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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The severity of acute papillary muscle (PM) rupture varies according to the extent and site of the rupture. However, the haemodynamic effects of different rupture variations are still poorly understood. Using a novel ex vivo model, we sought to study acute PM rupture to improve clinical management. METHODS: Using porcine mitral valves (n = 32) mounted within an ex vivo left heart simulator, PM rupture was simulated. The mitral valve was divided into quadrants for analysis according to the PM heads. Acute PM rupture was simulated by incrementally cutting from 1/3 to the total number of chordae arising from 1 PM head of interest. Haemodynamic parameters were measured. RESULTS: Rupture >2/3 of the chordae from 1 given PM head or regurgitation fraction >60% led to markedly deteriorated haemodynamics. Rupture at the anterolateral PM had a stronger negative effect on haemodynamics than rupture at the posteromedial PM. Rupture occurring at the anterior head of the anterolateral PM led to more marked haemodynamic instability than rupture occurring at the other PM heads. CONCLUSIONS: The haemodynamic effects of acute PM rupture vary considerably according to the site and extent of the rupture. Rupture of ≤2/3 of chordae from 1 PM head or rupture at the posteromedial PM lead to less marked haemodynamics effects, suggesting a higher likelihood of tolerating surgery. Rupture at the anterolateral PM, specifically the anterior head, rupture of >2/3 of chordae from 1 PM head or regurgitation fraction >60% led to marked haemodynamic instability, suggesting the potential benefit from bridging strategies prior to surgery.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e022332, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873924

RESUMO

Background Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is one of the most common forms of cardiac valve disease and affects 2% to 3% of the population. Previous imaging reports have indicated that myocardial fibrosis is common in MVP and described its association with sudden cardiac death. These data combined with evidence for postrepair ventricular dysfunction in surgical patients with MVP support a link between fibrosis and MVP. Methods and Results We performed histopathologic analysis of left ventricular (LV) biopsies from peripapillary regions, inferobasal LV wall and apex on surgical patients with MVP, as well as in a mouse model of human MVP (Dzip1S14R/+). Tension-dependent molecular pathways were subsequently assessed using both computational modeling and cyclical stretch of primary human cardiac fibroblasts in vitro. Histopathology of LV biopsies revealed regionalized fibrosis in the peripapillary myocardium that correlated with increased macrophages and myofibroblasts. The MVP mouse model exhibited similar regional increases in collagen deposition that progress over time. As observed in the patient biopsies, increased macrophages and myofibroblasts were observed in fibrotic areas within the murine heart. Computational modeling revealed tension-dependent profibrotic cellular and molecular responses consistent with fibrosis locations related to valve-induced stress. These simulations also identified mechanosensing primary cilia as involved in profibrotic pathways, which was validated in vitro and in human biopsies. Finally, in vitro stretching of primary human cardiac fibroblasts showed that stretch directly activates profibrotic pathways and increases extracellular matrix protein production. Conclusions The presence of prominent regional LV fibrosis in patients and mice with MVP supports a relationship between MVP and progressive damaging effects on LV structure before overt alterations in cardiac function. The regionalized molecular and cellular changes suggest a reactive response of the papillary and inferobasal myocardium to increased chordal tension from a prolapsing valve. These studies raise the question whether surgical intervention on patients with MVP should occur earlier than indicated by current guidelines to prevent advanced LV fibrosis and potentially reduce residual risk of LV dysfunction and sudden cardiac death.

3.
Life (Basel) ; 11(12)2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34947904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients treated with an inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTORI) in a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-free immunosuppressive regimen after heart transplantation (HTx) show a higher risk for transplant rejection. We developed an immunological monitoring tool that may improve the identification of mTORI-treated patients at risk for rejection. METHODS: Circulating dendritic cells (DCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) were analysed in 19 mTORI- and 20 CNI-treated HTx patients by flow cytometry. Principal component and cluster analysis were used to identify patients at risk for transplant rejection. RESULTS: The percentages of total Tregs (p = 0.02) and CD39+ Tregs (p = 0.05) were higher in mTORI-treated patients than in CNI-treated patients. The principal component analysis revealed that BDCA1+, BDCA2+ and BDCA4+ DCs as well as total Tregs could distinguish between non-rejecting and rejecting mTORI-treated patients. Most mTORI-treated rejectors showed higher levels of BDCA2+ and BDCA4+ plasmacytoid DCs and lower levels of BDCA1+ myeloid DCs and Tregs than mTORI non-rejectors. CONCLUSION: An mTORI-based immunosuppressive regimen induced a sufficient, tolerance-promoting reaction in Tregs, but an insufficient, adverse effect in DCs. On the basis of patient-specific immunological profiles, we established a flow cytometry-based monitoring tool that may be helpful in identifying patients at risk for rejection.

4.
Life (Basel) ; 11(12)2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34947961

RESUMO

The pathological changes of ubiquitination and deubiquitination following myocardial infarction (MI) and chronic heart failure (CHF) have been sparsely examined. We investigated the expression of muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases in MI and CHF. Therefore, mice were assigned to coronary artery ligation for 3 days or 10 weeks as well as for sham operation (each n = 10). Expression of E3 ligases (MAFBX, MURF1, CHIP, ITCH, MDM2) and deubiquitinases (A20, CYLD, UCH-L1, USP14, USP19) was determined. After MI and in CHF, the mRNA expression of MURF1, CHIP and MDM2 (all p < 0.05) was decreased. Protein expression analyses revealed that ITCH expression decreased in CHF (p = 0.01), whereas MDM2 expression increased in MI (p = 0.02) and decreased in CHF (p = 0.02). Except for USP19 mRNA expression that decreased at 3 days and 10 weeks (both p < 0.01), the expression of other deubiquitinases remained unaffected after MI and CHF. The expression of myocardial E3 ligases is differentially regulated following MI, raising the question of whether an upstream regulation exists that is activated by MI for tissue protection or whether the downregulation of E3 ligases enables myocardial hypertrophy following MI.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787965

RESUMO

One of the key aspects to obtain good long-term outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting is graft quality. Meticulous graft harvesting is an important technical aspect in successfully performing high-quality coronary surgery and is associated with improved long-term graft patency. Hence, developing surgical skills in this necessary surgical step is of utmost importance in coronary bypass surgery. The following video tutorial presents a step-by-step audiovisual description of the skeletonized harvesting technique of the left internal mammary artery, open and endoscopic radial artery harvesting, and open saphenous vein graft harvesting.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Veia Safena , Angiografia Coronária , Humanos , Artéria Radial/cirurgia , Veia Safena/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
6.
N Engl J Med ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tricuspid regurgitation is common in patients with severe degenerative mitral regurgitation. However, the evidence base is insufficient to inform a decision about whether to perform tricuspid-valve repair during mitral-valve surgery in patients who have moderate tricuspid regurgitation or less-than-moderate regurgitation with annular dilatation. METHODS: We randomly assigned 401 patients who were undergoing mitral-valve surgery for degenerative mitral regurgitation to receive a procedure with or without tricuspid annuloplasty (TA). The primary 2-year end point was a composite of reoperation for tricuspid regurgitation, progression of tricuspid regurgitation by two grades from baseline or the presence of severe tricuspid regurgitation, or death. RESULTS: Patients who underwent mitral-valve surgery plus TA had fewer primary-end-point events than those who underwent mitral-valve surgery alone (3.9% vs. 10.2%) (relative risk, 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16 to 0.86; P = 0.02). Two-year mortality was 3.2% in the surgery-plus-TA group and 4.5% in the surgery-alone group (relative risk, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.25 to 1.88). The 2-year prevalence of progression of tricuspid regurgitation was lower in the surgery-plus-TA group than in the surgery-alone group (0.6% vs. 6.1%; relative risk, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.69). The frequencies of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events, functional status, and quality of life were similar in the two groups at 2 years, although the incidence of permanent pacemaker implantation was higher in the surgery-plus-TA group than in the surgery-alone group (14.1% vs. 2.5%; rate ratio, 5.75; 95% CI, 2.27 to 14.60). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing mitral-valve surgery, those who also received TA had a lower incidence of a primary-end-point event than those who underwent mitral-valve surgery alone at 2 years, a reduction that was driven by less frequent progression to severe tricuspid regurgitation. Tricuspid repair resulted in more frequent permanent pacemaker implantation. Whether reduced progression of tricuspid regurgitation results in long-term clinical benefit can be determined only with longer follow-up. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the German Center for Cardiovascular Research; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02675244.).

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801449

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the ability of machine-learning (ML)-based computed tomography (CT)-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) to further improve the diagnostic performance of coronary CT angiography (cCTA) for ruling out significant coronary artery disease (CAD) during pre-transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) evaluation in patients with a high pre-test probability for CAD. BACKGROUND: CAD is a frequent comorbidity in patients undergoing TAVR. Current guidelines recommend its assessment before TAVR. If significant CAD can be excluded on cCTA, invasive coronary angiography (ICA) may be avoided. Although cCTA is a very sensitive test, it is limited by relatively low specificity and positive predictive value, particularly in high-risk patients. METHODS: Overall, 460 patients (79.6 ± 7.4 years) undergoing pre-TAVR CT were included and examined with an electrocardiogram-gated CT scan of the heart and high-pitch scan of the vascular access route. Images were evaluated for significant CAD. Patients routinely underwent ICA (388/460), which was omitted at the discretion of the local Heart Team if CAD could be effectively ruled out on cCTA (72/460). CT examinations in which CAD could not be ruled out (CAD+) (n = 272) underwent additional ML-based CT-FFR. RESULTS: ML-based CT-FFR was successfully performed in 79.4% (216/272) of all CAD+ patients and correctly reclassified 17 patients as CAD negative. CT-FFR was not feasible in 20.6% because of reduced image quality (37/56) or anatomic variants (19/56). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 94.9%, 52.0%, 52.2%, and 94.9%, respectively. The additional evaluation with ML-based CT-FFR increased accuracy by Δ+3.4% (CAD+: Δ+6.0%) and raised the total number of examinations negative for CAD to 43.9% (202/460). CONCLUSIONS: ML-based CT-FFR may further improve the diagnostic performance of cCTA by correctly reclassifying a considerable proportion of patients with morphological signs of obstructive CAD on cCTA during pre-TAVR evaluation. Thereby, CT-FFR has the potential to further reduce the need for ICA in this challenging elderly group of patients before TAVR.

8.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 3(4): e200496, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505060

RESUMO

This International Consensus Classification and Nomenclature for the congenital bicuspid aortic valve condition recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valves: 1. The fused type (right-left cusp fusion, right-non-coronary cusp fusion and left-non-coronary cusp fusion phenotypes); 2. The 2-sinus type (latero-lateral and antero-posterior phenotypes); and 3. The partial-fusion (forme fruste) type. The presence of raphe and the symmetry of the fused type phenotypes are critical aspects to describe. The International Consensus also recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valve-associated aortopathy: 1. The ascending phenotype; 2. The root phenotype; and 3. Extended phenotypes. © 2021 Jointly between the RSNA, the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery. The articles are identical except for minor stylistic and spelling differences in keeping with each journal's style. All rights reserved. Keywords: Bicuspid Aortic Valve, Aortopathy, Nomenclature, Classification.

10.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(18): 1978-1991, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, mechanisms of failure, and outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) explantation. BACKGROUND: Surgical explantation following TAVR may be required for structural valve degeneration, paravalvular leak, infection, or other reasons. However, in-depth data on indications and outcomes are lacking. METHODS: Data from a multicenter, international registry (EXPLANT-TAVR) of patients who underwent TAVR explantation were reviewed retrospectively. Explantations performed during the same admission as initial TAVR were excluded. Clinical and echocardiographic outcomes were evaluated. Median follow-up duration was 6.7 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.0-18.8 months) after TAVR explantation and was 97.7% complete at 30 days and 86.1% complete at 1 year. RESULTS: From November 2009 to September 2020, 269 patients across 42 centers with a mean age of 72.7 ± 10.4 years underwent TAVR explantation. About one quarter (25.9%) were deemed low surgical risk at index TAVR, and median Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk at TAVR explantation was 5.6% (IQR: 3.2%-9.6%). The median time to explantation was 11.5 months (IQR: 4.0-32.4 months). Balloon-expandable and self-expanding or mechanically expandable valves accounted for 50.9% and 49.1%, respectively. Indications for explantation included endocarditis (43.1%), structural valve degeneration (20.1%), paravalvular leak (18.2%), and prosthesis-patient mismatch (10.8%). Redo TAVR was not feasible because of unfavorable anatomy in 26.8% of patients. Urgent or emergency cases were performed in 53.1% of patients, aortic root replacement in 13.4%, and 54.6% had concomitant cardiac procedures. Overall survival at last follow-up was 76.1%. In-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year mortality rates were 11.9%, 13.1%, and 28.5%, respectively, and stroke rates were 5.9%, 8.6%, and 18.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The EXPLANT-TAVR registry reveals that surgical risks associated with TAVR explantation are not negligible and should be taken into consideration in the lifetime management of aortic stenosis.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(18): 2010-2021, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine clinical and echocardiographic characteristics, mechanisms of failure, and outcomes of mitral valve (MV) surgery after transcatheter edge-to-edge repair (TEER). BACKGROUND: Although >100,000 mitral TEER procedures have been performed worldwide, longitudinal data on MV surgery after TEER are lacking. METHODS: Data from the multicenter, international CUTTING-EDGE registry were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and echocardiographic outcomes were evaluated. Median follow-up duration was 9.0 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.2-25.7 months) after MV surgery, and follow-up was 96.1% complete at 30 days and 81.1% complete at 1 year. RESULTS: From July 2009 to July 2020, 332 patients across 34 centers underwent MV surgery after TEER. The mean age was 73.8 ± 10.1 years, median Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk for MV repair at initial TEER was 4.0 (IQR: 2.3-7.3), and primary/mixed and secondary mitral regurgitation were present in 59.0% and 38.5%, respectively. The median interval from TEER to surgery was 3.5 months (IQR: 0.5-11.9 months), with overall median Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk of 4.8% for MV replacement (IQR: 2.8%-8.4%). The primary indication for surgery was recurrent mitral regurgitation (33.5%), and MV replacement and concomitant tricuspid surgery were performed in 92.5% and 42.2% of patients, respectively. The 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were 16.6% and 31.3%, respectively. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, the actuarial estimates of mortality were 24.1% at 1 year and 31.7% at 3 years after MV surgery. CONCLUSIONS: In this first report of the CUTTING-EDGE registry, the mortality and morbidity risks of MV surgery after TEER were not negligible, and only <10% of patients underwent MV repair. These registry data provide valuable insights for further research to improve these outcomes.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Biomedicines ; 9(9)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572465

RESUMO

Cardioplegic solutions play a major role in cardiac surgery due to the fact that they create a silent operating field and protect the myocardium against ischemia and reperfusion injury. For studies on cardioplegic solutions, it is important to compare their effects and to have a valid platform for preclinical testing of new cardioplegic solutions and their additives. Due to the strong anatomical and physiological cardiovascular similarities between pigs and humans, porcine models are suitable for investigating the effects of cardioplegic solutions. This review provides an overview of the results of the application of cardioplegic solutions in adult or pediatric pig models over the past 25 years. The advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and refinement strategies of these models are discussed.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe pulmonary hypertension is a relative contraindication for isolated tricuspid valve (TV) surgery. However, some patients may still benefit from TV surgery. We hypothesized that pulmonary pressure alone is an inadequate predictor of outcomes post-TV surgery, and that aorto-pulmonary pressure quotient (AoP/PAP) is a better predictor. METHODS: From 2005 to 2019, a total of 122 patients (mean age: 68.5±10.5 years; 43.3% male) with isolated TV regurgitation and preoperative right heart catheterization referred to our institution for isolated TV surgery were included. Patients with concomitant procedures were excluded from this analysis. All data were retrospectively analyzed. Follow-up was 97% complete. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 4.3±3.6 years. The mean preoperative New York Heart Association (NYHA) class was 2.9±0.7, left ventricular ejection fraction was 52.3±11.3%, creatinine level was 124.8±102.6µmol/l, mean pulmonary artery pressure was 25.5±9.4mmHg, mean MELD-XI score 13.5±4.2, and mean AoP/PAP was 4.1±1.9 mmHg. Thirty-day mortality was 10.9%, and 5-years survival was 56.6±4.9%. Cox regression analysis revealed age (p=0.001; HR: 1.058; CI 95%: 1.023-1.094), the mean arterial pressure (p=0.002; HR: 0.969; CI 95%: 0.950-0.988) and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (p=0.035; HR: 1.054; CI 95%: 1.004-1.107), as well as mean AoP/PAP > 4 (p=0.001; HR: 6.678; CI 95%: 2.197-20.294) as predictors for long-term mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the degree of pulmonary hypertension, a mean AoP/PaP quotient >4 impacts the postoperative survival of patients undergoing isolated TV surgery. However, further research is still required to verify this finding.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Severe left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) is associated with increased risk following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Due to a dearth of reports on the choice of CABG technique in patients with LVD, this study aims to compare the outcomes of off-pump CABG (OPCAB) and conventional CABG (ONCAB) in such patients. METHODS: Retrospective single-centre propensity-matched analysis comparing early- and long-term outcomes of OPCAB and ONCAB in patients with severe LVD. Primary outcome was long-term all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Between 2002 and 2014, a total of 1161 consecutive patients with severe LVD underwent isolated CABG [442 patients underwent OPCAB and 719 ONCAB (430 matched pairs)]. Incomplete revascularization was observed more frequently among OPCAB than ONCAB patients (35.3% vs 21.6%; P < 0.01). The overall 30-day mortality was 5% and was comparable between the matched groups [OR 0.64 (0.34-1.22); P = 0.18]. OPCAB patients had shorter median hospital stay (11 vs 12 days; P = 0.02) and lower packed red blood cell transfusion rates [2.7 (2.21-3.19) vs 4.4 (3.56-5.24); P < 0.01]. Estimated adjusted survival was 86.0% vs 85.8%, 69.1% vs 65.5% and 59.9% vs 49.1% at 1, 5 and 10 years for OPCAB and ONCAB patients, respectively (P = 0.99). Long-term risk of mortality was similar between groups [hazard ratio (HR) 0.94 (0.66-1.32); P = 0.7]. Incomplete revascularization was weakly associated with increased risk of long-term all-cause mortality [HR 1.33 (0.99-1.77); P = 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: OPCAB is safe and effective in patients with severe LVD. Although incomplete revascularization is more commonly observed in patients undergoing OPCAB, it is not associated with increased late mortality.

15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 676175, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447372

RESUMO

Background: Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) induces immunological changes that lead to a reduced risk of transplant rejection. The aim of the present study was to determine optimum conditions for ECP treatment by analyzing a variety of tolerance-inducing immune cells to optimize the treatment. Methods: Ten ECP treatments were applied to each of 17 heart-transplant patients from month 3 to month 9 post-HTx. Blood samples were taken at baseline, three times during treatment, and four months after the last ECP treatment. The abundance of subsets of tolerance-inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs) and dendritic cells (DCs) in the samples was determined by flow cytometry. A multivariate statistical model describing the immunological status of rejection-free heart transplanted patients was used to visualize the patient-specific immunological improvement induced by ECP. Results: All BDCA+ DC subsets (BDCA1+ DCs: p < 0.01, BDCA2+ DCs: p < 0.01, BDCA3+ DCs: p < 0.01, BDCA4+ DCs: p < 0.01) as well as total Tregs (p < 0.01) and CD39+ Tregs (p < 0.01) increased during ECP treatment, while CD62L+ Tregs decreased (p < 0.01). The cell surface expression level of BDCA1 (p < 0.01) and BDCA4 (p < 0.01) on DCs as well as of CD120b (p < 0.01) on Tregs increased during the study period, while CD62L expression on Tregs decreased significantly (p = 0.04). The cell surface expression level of BDCA2 (p = 0.47) and BDCA3 (p = 0.22) on DCs as well as of CD39 (p = 0.14) and CD147 (p = 0.08) on Tregs remained constant during the study period. A cluster analysis showed that ECP treatment led to a sustained immunological improvement. Conclusions: We developed an immune monitoring assay for ECP treatment after heart transplantation by analyzing changes in tolerance-inducing immune cells. This assay allowed differentiation of patients who did and did not show immunological improvement. Based on these results, we propose classification criteria that may allow optimization of the duration of ECP treatment.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Monitorização Imunológica/métodos , Fotoferese/métodos , Adulto , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
16.
CJC Open ; 3(7): 845-853, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34401691

RESUMO

Background: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become the standard of care in the majority of patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. Data on long-term mortality and durability of transcatheter heart valves (THVs) beyond 5 years are limited. Our study aimed to assess elderly and high-risk patients' long-term outcomes treated with TAVR in a prospective single-centre registry focusing on the durability of THVs. Methods: We included 795 patients with severe calcific aortic stenosis treated by transfemoral TAVR between 2006 and 2011. Echocardiography was performed at baseline; discharge; 1 year; and afterward, annually, until the longest available follow-up. Mortality rates were estimated for 1, 5, 6, 7, and 8 years. The rates of structural valve deterioration (SVD) and bioprosthetic valve failure (BVF) were assessed in accordance with consensus definitions. Outcome measures were adjudicated according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 (VARC-2). Results: Median (interquartile range) follow-up time was 1345 (316; 2015) days. One-year, 5-year, 6-year, 7-year, and 8-year overall mortality was 25.4%, 59.0%, 64.6%, 67.9%, and 69.2%, respectively. At 8 years, no significant differences in mortality were found comparing self-expanding vs balloon-expandable valves (69.5% vs 68.0%, P = 0.709) and postdilatation (PD) vs no-PD (69.4% vs 69.2%, P = 0.363). SVD was detected in 26 patients (3.3%), and 19 (2.4%) of the 795 patients had evidence of BVF during follow-up. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates good long-term results for high-risk patients who were alive up to 8 years after TAVR.

17.
Ann Cardiothorac Surg ; 10(4): 538-540, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422570
18.
Artif Organs ; 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398476

RESUMO

The resolution of functional mitral valve regurgitation (MR) in patients awaiting left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation is discussed controversially. The present study analyzed MR and echocardiographic parameters of the third-generation LVAD HeartMate 3 (HM3) over 3 years. Of 135 LVAD patients (with severe MR, n = 33; with none, mild, or moderate MR, n = 102), data of transthoracic echocardiography were included preoperatively to LVAD implantation, up to 1 month postoperatively, and at 1, 2, and 3 years after LVAD implantation. Demographic data and clinical characteristics were collected. Severe MR was reduced immediately after LVAD implantation in all patients. The echocardiographic parameters left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (P < .001), right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (P < .001), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (P < .001), and estimated pulmonary artery pressure (P < .001) decreased after HM3 implantation independently from the grade of MR prior to implantation and remained low during the 2 years follow-up period. Following LVAD implantation, right heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias, ischemic stroke as well as pump thrombosis and bleeding events were comparable between the groups. The incidences of death and cardiac death did not differ between the patient groups. Furthermore, the Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that survival was comparable between the groups (P = .073). HM3 implantation decreases preoperative severe MR immediately after LVAD implantation. This effect is long-lasting in most patients and reinforces the LVAD implantation without MR surgery. The complication rates and survival were comparable between patients with and without severe MR.

19.
J Card Surg ; 36(11): 4095-4101, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The clinical consequences of alternative outflow cannula positioning in patients undergoing left ventricular assist device implantation are unknown. We evaluated clinical outcomes in patients who underwent implantation with the outflow cannula implanted from the right side into the ascending aorta versus the left side of the pericardium. METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients with terminal left heart failure underwent implantation using the Medtronic Heartware Ventricular Assist Device at Toronto General Hospital. Patients were divided between left and right outflow cannula positioning during implantation where anastomosis occurred in the ascending aorta. Propensity score matching using exact matching on the following pre-specified covariates: Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support score, previous cardiac surgery, and preoperative inotrope use. RESULTS: Fifty consecutive patients (25 left implantation and 25 right implantation) were included in the unmatched cohort and 45 patients (25 left implantation and 20 right implantation) were included in the matched cohort. No significant differences in baseline demographics. Pump thrombosis occurred in 10% (n = 2) receiving right-sided implantation and 8% (n = 2) with left implantation (p = 1.00). Postoperative stroke occurred in 10% (2/20) with right implantation and 16% (4/25) with left implantation (p = .88). No difference in 1-year mortality between right 20% (5/25) and left 25% (5/20) implantation (p = .97). CONCLUSION: No observed difference in mortality when adjusting for competing risk of heart transplantation. There was also no difference in stroke, pump thrombosis, driveline infection. Larger studies are required to confirm these findings. These preliminary data support the use of left-sided anastomoses to facilitate subsequent re-entry during heart transplantation.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Transplante de Coração , Coração Auxiliar , Cânula , Humanos , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Full sternotomy (FS) is the common surgical access for patients undergoing open aortic valve replacement (AVR) with concomitant supracommissural replacement of the tubular ascending aorta. Since minimally invasive approaches are being used with increasing frequency in cardiac surgery, the aim of this study was to compare outcomes of patients undergoing AVR with supracommissural replacement of the tubular ascending aorta via FS versus partial upper sternotomy (PS). METHODS: We included all patients who underwent elective AVR with concomitant supracommissural replacement of the tubular ascending aorta at our institution between 2000 and 2015. Exclusion criteria were emergency surgery, other major concomitant procedures and reoperations. After 2:1 propensity score matching, outcomes of patients with PS and FS were compared. RESULTS: A total of 652 consecutive patients were included, 117 patients operated via PS and 234 patients operated via FS. Cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamp time of the PS and FS groups were 89 vs 92 min (P = 0.2) and 65 vs 70 min (P = 0.3), respectively. Postoperative morbidity was low and there were no significant differences in postoperative outcomes between patient groups. In-hospital mortality was 1.7% in the PS vs 0.4% in the FS group (P = 0.3). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed no difference in mid-term survival (P = 0.3). Reoperation rates for valve or aortic complications were very low with no significant difference between groups. CONCLUSIONS: In a high-volume centre with extensive experience in minimally invasive cardiac surgery, AVR with concomitant supracommissural replacement of the tubular ascending aorta via PS results in similar outcomes with regard to safety and longevity when compared to conventional FS.

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