase the immune cell infiltration, providing a solid rationale for combining VEGF targeted agents with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Based on these evidences, we explore the combination of triplet chemotherapy (FOLFOXIRI) with bevacizumab and nivolumab in pts. with mCRC RAS/BRAF mutant regardless of microsatellite status. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a prospective, open-label, multicentric phase II trial where pts. with mCRC RAS/BRAF mutated, in first line will receive nivolumab in combination with FOLFOXIRI/bevacizumab every 2 weeks for 8 cycles followed by maintenance with bevacizumab plus nivolumab every 2 weeks. Bevacizumab will be administered intravenously at dose of 5 mg/kg every 2 weeks and nivolumab intravenously as a flat dose of 240 mg every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint is the overall response rate (ORR). This study hypothesis is that the treatment is able to improve the ORR from 66 to 80%. Secondary endpoints include OS, safety, time to progression, duration of response. Collateral translational studies evaluate the i) tumor mutational burden, and ii) genetic alterations by circulating free DNA (cfDNA) obtained from plasma samples. The trial is open to enrollment, 9 of planned 70 pts. have been enrolled. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NIVACOR is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04072198 , August 28, 2019.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Mutação , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto Jovem
16.
Ecancermedicalscience ; 14: 1046, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This descriptive, unplanned investigation has been undertaken to report reactions, attitudes and countermeasures which have been put in place and implemented by medical oncology units facing the COVID-19 outbreak in Southern Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data have been retrospectively obtained from the time-related analysis of conversations via a WhatsApp messenger-based group chat between the medical directors belonging to the Italian College of Medical Oncology Directors. Overall number, intensity and time trend of conversations related to reactions during the 4 weeks of observation related to the crucial events which occurred between 24 February and 28 March, 2020 2020 are included. A sentiment analysis of conversations was also carried out. RESULTS: We report 956 conversations among 19 medical oncology units related to reactions to the crucial events, such as epidemic spread, Government ordinances and guidelines during the 4 weeks of observation. Data show significant awareness of problems linked to the COVID-19 spread among oncologists and rapid diffusion of countermeasures. Actions taken were correlated time wise to crucial events. A correlation between conversations and the volume of activity of oncology units was found. By analysing the sentiment analysis of raw data, positive emotions were reduced in percentage over the weeks. A significant increase in negative emotions was observed as the outbreak impacted on the healthcare system. CONCLUSION: In our experience, the WhatsApp instant-messaging system seems to be a useful tool to share news and reactions between medical oncologists to rapidly implement necessary health measures and answers to most cancer patients' needs and queries in the COVID-19 pandemic scenario.

17.
J Cancer Policy ; 25: 100234, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562478

RESUMO

To contain COVID-19 spread, Italy is under a global lockdown since February 21, 2020, except for health services and food supply. In this scenario, growing apprehension concerning legal consequences is rising among health professionals due to several ethical and legal questions. Even if medical ethicists may approve patients' prioritization protocols, hospitals and health professionals remain highly exposed to liability. The so-called smart-working may be very useful, but it may harbor potential legal harms for health personnel and patients and safety. Moreover, personal umbrella policies also often exclude liability arising out of the transmission of a communicable disease, especially a pandemic state, is declared. Under the pressure of medical associations, Italian Government political forces have very recently presented an amendment to the recently released ordinances for the COVID-19 emergency aimed to reduce medical liability. Presumably, similar epidemics or other wide-scale similar events may happen again in an unpredictable future. Therefore, more articulated legal regulations are strongly needed starting from lessons learned from this epidemic.

19.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(4): 497-507, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The triplet FOLFOXIRI (fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan) plus bevacizumab showed improved outcomes for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, compared with FOLFIRI (fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan) plus bevacizumab. However, the actual benefit of the upfront exposure to the three cytotoxic drugs compared with a preplanned sequential strategy of doublets was not clear, and neither was the feasibility or efficacy of therapies after disease progression. We aimed to compare a preplanned strategy of upfront FOLFOXIRI followed by the reintroduction of the same regimen after disease progression versus a sequence of mFOLFOX6 (fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) and FOLFIRI doublets, in combination with bevacizumab. METHODS: TRIBE2 was an open-label, phase 3, randomised study of patients aged 18-75 years with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 2, with unresectable, previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer, recruited from 58 Italian oncology units. Patients were stratified according to centre, ECOG performance status, primary tumour location, and previous adjuvant chemotherapy. A randomisation system incorporating a minimisation algorithm was used to randomly assign patients (1:1) via a masked web-based allocation procedure to two different treatment strategies. In the control group, patients received first-line mFOLFOX6 (85 mg/m2 of intravenous oxaliplatin concurrently with 200 mg/m2 of leucovorin over 120 min; 400 mg/m2 intravenous bolus of fluorouracil; 2400 mg/m2 continuous infusion of fluorouracil for 48 h) plus bevacizumab (5 mg/kg intravenously over 30 min) followed by FOLFIRI (180 mg/m2 of intravenous irinotecan over 120 min concurrently with 200 mg/m2 of leucovorin; 400 mg/m2 intravenous bolus of fluorouracil; 2400 mg/m2 continuous infusion of fluorouracil for 48 h) plus bevacizumab after disease progression. In the experimental group, patients received FOLFOXIRI (165 mg/m2 of intravenous irinotecan over 60 min; 85 mg/m2 intravenous oxaliplatin concurrently with 200 mg/m2 of leucovorin over 120 min; 3200 mg/m2 continuous infusion of fluorouracil for 48 h) plus bevacizumab followed by the reintroduction of the same regimen after disease progression. Combination treatments were repeated every 14 days for up to eight cycles followed by fluorouracil and leucovorin (at the same dose administered at the last induction cycle) plus bevacizumab maintenance until disease progression, unacceptable adverse events, or consent withdrawal. Patients and investigators were not masked. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival 2, defined as the time from randomisation to disease progression on any treatment given after first disease progression, or death, analysed by intention to treat. Safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of their assigned treatment. Study recruitment is complete and follow-up is ongoing. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02339116. FINDINGS: Between Feb 26, 2015, and May 15, 2017, 679 patients were randomly assigned and received treatment (340 in the control group and 339 in the experimental group). At data cut-off (July 30, 2019) median follow-up was 35·9 months (IQR 30·1-41·4). Median progression-free survival 2 was 19·2 months (95% CI 17·3-21·4) in the experimental group and 16·4 months (15·1-17·5) in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·74, 95% CI 0·63-0·88; p=0·0005). During the first-line treatment, the most frequent of all-cause grade 3-4 events were diarrhoea (57 [17%] vs 18 [5%]), neutropenia (168 [50%] vs 71 [21%]), and arterial hypertension (25 [7%] vs 35 [10%]) in the experimental group compared with the control group. Serious adverse events occurred in 84 (25%) patients in the experimental group and in 56 (17%) patients in the control group. Eight treatment-related deaths were reported in the experimental group (two intestinal occlusions, two intestinal perforations, two sepsis, one myocardial infarction, and one bleeding) and four in the control group (two occlusions, one perforation, and one pulmonary embolism). After first disease progression, no substantial differences in the incidence of grade 3 or 4 adverse events were reported between the control and experimental groups, with the exception of neurotoxicity, which was only reported in the experimental group (six [5%] of 132 patients). Serious adverse events after disease progression occurred in 20 (15%) patients in the experimental group and 25 (12%) in the control group. Three treatment-related deaths after first disease progression were reported in the experimental group (two intestinal occlusions and one sepsis) and four in the control group (one intestinal occlusion, one intestinal perforation, one cerebrovascular event, and one sepsis). INTERPRETATION: Upfront FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab followed by the reintroduction of the same regimen after disease progression seems to be a preferable therapeutic strategy to sequential administration of chemotherapy doublets, in combination with bevacizumab, for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer selected according to the study criteria. FUNDING: The GONO Cooperative Group, the ARCO Foundation, and F Hoffmann-La Roche.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 19(2): 109-115, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089455

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Biweekly schedule of XELOX-2 (capecitabine plus oxaliplatin) showed interesting results in first-line therapy of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Bevacizumab plus FOLFOX-4 (oxaliplatin, folinic acid, and infusional 5-fluorouracil) is among standard first-line treatment options in this setting. We performed a phase II randomized trial in order to evaluate the activity of bevacizumab plus either FOLFOX-4 or XELOX-2 in first-line therapy of patients with mCRC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with mCRC were randomized, in a 1:2 ratio, to first-line bevacizumab plus either FOLFOX-4 (Arm A), as calibration arm, or XELOX-2 (Arm B), up to 12 cycles. Patients without progression were further randomized to maintenance bevacizumab alone or with the same induction fluoropyrimidine. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR); secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, overall survival, and toxicity. The study design was formally non-comparative, but exploratory comparison was performed. RESULTS: Forty-five patients were randomized in arm A and 87 in arm B with an ORR of 55.6% versus 48.3% (P = .43), respectively. After a median follow-up of 47.2 months, progression-free survival was 10.0 versus 9.9 months (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-1.41; P = .84) and overall survival was 29.8 versus 25.0 months (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-1.92; P = .41), respectively. The main grade 3 to 4 toxicities (% A/B) were: neutropenia 15/3 and nausea 9/5. CONCLUSION: This exploratory analysis showed that biweekly XELOX-2 plus bevacizumab has a comparable ORR with FOLFOX-4 plus bevacizumab in patients with mCRC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Bevacizumab/administração & dosagem , Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Oxaloacetatos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bevacizumab/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/diagnóstico , Náusea/epidemiologia , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Neutropenia/diagnóstico , Neutropenia/epidemiologia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Organoplatínicos/efeitos adversos , Oxaloacetatos/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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