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1.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233733, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453798

RESUMO

Understanding how assemblages are structured in space and the factors promoting their distributions is one of the main goals in Ecology, however, studies regarding the distribution of organisms at larger scales remain biased towards terrestrial groups. We attempt to understand if the structure of stream fish metacommunities across a Neotropical ecoregion (Upper Paraná-drainage area of 820,000 km2) are affected by environmental variables, describing natural environmental gradient, anthropogenic impacts and spatial predictors. For this, we obtained 586 sampling points of fish assemblages in the ecoregion and data on environmental and spatial predictors that potentially affect fish assemblages. We calculated the local beta diversity (Local Contribution to Beta Diversity, LCBD) and alpha diversity from the species list, to be used as response variables in the partial regression models, while the anthropogenic impacts, environmental gradient and spatial factors were used as predictors. We found a high total beta diversity for the ecoregion (0.41) where the greatest values for each site sampled were located at the edges of the ecoregion, while richer communities were found more centrally. All sets of predictors explained the LCBD and alpha diversity, but the most important was dispersal variables, followed by the natural environmental gradient and anthropogenic impact. However, we found an increase in the models' prediction power through the shared effect. Results suggest that environmental filters (i.e. environmental variables such as climate, hydrology and anthropogenic impact) and dispersal limitation together shape fish assemblages of the Upper Paraná ecoregion, showing the importance of using multiple sets of predictors to understand the processes structuring biodiversity distribution.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Peixes/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Rios , Animais , Brasil
2.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 31(3): 941-950, may./jun. 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-963902

RESUMO

Chlorophyll is a green pigment common to all photosynthetic cells of autotrophic organisms in aquatic or terrestrial environments. Techniques used to quantify this pigment include fluorescence, UV spectrophotometer, chromatography, HPLC, and remote sensing. Determination of the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll - a (Chl-a), has been used widely in many areas of science. The present study investigated the state of the global scientific literature on Chl-a, determining the countries, approaches, and environments where Chl-a has been studied and the geographic scale used. To obtain this scientometric information, we conducted a study from the Scopus database over a 21-year period from 1990 through 2011. This period saw significant increases in the number of publications (r=0.84 and P< 0.001), different journals where publications appeared (160 journals), major papers with a multidisciplinary character, and a predominance of descriptive approaches with studies conducted in aquatic and marine habitats at a regional scale. The country with the highest number of publications was China (21.64% of total papers; location of study), and the USA had the highest number of authors (19.52% of total papers). The main determining factor for publications was socioeconomic (according to model selection criteria; AIC). This study highlight the multidisciplinary use of Chl-a, and may give some directions to new studies about this pigment.


A clorofila é um pigmento verde, comum em todas as células fotossintéticas de organismos autotróficos, de ambientes aquáticos ou terrestres. As técnicas mais utilizadas para quantificar esse pigmento são a fluorescência, a espectrofotometria de UV, a cromatografia HPLC e o uso de sensores remotos. Assim, a determinação do pigmento fotossintético chlorofila-a (Chl-a), tem sido utilizada amplamente em diversas áreas da ciência. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o estado da arte da literatura científica para o pigmento fotossintetizante clorofila-a, determinando os países de estudo, os fatores socioeconômicos- ambiental que estão ligados ao estudo de clorofila ­a, abordagens utilizadas, e ainda, os ambientes estudados, a escala geográfica e as revistas. Para obter tais informações realizou-se um estudo cienciométrico, a partir da base de dados Scopus, numa escala temporal de 21 anos (entre 1990 e 2011). Os padrões encontrados para as pesquisas com Chl-a são o aumento temporal de publicações (r=0.84 and P<0.001), a diversidade de revistas que publicaram estudos sobre o assunto (160 revistas), maior número de publicações com caráter multidisciplinar, predomínio de estudos com abordagens descritivas realizados em ambientes aquáticos e marinhos e estudos em escala geográfica regional. A China foi o país mais estudado com 21,64% do total de artigos publicados, e os estadunidenses lideraram com o maior número de publicações sobre este assunto (19,52% do total de artigos publicados). Utilizando o critério de seleção de modelos de Akaike observou-se que as publicações são impulsionadas pelo fator socioeconômico PIB. Este estudo demonstrou o uso multidisciplinar da Chl-a e pode indicar algumas direções para novos estudos com esse pigmento.


Assuntos
Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Água , Cromatografia , Sensores Remotos , Fluorescência
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