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1.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(5): e00143818, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141029

RESUMO

The study aimed to estimate cancer mortality among indigenous peoples in Acre State, Brazil. This was a descriptive observational study based on the nominal bank of the Brazilian Mortality Information System for the period from January 1st, 2000, to December 31st, 2012. The study analyzed the distribution death frequencies by sex and age. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated taking Goiânia (Goiás State), Acre State, and the North Region of Brazil as the references. A total of 81 deaths were identified, the majority in men (59.3%) and in individuals over 70 years of age. The five main sites in men were stomach, liver, colon and rectum, leukemia, and prostate. The five main sites in women were uterine cervix, stomach, liver, leukemia, and uterus. In indigenous men there was an excess of deaths from stomach cancer compared to the populations of Goiânia (SMR = 2.72; 2.58-2.87), Acre State (SMR = 2.05; 1.94-2.16) and North region (SMR = 3.10; 2.93-3.27). The same was observed for deaths from hepatic cell carcinomas referenced against Goiânia (SMR = 3.89; 3.66-4.14), Acre State (SMR = 1.79; 1.68-1.91), and the North of Brazil (SMR = 4.04; 3.77-4.30). Among indigenous women, there was an excess of cervical cancer in comparison to Goiânia (SMR = 4.67; 4.41-4.93), Acre State (SMR = 2.12; 2.00-2.24), and the North (SMR = 2.60; 2.45-2.75). The estimates show that preventable neoplasms such as cervical cancer and those linked to underdevelopment, such as stomach and liver cancer, account for 49.4% of deaths among indigenous peoples. Compared to the reference population, mortality from liver, stomach, and colorectal cancer and leukemias was more than twice as high in indigenous men; among indigenous women, cervical, stomach, and liver cancer and leukemias were 30% higher.

2.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 20(2): 469-478, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803209

RESUMO

Objective: Evaluate the beliefs about the risk factors for breast cancer in a population of women from the western Amazon and determine the factors associated with the higher belief scores presented by this population. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study included 478 women aged >40 years residing in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. An American Cancer Society questionnaire was applied to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about breast cancer. Results: The main beliefs about the risk factors for breast cancer were breast trauma (95%), use of underwire bra (58.5%), and a high number of sexual partners (55.5%). Women from younger age groups presented higher belief scores (Bcoefficient: ­0.04, 95% CI: ­0.07; ­0.01) than those of women from older age groups. A strong association was noted between high knowledge scores of risk factors and signs/symptoms of the disease and high belief scores in the study group (Bcoefficient:0.33;95%CI:0.28;0.38). Conclusion: The results indicate the existence of important beliefs related to the risk factors for breast cancer. Women from younger age groups, women who have seen a gynecologist in the past 2 years, and women who had more knowledge about the risk factors and signs and symptoms of breast cancer had higher belief scores.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Autoexame de Mama/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mamografia/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(5): e00143818, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001663

RESUMO

O objetivo do estudo foi estimar a mortalidade por câncer em povos indígenas no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Trata-se de estudo observacional descritivo, com base no banco nominal do SIM (Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade), referente ao período de 1º de janeiro de 2000 a 31 de dezembro de 2012. Foi analisada a distribuição de frequência de óbitos, por sexo e faixa etária, e calculada a RMP (razão de mortalidade padronizada), tendo como referência Goiânia (Goiás), Acre e Região Norte. Foram identificados 81 óbitos, a maioria de homens (59,3%) e acima de 70 anos. As cinco principais localizações em homens foram estômago, fígado, cólon e reto, leucemia e próstata. Nas mulheres, câncer cervical, estômago, fígado, leucemia e útero. Nos homens indígenas houve excesso de óbitos por câncer de estômago quando comparados às populações de Goiânia (RMP = 2,72; 2,58-2,87), Acre (RMP = 2,05; 1,94-2,16) e Região Norte (RMP = 3,10; 2,93-3,27). O mesmo foi observado para óbitos por hepatocarcinomas, tendo por referência Goiânia (RMP = 3,89; 3,66-4,14), Acre (RMP = 1,79; 1,68-1,91) e Região Norte (RMP = 4,04; 3,77-4,30). Dentre as mulheres indígenas, destaca-se o excesso de câncer cervical em relação à Goiânia (RMP = 4,67; 4,41-4,93), Acre (RMP = 2,12; 2,00-2,24) e Região Norte (RMP = 2,60; 2,45-2,75). As estimativas apontam que neoplasias passíveis de prevenção, como câncer cervical, e ligadas ao subdesenvolvimento, como estômago e fígado, corresponderam a cerca de 49,4% dos óbitos entre indígenas. Comparados à população de referência, a mortalidade por câncer de fígado, estômago, colorretal e leucemias foi maior que o dobro entre os homens indígenas; por câncer cervical, estômago, fígado e leucemias esteve acima de 30% entre as mulheres indígenas.


The study aimed to estimate cancer mortality among indigenous peoples in Acre State, Brazil. This was a descriptive observational study based on the nominal bank of the Brazilian Mortality Information System for the period from January 1st, 2000, to December 31st, 2012. The study analyzed the distribution death frequencies by sex and age. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated taking Goiânia (Goiás State), Acre State, and the North Region of Brazil as the references. A total of 81 deaths were identified, the majority in men (59.3%) and in individuals over 70 years of age. The five main sites in men were stomach, liver, colon and rectum, leukemia, and prostate. The five main sites in women were uterine cervix, stomach, liver, leukemia, and uterus. In indigenous men there was an excess of deaths from stomach cancer compared to the populations of Goiânia (SMR = 2.72; 2.58-2.87), Acre State (SMR = 2.05; 1.94-2.16) and North region (SMR = 3.10; 2.93-3.27). The same was observed for deaths from hepatic cell carcinomas referenced against Goiânia (SMR = 3.89; 3.66-4.14), Acre State (SMR = 1.79; 1.68-1.91), and the North of Brazil (SMR = 4.04; 3.77-4.30). Among indigenous women, there was an excess of cervical cancer in comparison to Goiânia (SMR = 4.67; 4.41-4.93), Acre State (SMR = 2.12; 2.00-2.24), and the North (SMR = 2.60; 2.45-2.75). The estimates show that preventable neoplasms such as cervical cancer and those linked to underdevelopment, such as stomach and liver cancer, account for 49.4% of deaths among indigenous peoples. Compared to the reference population, mortality from liver, stomach, and colorectal cancer and leukemias was more than twice as high in indigenous men; among indigenous women, cervical, stomach, and liver cancer and leukemias were 30% higher.


El objetivo del estudio fue estimar la mortalidad por cáncer en pueblos indígenas del estado de Acre. Se trata de un estudio observacional descriptivo, a partir del banco de datos nominal del SIM (Sistema de Información Sobre Mortalidad), referente al período de 01 de enero de 2000 a 31 de diciembre de 2012. Se analizó la distribución de frecuencia de óbitos, por sexo y franja de edad, y se calculó la RMP (razón de mortalidad estandarizada), teniendo como referencia Goiânia-GO, Acre y la región norte. Se identificaron 81 óbitos, la mayoría en hombres (59,3%) y por encima de los 70 años. Los cinco principales focos en hombres fueron: estómago, hígado, colon y recto, leucemia y próstata. En las mujeres, cáncer cervical, estómago, hígado, leucemia y útero. En los hombres indígenas, hubo exceso de óbitos por cáncer de estómago, comparados con las poblaciones de Goiânia (RMP = 2,72; 2,58-2,87), estado de Acre (RMP = 2,05; 1,94-2,16) y región norte (RMP = 3,10; 2,93-3,27). Lo mismo se observó en caso de óbitos por hepatocarcinomas, teniendo por referencia Goiânia (RMP = 3,89; 3,66-4,14), estado de Acre (RMP = 1,79; 1,68-1,91) y región norte (RMP = 4,04; 3,77-4,30). Entre las mujeres indígenas, se destaca el exceso de cáncer cervical, en relación con Goiânia (RMP = 4,67; 4,41-4,93), estado de Acre (RMP = 2,12; 2,00-2,24) y región norte (RMP = 2,60; 2,45-2,75). Las estimativas apuntan a que neoplasias susceptibles de prevención, como la cervical, y vinculadas al subdesarrollo, como la de estómago e hígado, correspondieron a cerca de un 49,4% de los óbitos entre indígenas. Comparados con la población de referencia, la mortalidad por cáncer de hígado, estómago, colorrectal y leucemias fue más que el doble entre los hombres indígenas; por cáncer cervical, estómago, hígado y leucemias estuvo por encima de un 30% entre las mujeres indígenas.

4.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 18(3): 847-856, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28441797

RESUMO

Background: A general lack of women`s awareness of breast cancer has been one of the barriers to screening and early presentation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate levels of knowledge about risk factors, and early warning signs of breast cancer, and to determine factors associated with better levels of comprehension. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 478 women over 40 years old, living in Rio Branco city, western Amazon. All were interviewed using the "Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and practice scale", developed by American Cancer Society. Results: Among the respondents, only 28.6% of women were aware that advanced age highly increases the risk. Around 30% of participants recognized nipple retraction as a sign of breast cancer. Breast cancer knowledge varied according to age in such a way that the mean scores were high from 40-69 years and decreased dramatically among those aged ≥70 (ß=-0.06,p=0.031). Access to health services such as the Pap-test (ß=2.45,p=0.027) and attending a gynecologist in the past two years (ß=1.88,p=0.005) were statistically associated with the score of breast cancer knowledge. Conclusion: The findings indicate that women living in urban areas, having gynecological assessment, considering herself at high risk of developing breast cancer and thinking that breast cancer is a fatal disease are statistically associated with good knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, signs and symptoms, even adjusting for age and education.

5.
Trab. educ. saúde ; 13(2): 429-450, May-Aug/2015.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-746658

RESUMO

Buscou-se conhecer a percepção da experiência do trabalho docente em cursos de saúde de uma universidade federal da região Norte do Brasil. Utilizando-se abordagem qualitativa, foram entrevistados seis docentes de cursos de saúde dessa universidade, cujos dados foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo. Predominaram mulheres na função docente, e a valorização dessa função como vínculo estável de trabalho, fonte de rendimentos e função social. No trabalho docente, a maioria se concentra no desenvolvimento de habilidades técnico-científicas dos alunos, expressando a necessidade da qualificação contínua e apoio institucional insuficiente. As relações pessoais desses docentes com alunos e outros professores e técnico-administrativos são reconhecidamente mediadoras da qualidade do processo de ensino-apren-dizagem e trabalho. Quanto à saúde, a maior parte se sente vulnerável e desgastada, principalmente em aspectos psicoemocionais, o que influencia as suas relações sociais dentro e fora do ambiente de trabalho. Embora o exercício profissional tenha sido identificado como fonte de estabilidade, realização pessoal e financeira, destacam-se a precariedade e a sobrecarga de trabalho, que tendem a induzir sofrimento e adoe-cimento. Esta reflexão entre docentes, movimentos sindicais e instituições de ensino pode subsidiar ajustes institucionais, legais, curriculares e sociais para melhorar o processo de ensino-aprendizagem e a qualidade de vida dos docentes.


An attempt was made to get to know the views professors have on the experience of teaching in health courses at a federal university located in northern Brazil. Using a qualitative approach, six professors working at the university's health courses were interviewed, and their data were subjected to content analysis. Most professors were female, and the role was valued as it represents a stable employment status, a source ofincome, and a social function. In the teaching activity, most focus on developing the students' technical and scientific skills, expressing the need for ongoing training and insufficient institutional support. Personal relationships among these professors and students and with other professors and technical administrators are known to mediate the quality of the teaching/learning and work processes. Insofar as health is concerned, most feel vulnerable and worn, particularly in psycho-emotional aspects, a fact that influences their social relations within and outside of the workplace. Although the professional practice has been identified as a source of stability and of personal and financial realization, the precariousness and work overload stand out and tend to induce suffering and illness. This reflection among professors, labor union movements, and educational institutions may support institutional, legal, curriculum and social adjustments in order to improve the process of teaching and learning and the professors' quality of life.


Se buscó conocer la percepción de la experiencia del trabajo docente en cursos de salud de una universidad federal de la región Norte de Brasil. A partir de un enfoque cualitativo, fueron entrevistados seis profesores de cursos de salud de esa universidad, cuyos datos fueron someti-dos al análisis de contenido. Predominaron las mujeres en la función docente, y la valoración de esta función como vínculo laboral estable, fuente de ingresos y función social. En el trabajo docente, la mayoría se concentra en el desarrollo de habilidades técnicas y científicas de los estu-diantes, lo que expresa la necesidad de la formación continua y un apoyo institucional insuficiente. Las relaciones personales de estos profesores con alumnos y otros docentes y con técnicos administrativos, son reconocidamente mediadoras de la calidad en el proceso de ensenanza-apren-dizaje y trabajo. En relación a la salud, la mayoría se siente vulnerable y desgastada, sobre todo en los aspectos psicoemocionales, lo que influye en sus relaciones sociales dentro y fuera del ambiente de trabajo. Aunque la práctica profesional se haya identificado como una fuente de es-tabilidad, realización personal y financiera, sobresalen la precariedad y la sobrecarga de trabajo, que tienden a provocar sufrimiento y enfermedad. Esta reflexión entre los docentes, los mo-vimientos sindicales y las instituciones educativas puede sustentar ajustes institucionales, legales, curriculares y sociales para mejorar el proceso de ensenanza-aprendizaje y la calidad de vida de los docentes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Docentes , Mão de Obra em Saúde
6.
Cad Saude Publica ; 28(6): 1156-66, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22666819

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to determine the self-reported prevalence of uterine cervical cancer testing in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, and to analyze factors associated with non-participation in screening. A population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 772 women 18 to 69 years of age and living in Rio Branco was conducted in 2007 and 2008. Data were analyzed with Stata 10.0, and prevalence rates were estimated with Poisson multivariate regression (95%CI). 85.3% of women reported at least one cervical cancer screening test in the previous three years. The majority of women (72.8%) were screened in the Brazilian Unified National Health System. After adjusting for selected variables, statistically significant prevalence rates for absence of screening were found in women 18-24 and 60-69 years of age, single, and with low income and low schooling. The prevalence rates were consistent with findings from other studies, highlighting the need for greater intervention in the group of women most vulnerable to cervical cancer incidence and mortality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Esfregaço Vaginal , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cad. saúde pública ; 28(6): 1156-1166, jun. 2012. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-626653

RESUMO

O objetivo do estudo foi determinar a prevalência autorreferida do exame preventivo de câncer do colo uterino em Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil, e avaliar fatores associados com a não realização do exame. Trata-se de estudo transversal de base populacional, composto por 772 mulheres de 18 a 69 anos residentes em Rio Branco, no período 2007 a 2008. Os dados foram analisados no programa Stata 10.0 e estimadas razões de prevalências a partir da regressão multivariada de Poisson. O percentual de mulheres na população alvo que relatou pelo menos um exame nos últimos três anos foi de 85,3%, com acentuada utilização do Sistema Único de Saúde (72,8%). Foram encontradas razões de prevalência estatisticamente significativas quanto à ausência do exame em mulheres de 18 a 24 anos, de 60 a 69 anos, solteiras, com menor renda e baixa escolaridade. As magnitudes encontradas nas razões de prevalência foram consistentes com achados de outros estudos, apontando maior necessidade de intervenção no grupo de mulheres mais vulneráveis à incidência e mortalidade por câncer do colo do útero.


The objective of the study was to determine the self-reported prevalence of uterine cervical cancer testing in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, and to analyze factors associated with non-participation in screening. A population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 772 women 18 to 69 years of age and living in Rio Branco was conducted in 2007 and 2008. Data were analyzed with Stata 10.0, and prevalence rates were estimated with Poisson multivariate regression (95%CI). 85.3% of women reported at least one cervical cancer screening test in the previous three years. The majority of women (72.8%) were screened in the Brazilian Unified National Health System. After adjusting for selected variables, statistically significant prevalence rates for absence of screening were found in women 18-24 and 60-69 years of age, single, and with low income and low schooling. The prevalence rates were consistent with findings from other studies, highlighting the need for greater intervention in the group of women most vulnerable to cervical cancer incidence and mortality.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sistema Único de Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Esfregaço Vaginal
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