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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(10): e015751, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390491

RESUMO

Background The tandem of P domains in a weak inward rectifying K+ channel (TWIK)-related acid-sensitive K+ channel (TASK-1; hK2P3.1) two-pore-domain potassium channel was recently shown to regulate the atrial action potential duration. In the human heart, TASK-1 channels are specifically expressed in the atria. Furthermore, upregulation of atrial TASK-1 currents was described in patients suffering from atrial fibrillation (AF). We therefore hypothesized that TASK-1 channels represent an ideal target for antiarrhythmic therapy of AF. In the present study, we tested the antiarrhythmic effects of the high-affinity TASK-1 inhibitor A293 on cardioversion in a porcine model of paroxysmal AF. Methods and Results Heterologously expressed human and porcine TASK-1 channels are blocked by A293 to a similar extent. Patch clamp measurements from isolated human and porcine atrial cardiomyocytes showed comparable TASK-1 currents. Computational modeling was used to investigate the conditions under which A293 would be antiarrhythmic. German landrace pigs underwent electrophysiological studies under general anesthesia. Paroxysmal AF was induced by right atrial burst stimulation. After induction of AF episodes, intravenous administration of A293 restored sinus rhythm within cardioversion times of 177±63 seconds. Intravenous administration of A293 resulted in significant prolongation of the atrial effective refractory period, measured at cycle lengths of 300, 400 and 500 ms, whereas the surface ECG parameters and the ventricular effective refractory period lengths remained unchanged. Conclusions Pharmacological inhibition of atrial TASK-1 currents exerts antiarrhythmic effects in vivo as well as in silico, resulting in acute cardioversion of paroxysmal AF. Taken together, these experiments indicate the therapeutic potential of A293 for AF treatment.

2.
Circ J ; 84(5): 754-762, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thromboembolic complications such as ischemic stroke or peripheral arterial thromboembolism are known complications in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We sought to assess the clinical and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) characteristics of patients with HCM suffering from thromboembolic events and analyzed the predictors of these unfavorable outcomes.Methods and Results:The 115 HCM patients underwent late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) CMR and were included in the study. Follow-up was 5.6±3.6 years. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of thromboembolic events (ischemic stroke or peripheral arterial thromboembolism). It occurred in 17 (14.8%) patients (event group, EG), of whom 64.7% (11) were men. During follow-up, 10 (8.7%) patients died. Patients in the EG showed more comorbidities, such as heart failure (EG 41.2% vs. NEG (non-event group) 14.3%, P<0.01) and atrial fibrillation (AF: EG 70.6% vs. NEG 36.7%, P<0.01). Left atrial end-diastolic volume was significantly higher in the EG (EG 73±24 vs. NEG 50±33 mL/m2, P<0.01). Both the presence and extent of LGE were enhanced in the EG (extent% EG 23±15% vs. NEG 8±9%, P<0.0001). No patient without LGE experienced a thromboembolic event. Multivariate analysis revealed AF and LGE extent as independent predictors. CONCLUSIONS: LGE extent (>14.4%) is an independent predictor for thromboembolic complications in patients with HCM and might therefore be considered as an important risk marker. The risk for thromboembolic events is significantly elevated if accompanied by AF.

3.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study sought to assess the prognostic impact of potassium levels (K) in patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias. METHODS: A large retrospective registry was used including all consecutive patients presenting with ventricular tachyarrhythmias on admission from 2002 to 2016. Patients with hypokalemia (i.e., K < 3.3 mmol/L), normokalemia (i.e., K 3.3-4.5 mmol/L), and hyperkalemia (i.e., K > 4.5 mmol/L) were compared applying multi-variable Cox regression models and propensity-score matching for evaluation of the primary endpoint of all-cause mortality at 3 years. Secondary endpoints were early cardiac death at 24 h, in-hospital death, death at 30 days, as well as the composite endpoint of early cardiac death at 24 h, recurrences of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, and appropriate ICD therapies at 3 years. RESULTS: In 1990 consecutive patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias, 63% of the patients presented with normokalemia, 30% with hyperkalemia, and 7% with hypokalemia. After propensity matching, both hypokalemic (HR = 1.545; 95% CI 0.970-2.459; p = 0.067) and hyperkalemic patients (HR = 1.371; 95% CI 1.094-1.718; p = 0.006) were associated with the primary endpoint of all-cause mortality at 3 years compared to normokalemic patients. Hyperkalemia was associated with even worse prognosis directly compared to hypokalemia (HR = 1.496; 95% CI 1.002-2.233; p = 0.049). In contrast, potassium measurements were not associated with the composite endpoint at 3 years. CONCLUSION: In patients presenting with ventricular tachyarrhythmias, normokalemia was associated with best short- and long-term survival, whereas hyperkalemia and hypokalemia were associated with increased mortality at 30 days and at 3 years.

4.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interventional left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) effectively prevents thromboembolic events in atrial fibrillation patients. Impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) increases not only the thromboembolic risk but also the complication rates of cardiac interventions. The LAAC procedure's benefit in patients with an impaired LVEF, therefore, has yet to be investigated. METHODS: LAARGE is a prospective, non-randomized registry depicting the clinical reality of LAAC in Germany. Procedure was conducted with different standard commercial devices, and follow-up period was one year. In the sense of an as-treated analysis, patients with started procedure and documented LVEF were selected from the whole database. RESULTS: 619 patients from 37 centers were categorized into one of three groups: LVEF > 55% (56%), 36-55% (36%), and ≤ 35% (8%). Prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidity increased with LVEF reduction (p < 0.001 for trend). CHA2DS2-VASc score was 4.3, 4.8, and 5.1 (p < 0.001), and HAS-BLED score was 3.7, 4.1, and 4.2 (p < 0.001). Implantation success was consistently high (97.9%), rates of intra-hospital MACCE (0.5%), and other major complications (4.2%) were low (each p = NS). Kaplan-Meier estimation showed a decrease in survival free of stroke with LVEF reduction during one-year follow-up (89.3 vs. 87.0 vs. 79.8%; p = 0.067), a trend which was no longer evident after adjustment for relevant confounding factors. Rates of non-fatal strokes (0.4 vs. 1.1 vs. 0%) and severe bleedings (0.7 vs. 0.0 vs. 3.1%) were consistently low across all groups (each p = NS). CONCLUSIONS: LVEF reduction neither influenced the procedural success nor the effectiveness and safety of stroke prevention by LAAC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02230748.

5.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased complication rate after cardiac interventions. Although CKD has a high prevalence among atrial fibrillation patients, the impact of CKD on periprocedural complications and the outcome after an interventional left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) is unclear. The present study, therefore, aimed to investigate whether CKD influences the procedure's effectiveness and safety. METHODS: LAARGE is a prospective, non-randomised registry. LAAC was conducted with different standard commercial devices, and the follow-up period was one year. CKD was defined by an eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and subgroups were further analysed (i.e. eGFR < 15, 15-29, and 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively). RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-nine of 623 patients (48.0%) revealed a CKD. The prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidity, CHA2DS2-VASc score (4.9 vs. 4.2), and HAS-BLED score (4.3 vs. 3.5) was significantly higher in CKD patients (each p < 0.001). Implantation success was similarly high across all GFR groups (97.9%). Periprocedural MACCE (0.7 vs. 0.3%), and other major complications (4.7 vs. 3.7%) were comparably infrequent. Survival free of stroke was significantly lower among CKD patients within 1 year (82.0 vs. 93.0%; p < 0.001; consistent after adjustment for confounding factors), without significant accentuation in advanced CKD (i.e. eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2; p > 0.05 vs. eGFR 30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2). Non-fatal strokes were absolutely infrequent during follow-up (0 vs. 1.1%). Severe non-fatal bleedings were observed only among CKD patients (1.4 vs. 0%; p = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: Despite an increased cardiovascular risk profile of CKD patients, device implantation was safe, and LAAC was associated with effective stroke prevention across all CKD stages.

6.
Cardiology ; : 294-304, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the impact of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on recurrences of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in recipients of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). BACKGROUND: Data regarding recurrences of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in ICD recipients according to LVEF is limited. METHODS: A large retrospective registry was used, including all consecutive ICD recipients with episodes of ventricular tachycardia (VT) or fibrillation (VF) from 2002 to 2016. Patients with LVEF <35% were compared to patients with LVEF ≥35%. The primary end point was first recurrences of ventricular tachyarrhythmias at 5 years. Secondary end points were ICD-related therapies, rehospitalization, and all-cause mortality at 5 years. Cox regression, Kaplan Meier, and propensity score matching analyses were applied. RESULTS: A total of 528 consecutive ICD recipients were included (51% with LVEF ≥35% and 49% with LVEF <35%). LVEF <35% was associated with reduced freedom from recurrent ventricular tachyarrhythmias (40 vs. 49%, log rank p = 0.014; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.381; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.066-1.788; p = 0.034), mainly attributed to recurrent sustained VT in primary preventive ICD recipients. Accordingly, LVEF <35% was associated with reduced freedom from first appropriate ICD therapies (28 vs. 41%, log rank p = 0.001; HR = 1.810; 95% CI 1.185-2.766; p = 0.001). Finally, LVEF <35% was associated with a higher rate of rehospitalization (23 vs. 34%; p = 0.005) and all-cause mortality at 5 years (13 vs. 29%; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: LVEF <35% was associated with reduced freedom from recurrent ventricular tachyarrhythmias, appropriate device therapies, rehospitalization and all-cause mortality secondary to index ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

7.
J Thorac Imaging ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251234

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study, we analyzed the prognostic value of coronary computed tomography angiography-derived morphologic and quantitative plaque markers and plaque scores for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the data of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Various plaque markers were obtained using a semiautomated software prototype or derived from the results of the software analysis. Several risk scores were calculated, and follow-up data concerning MACE were collected from all patients. RESULTS: A total of 131 patients (65±12 y, 73% male) were included in our study. MACE occurred in 11 patients within the follow-up period of 34±25 months.CAD-Reporting and Data System score (odds ratio [OR]=11.62), SYNTAX score (SS) (OR=1.11), Leiden-risk score (OR=1.37), segment involvement score (OR=1.76), total plaque volume (OR=1.20), and percentage aggregated plaque volume (OR=1.32) were significant predictors for MACE (all P≤0.05). Moreover, the difference of the corrected coronary opacification (ΔCCO) correlated significantly with the occurrence of MACE (P<0.0001). The CAD-Reporting and Data System score, SS, and Leiden-risk score showed substantial sensitivity for predicting MACE (90.9%). The SS and Leiden-risk score displayed high specificities of 80.8% and 77.5%, respectively. These plaque markers and risk scores all provided high negative predictive value (>90%). CONCLUSION: The coronary computed tomography angiography-derived plaque markers of segment involvement score, total plaque volume, percentage aggregated plaque volume, and ΔCCO, and the risk scores exhibited predictive value for the occurrence of MACE and can likely aid in identifying patients at risk for future cardiac events.

8.
Future Cardiol ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186406

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is one of the most common reasons for hospital admission in western countries. The measurement of the left ventricular ejection fraction is essential for the classification of HF and deciding on HF treatment. The treatment of HF has been improved in both diagnostic and therapeutic fields over the past two decades. The angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor decreased the cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction. Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) improves the imbalance between renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and natriuretic peptide systems. We present the clinical efficacy, real-world experience, safety and tolerability, the relevance of etiology of cardiomyopathy, and gender differences and regulatory affairs of LCZ696 in the treatment of patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction.

9.
J Electrocardiol ; 59: 174-180, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179288

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study sought to assess the impact of ischemic (ICMP) compared to non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICMP) on recurrences of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) recipients. BACKGROUND: Data comparing recurrences of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in ICD recipients with ischemic or non-ischemic cardiomyopathy is limited. METHODS: A large retrospective registry was used including all consecutive ICD recipients with first episodes of ventricular tachycardia (VT) or fibrillation (VF) from 2002 to 2016. Patients with ICMP were compared to patients with NICMP. The primary prognostic endpoint was first recurrences of ventricular tachyarrhythmias at one year. Secondary endpoints comprised ICD-related therapies, rehospitalization and all-cause mortality at one year. Statistics Kaplan-Meier survival and multivariable Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 387 consecutive ICD recipients were included retrospectively (ICMP: 82%, NICMP: 18%). At one year of follow-up, freedom from first recurrences of ventricular tachyarrhythmias was lower in NICMP (81% vs. 71%, log-rank p = 0.063; HR = 1.760; 95% CI 0.985-3.002; p = 0.080), mainly attributed to higher rates of sustained VT (20% versus 12%, p = 0.054). Accordingly, freedom from first appropriate device therapies was lower in NICMP (74% vs. 85%, log rank p = 0.004; HR = 1.951; 95% CI 1.121-3.397; p = 0.028), especially in patients with sustained VT or VF at index. Both groups revealed comparable rates of rehospitalization and all-cause mortality at one year. CONCLUSION: NICMP was associated with higher rates of recurrent ventricular tachyarrhythmias and appropriate ICD therapies compared to ICMP at one year of follow-up, whereas rates of rehospitalization and all-cause mortality were comparable. CONDENSED ABSTRACT: This study retrospectively compared the impact of cardiomyopathy types (ICMP versus NICMP) on recurrences of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in 387 ICD recipients. Freedom from first episodes of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and first appropriate device therapies were lower in patients with NICMP compared to ICMP.

10.
In Vivo ; 34(2): 889-896, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Despite advances in the treatment strategies of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), the risk of AF recurrences is still over 50%. An increased left atrial volume index (LAVI) reflects left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (DD) and deterioration of the LA function. This study aims to determine AF recurrence following cardioversion (CV) or catheter ablation for AF (pulmonary vein isolation; PVI) in dependence of DD and LAVI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and sixty-two patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF in whom either CV or PVI were performed were included and followed over a mean of 22.9±3.8 months. Recurrence was defined as any recurrence of AF that occurred 3 months following the procedure. DD and LAVI were assessed using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). RESULTS: Recurrent AF occurred in 100 (61.7%) patients, predominantly following CV [CV 41 (76.2%) vs. PVI 59 (54.6%), p<0.0001]. Both DD and an increased LAVI were more common in the recurrence-group [DD 46.0% vs. 14.5%, p=0.0001; LAVI (ml/m2) 49.0±18.6 vs. 26.3±7.0, p<0.0001]. ROC analysis revealed LAVI>36 ml/m2 as cut-off (p<0.0001, AUC=0.92, 95%CI=0.87-0.97, sensitivity=76%, specificity=94%). In the multivariate analysis, DD (HR=1.6, 95%CI=1.3-2.1, p=0.04) and LA enlargement (defined as LAVI>36 ml/m2 with HR=2.1, 95%CI=1.8-2.7, p<0.0001) could be identified as independent predictors of AF recurrence after attempting to control the heart rhythm. CONCLUSION: LA enlargement and DD are independent risk factors associated with AF recurrence after initial successful rhythm control attempt. These findings have implications for timing of either ablation or CV.

11.
Clin Lab ; 66(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only few data evaluating the prognostic impact of blood-derived potassium levels (K) on arrhythmic endpoints in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) is available. Therefore, this study evaluates the prognostic impact of potassium levels on recurrences of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in consecutive ICD recipients. METHODS: A large retrospective registry was used including all consecutive patients presenting with ventricular tachyarrhythmias on admission from 2002 to 2016 at one institution. Patients were divided into three subgroups: hypokalemia (i.e., K < 3.3 mmol/L), normokalemia (i.e., K 3.3 - 4.5 mmol/L), and hyperkalemia (i.e., K > 4.5 mmol/L). Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were applied for the evaluation of the primary endpoint of first recurrences of ventricular tachyarrhythmias at one year. Secondary endpoints comprised of first appropriate ICD therapy, first cardiac rehospitalization, and all-cause mortality at one year. RESULTS: Five hundred and thirty ICD recipients with a median potassium level of 4.23 mmol/L were included (67%: normokalemia, 27%: hyperkalemia, and 6%: hypokalemia). Whereas hyperkalemia was not associated with increasing risk of recurrent ventricular tachyarrhythmias, hypokalemia was associated with decreasing freedom from recurrent ventricular tachyarrhythmias (HR = 2.135; 95% CI 1.158 - 3.937; p = 0.015), even after mul-tivariable adjustment (HR = 2.577; 95% CI 1.236 - 5.372; p = 0.012). Higher risk of recurrences was especially attributed to higher rates of electrical storm in the presence of hypokalemia (15% vs. 3 - 4%). Negative impact of hypokalemia was mainly attributed to secondary preventive ICD (HR = 2.637; 95% CI 1.325 - 5.248; p = 0.006). Moreover, hypokalemia was associated with increasing risk of appropriate ICD therapies (HR = 1.920; 95% CI 0.912 - 4.042; statistical trend: p = 0.086), which was still demonstrated after multivariable adjustment. In contrast, risk of first cardiac rehospitalization and all-cause mortality were not affected by potassium levels. CONCLUSIONS: In consecutive ICD recipients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias at index, hypokalemia - but not hyperkalemia - was associated with increasing risk of recurrent ventricular tachyarrhythmias and appropriate ICD therapies.

12.
J Clin Med ; 9(4)2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218223

RESUMO

Background: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a rare inherited disorder causing life-threatening arrhythmias. Long-term outcome studies of the channelopathy are limited. Objective: The aim of the present study was to summarize our knowledge on CPVT patients, including the clinical profile treatment approach and long-term outcome. Methods: In this single center study, we retrospectively and prospectively collected data from nine CPVT patients and analyzed them. Results: We reviewed nine patients with CPVT in seven families (22% male), with a median follow-up time of 8.6 years. Mean age at diagnosis was 26.4 12 years. Symptoms at admission were syncope (four patients) and aborted cardiac arrest (four patients). Family history of sudden cardiac death was screened in five patients. In genetic analyses, we found five patients with ryanodine type 2 receptor (RYR2) mutations. Seven patients were treated with beta-blockers, and if symptoms persisted flecainide was added (four patients). Despite beta-blocker treatment, three patients suffered from seven adverse cardiac events. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator was implanted in seven patients (one primary, six secondary prevention). Over the follow-up period, three patients suffered from ventricular tachycardia (ten times) and five patients from ventricular fibrillation (nine times). No one died during follow-up. Conclusion: Our CPVT cohort showed a high risk of cardiac events. Family screening, optimal medical therapy and individualized treatment are necessary in affected patients in referral centers.

13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1527, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001782

RESUMO

Ventilation heterogeneity is frequent in bronchial asthma and can be assessed using multiple breath wash-out testing (MBW). Most data is available in paediatric patients and using nitrogen as a tracer gas. We aimed to evaluate sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) MBW in adult asthmatics. Spirometry, whole-body plethysmography, impulse oscillometry and SF6-MBW were prospectively performed. MBW parameters reflecting global (lung clearance index, LCI), acinar (Sacin) and conductive (Scond) ventilation heterogeneity were derived from three consecutive wash-outs. LCI was calculated for the traditional 2.5% and an earlier 5% stopping point that has the potential to reduce wash-out times. 91 asthmatics (66%) and 47 non-asthmatic controls (34%) were included in final analysis. LCI2.5 and LCI5 were higher in asthmatics (p < 0.001). Likewise, Sacin and Scond were elevated (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). Coefficient of variation was 3.4% for LCI2.5 and 3.5% for LCI5 in asthmatics. Forty-one asthmatic patients had normal spirometry. ROC analysis revealed an AUC of 0.906 for the differentiation from non-asthmatic controls exceeding diagnostic performance of individual and conventional parameters (AUC = 0.819, p < 0.05). SF6-MBW is feasible and reproducible in adult asthmatics. Ventilation heterogeneity is increased as compared to non-asthmatic controls persisting in asthmatic patients with normal spirometry. Diagnostic performance is not affected using an earlier LCI stopping point while reducing wash-out duration considerably.

14.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(5): 1009-1018, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vest Prevention of Early Sudden Death Trial did not demonstrate a significant reduction in arrhythmic death with the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD), but compliance with the device may have substantially affected the results. ThePletcher influence of WCD compliance on outcomes has not yet been fully evaluated. METHODS: Using linear and pooled logistic models, we performed as-treated analyses omitting person-time in the hospital and adjusted for correlates of WCD compliance. To assess the impact of early stopping of WCD, we performed a per-protocol Kaplan-Meier analysis, censoring after the last day the WCD was worn. Interactions of potential effect modifiers with treatment assignment and WCD compliance on outcomes were investigated. Finally, we used linear models to identify predictors of WCD compliance. RESULTS: A per-protocol analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in total (P < .001) and arrhythmic (P = .001) mortality. Better WCD compliance was independently predicted by cardiac arrest during index myocardial infarction (MI), higher Cr, diabetes, prior heart failure, EF ≤ 25%, Polish enrolling center and number of WCD alarms, while worse compliance was predicted by being divorced, Asian race, higher body mass index, prior percutaneous coronary intervention, or any WCD shock. Neither excluding time in hospital from the as-treated analysis nor adjustment for factors affecting WCD compliance materially changed the results. No variable demonstrated a significant interaction in either the intention-to-treat or as-treated analysis. CONCLUSION: Robust sensitivity analyses of as-treated and per-protocol analyses suggest that the WCD is protective in compliant patients with ejection fraction less than or equal to 35% during the first 3 months post-MI.

15.
Radiother Oncol ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: No evidence has been presented until now whether recommendations given in recently issued guidelines concerning CIED-bearing patients significantly decrease RT-related complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 160 RT-cases were prospectively treated with 3D-CRT, IMRT, SBRT using exclusively 6 MV photons (n = 146) and electrons (n = 14) according to the 2015 issued German DEGRO/DGK-guideline for CIED-bearing patients and compared to 40 RT-cases (3D-CRT, 10-23 MV photons (n = 39) and electrons (n = 1)) of CIED-bearing patients which were treated in concordance to the 1994 issued AAPM-guideline. RESULTS: With AAPM-recommendations, complications occurred in 7/39 (17.95%) photon-RT cases, one patient experienced inadequate defibrillation therapy. For all patients treated with photon energies between 6 and 23 MV, a relative risk for CIED failure if treated with > 6 MV was calculated to be 9.03 (95% CI 5.24-15.55). After implementation of the DEGRO/DGK guideline, no complications were noted in 147 cases treated with photons, even though CIED-doses were as high as 5.37 Gy. In 13 cases treated with electrons, one PM lost patient-related data in a patient receiving antiproliferative RT to mammary glands. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of the German DEGRO/DGK-guideline effectively prevented radiation-associated CIED failures in patients treated with photons. Limitation of photon energy to 6 MV, suspension of defibrillation therapy in ICDs, surveillance of patients according to risk stratification and avoidance of direct irradiation of CIEDs should become standard of care.

16.
Europace ; 22(5): 761-768, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106296

RESUMO

AIMS: Inappropriate shocks (IAS) remain a challenge for patients and physicians after implantation of the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD). The aims were to assess and characterize different patterns of IAS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-nine patients were implanted with an S-ICD between 2010 and 2018 for primary and secondary prevention. Follow-up data of at least 6 months were analysed. During a mean follow-up of 34.9 ± 16.0 months, a total of 73 shocks occurred in 38 patients (6%). Forty-three (59%) shocks were considered appropriate due to ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation, while 30 (41%) were inappropriate and occurred in 19 patients (8%). Myopotentials/noise was the most frequent cause of inappropriate shocks (n = 8), followed by T-wave oversensing (n = 6) and undersensing of the QRS, resulting in adaptation of the automatic gain control and inappropriate shock (n = 5). Seventy-four percent of all IAS occurred on the primary vector, while no IAS occurred on the alternate vector. In seven of eight patients (88%), IAS related to myopotentials have occurred on the primary sensing vector. Multivariate analysis identified taller patients, primary sensing vector and first-generation S-ICD device as predictors for IAS. SMART pass effectively reduced the occurrence of IAS in the second-generation S-ICD system. CONCLUSION: Inappropriate therapies are less frequently observed on the alternate vector. The primary vector seems to be unfavourable with regard to oversensing caused by myopotentials. Inappropriate shocks were associated with an increased rate of rehospitalization but not mortality. These observations have implications for the prevention of inappropriate S-ICD shocks.

17.
J Electrocardiol ; 59: 100-105, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of death and disability. Conventional non-invasive diagnostic modalities for the detection of stable CAD at rest are subject to significant limitations: low sensitivity, and personal expertise. We aimed to develop a reliable and time-cost efficient screening tool for the detection of coronary ischemia using machine learning. METHODS: We developed a supervised artificial intelligence algorithm combined with a five lead vectorcardiography (VCG) approach (i.e. Cardisiography, CSG) for the diagnosis of CAD. Using vectorcardiography, the excitation process of the heart can be described as a three-dimensional signal. A diagnosis can be received, by first, calculating specific physical parameters from the signal, and subsequently, analyzing them with a machine learning algorithm containing neuronal networks. In this multi-center analysis, the primary evaluated outcome was the accuracy of the CSG Diagnosis System, validated by a five-fold nested cross-validation in comparison to angiographic findings as the gold standard. Individuals with 1, 2, or 3- vessel disease were defined as being affected. RESULTS: Of the 595 patients, 62·0% (n = 369) had 1, 2 or 3- vessel disease identified by coronary angiography. CSG identified a CAD at rest with a sensitivity of 90·2 ± 4·2% for female patients (male: 97·2 ± 3·1%), specificity of 74·4 ± 9·8% (male: 76·1 ± 8·5%), and overall accuracy of 82·5 ± 6·4% (male: 90·7 ± 3·3%). CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that supervised artificial intelligence-enabled vectorcardiography can overcome limitations of conventional non-invasive diagnostic modalities for the detection of coronary ischemia at rest and is capable as a highly valid screening tool.

18.
Radiother Oncol ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Providing evidence for radiotherapy (RT)-induced effects on cardiac implantable electric devices (CIEDs) with focus on flattening filter free-volumetric modulated arc therapy (FFF-VMAT) at 6 and 10 MV as well as 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) at 18 MV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 68 CIEDs (64 implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and 4 cardiac pacemakers (PMs)) were located on the left chest position on a slab phantom and irradiated under telemetrical surveillance either directly, or distant to 3D-CRT or FFF-VMAT, dose-rate 2500 cGy/min, and target dose of 150 Gy. Devices were placed within, close by (2.5 cm and 5 cm), and distant (35 cm) to the radiation field. Scatter radiation (SR) and photon neutrons (PN) were recorded. CIEDs were investigated in following groups: 1a) 18 MV 3D-CRT - 4 ICDs/4 PMs out of radiation field, 1b) 18 MV open field - 4 ICDs/4 PMs within radiation field, 2) 6 MV FFF-VMAT, 15 ICDs in 35 cm distance to VMAT, 3) 10 MV-FFF VMAT, 15 ICDs in 35 cm distance to VMAT, 4) 6 MV FFF-VMAT, 15 ICDs in 2.5 cm distance to VMAT, 5) 10 MV FFF-VMAT, 15 ICDs in 2.5 cm distance to VMAT. RESULTS: No incidents occurred at 6 MV FFF. 10 MV FFF-VMAT and 18 MV 3D-CRT resulted in data loss, reset, and erroneous sensing with inhibition of pacing (leading to inadequate defibrillation) in 8/34 ICDs and 2/4 PMs which were not located within radiation. Direct radiation triggered instantaneous defibrillation in 3/4 ICDs. CONCLUSIONS: 6 MV FFF-VMAT is safe even at high dose-rates of 2500 cGy/min, regardless whether CIEDs are located close (2.5 cm) or distant (35 cm) to the radiation beam. CIEDs should never be placed within radiation and energy should always be limited to 6 MV. At 6 MV, VMAT at high dose-rates can be used to treat tumors, which are located close to CIEDs.

19.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(3): 973-983, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991063

RESUMO

AIMS: Treating patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) presenting with volume overload is a common task. However, optimal guidance of decongesting therapy and treatment targets are not well defined. The inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter and its collapsibility can be used to estimate right atrial pressure, which is a measure of right-sided haemodynamic congestion. The CAVA-ADHF-DZHK10 trial is designed to test the hypothesis that ultrasound assessment of the IVC in addition to clinical assessment improves decongestion as compared with clinical assessment alone. METHODS AND RESULTS: CAVA-ADHF-DZHK10 is a randomized, controlled, patient-blinded, multicentre, parallel-group trial randomly assigning 388 patients with ADHF to either decongesting therapy guided by ultrasound assessment of the IVC in addition to clinical assessment or clinical assessment alone. IVC ultrasound will be performed daily between baseline and hospital discharge in all patients. However, ultrasound results will only be reported to treating physicians in the intervention group. Treatment target is relief of congestion-related signs and symptoms in both groups with the additional goal to reduce the IVC diameter ≤21 mm and increase IVC collapsibility >50% in the intervention group. The primary endpoint is change in N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide from baseline to hospital discharge. Secondary endpoints evaluate feasibility, efficacy of decongestion on other scales, and the impact of the intervention on clinical endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: CAVA-ADHF-DZHK10 will investigate whether IVC ultrasound supplementing clinical assessment improves decongestion in patients admitted for ADHF.

20.
Vasa ; 49(1): 63-71, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483747

RESUMO

Background: With growing prevalence, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as well as critical limb ischemia (CLI) are both conditions associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Patients and methods: A retrospective single-centre study provided data of a German interdisciplinary vascular centre. Seventy-seven consecutive haemodialysis (HD) inpatients (median age, 73.6 years) with 91 threatened limbs with Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) clinical stage 3 or 4 were evaluated for in-hospital treatment of peripheral arterial disease, limb salvage rates, major amputation (MA)-free and overall survival. Results: The 1-year MA-free limb salvage rate was 82 %. On multivariate analysis, a higher WIfI clinical stage (hazard ratio [HR], 7.54; p = 0.008) indicated a higher risk of MA, while at least one-vessel run-off to the foot after revascularization of any kind was associated with a lower risk of MA (HR, 0.17; p = 0.001). In the composite endpoint analysis, the 1-year MA-free overall survival rate was 65 %. Patients with limbs in WIfI clinical stage 4 versus stage 3 carried a more than two-fold increased hazard of death or MA (HR, 2.63; p = 0.028), while revascularization was associated with reduced risk (HR, 0.40; p = 0.021). One-year overall survival (78 %) was not associated with WIfI stage or revascularization but was worse in patients with previous symptomatic coronary artery disease (HR, 3.25; p = 0.039). During long-term follow-up over 12 years, MA-free survival probability was significantly lower in the WIfI stage 4 versus WIfI stage 3 group (HR, 1.58; p = 0.048) without significant differences in overall survival (HR, 1.10; p = 0.696). Conclusions: Lower-extremity CLI with tissue loss in HD patients is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. WIfI clinical stage was predictive of 1-year MA-free survival, while revascularization significantly reduced MA risk but did not influence overall survival.


Assuntos
Infecção dos Ferimentos , Idoso , Amputação , Humanos , Isquemia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Salvamento de Membro , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Diálise Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Cicatrização
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