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2.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 380(2233): 20210299, 2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35965467

RESUMO

We report on an ongoing collaboration between epidemiological modellers and visualization researchers by documenting and reflecting upon knowledge constructs-a series of ideas, approaches and methods taken from existing visualization research and practice-deployed and developed to support modelling of the COVID-19 pandemic. Structured independent commentary on these efforts is synthesized through iterative reflection to develop: evidence of the effectiveness and value of visualization in this context; open problems upon which the research communities may focus; guidance for future activity of this type and recommendations to safeguard the achievements and promote, advance, secure and prepare for future collaborations of this kind. In describing and comparing a series of related projects that were undertaken in unprecedented conditions, our hope is that this unique report, and its rich interactive supplementary materials, will guide the scientific community in embracing visualization in its observation, analysis and modelling of data as well as in disseminating findings. Equally we hope to encourage the visualization community to engage with impactful science in addressing its emerging data challenges. If we are successful, this showcase of activity may stimulate mutually beneficial engagement between communities with complementary expertise to address problems of significance in epidemiology and beyond. See https://ramp-vis.github.io/RAMPVIS-PhilTransA-Supplement/. This article is part of the theme issue 'Technical challenges of modelling real-life epidemics and examples of overcoming these'.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos
3.
Epidemics ; 39: 100574, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617882

RESUMO

Uncertainty quantification is a formal paradigm of statistical estimation that aims to account for all uncertainties inherent in the modelling process of real-world complex systems. The methods are directly applicable to stochastic models in epidemiology, however they have thus far not been widely used in this context. In this paper, we provide a tutorial on uncertainty quantification of stochastic epidemic models, aiming to facilitate the use of the uncertainty quantification paradigm for practitioners with other complex stochastic simulators of applied systems. We provide a formal workflow including the important decisions and considerations that need to be taken, and illustrate the methods over a simple stochastic epidemic model of UK SARS-CoV-2 transmission and patient outcome. We also present new approaches to visualisation of outputs from sensitivity analyses and uncertainty quantification more generally in high input and/or output dimensions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Calibragem , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Incerteza
4.
IEEE Comput Graph Appl ; 41(6): 7-12, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890313

RESUMO

The increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies across application domains has prompted our society to pay closer attention to AI's trustworthiness, fairness, interpretability, and accountability. In order to foster trust in AI, it is important to consider the potential of interactive visualization, and how such visualizations help build trust in AI systems. This manifesto discusses the relevance of interactive visualizations and makes the following four claims: i) trust is not a technical problem, ii) trust is dynamic, iii) visualization cannot address all aspects of trust, and iv) visualization is crucial for human agency in AI.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Confiança , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social
5.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 22(1): 549-58, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26390489

RESUMO

Collecting sensor data results in large temporal data sets which need to be visualized, analyzed, and presented. Onedimensional time-series charts are used, but these present problems when screen resolution is small in comparison to the data. This can result in severe over-plotting, giving rise for the requirement to provide effective rendering and methods to allow interaction with the detailed data. Common solutions can be categorized as multi-scale representations, frequency based, and lens based interaction techniques. In this paper, we comparatively evaluate existing methods, such as Stack Zoom [15] and ChronoLenses [38], giving a graphical overview of each and classifying their ability to explore and interact with data. We propose new visualizations and other extensions to the existing approaches. We undertake and report an empirical study and a field study using these techniques.

6.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 20(12): 2261-70, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26356940

RESUMO

In this paper we introduce Order of Magnitude Markers (OOMMs) as a new technique for number representation. The motivation for this work is that many data sets require the depiction and comparison of numbers that have varying orders of magnitude. Existing techniques for representation use bar charts, plots and colour on linear or logarithmic scales. These all suffer from related problems. There is a limit to the dynamic range available for plotting numbers, and so the required dynamic range of the plot can exceed that of the depiction method. When that occurs, resolving, comparing and relating values across the display becomes problematical or even impossible for the user. With this in mind, we present an empirical study in which we compare logarithmic, linear, scale-stack bars and our new markers for 11 different stimuli grouped into 4 different tasks across all 8 marker types.

7.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 19(7): 1228-41, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23661013

RESUMO

Natural image statistics is an important area of research in cognitive sciences and computer vision. Visualization of statistical results can help identify clusters and anomalies as well as analyze deviation, distribution, and correlation. Furthermore, they can provide visual abstractions and symbolism for categorized data. In this paper, we begin our study of visualization of image statistics by considering visual representations of power spectra, which are commonly used to visualize different categories of images. We show that they convey a limited amount of statistical information about image categories and their support for analytical tasks is ineffective. We then introduce several new visual representations, which convey different or more information about image statistics. We apply ANOVA to the image statistics to help select statistically more meaningful measurements in our design process. A task-based user evaluation was carried out to compare the new visual representations with the conventional power spectra plots. Based on the results of the evaluation, we made further improvement of visualizations by introducing composite visual representations of image statistics.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto Jovem
8.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 16(6): 963-72, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20975133

RESUMO

Pixel-based visualization is a popular method of conveying large amounts of numerical data graphically. Application scenarios include business and finance, bioinformatics and remote sensing. In this work, we examined how the usability of such visual representations varied across different tasks and block resolutions. The main stimuli consisted of temporal pixel-based visualization with a white-red color map, simulating monthly temperature variation over a six-year period. In the first study, we included 5 separate tasks to exert different perceptual loads. We found that performance varied considerably as a function of task, ranging from 75% correct in low-load tasks to below 40% in high-load tasks. There was a small but consistent effect of resolution, with the uniform patch improving performance by around 6% relative to higher block resolution. In the second user study, we focused on a high-load task for evaluating month-to-month changes across different regions of the temperature range. We tested both CIE L*u*v* and RGB color spaces. We found that the nature of the change-evaluation errors related directly to the distance between the compared regions in the mapped color space. We were able to reduce such errors by using multiple color bands for the same data range. In a final study, we examined more fully the influence of block resolution on performance, and found block resolution had a limited impact on the effectiveness of pixel-based visualization.

9.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 12(5): 973-80, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17080824

RESUMO

The pipeline model in visualization has evolved from a conceptual model of data processing into a widely used architecture for implementing visualization systems. In the process, a number of capabilities have been introduced, including streaming of data in chunks, distributed pipelines, and demand-driven processing. Visualization systems have invariably built on stateful programming technologies, and these capabilities have had to be implemented explicitly within the lower layers of a complex hierarchy of services. The good news for developers is that applications built on top of this hierarchy can access these capabilities without concern for how they are implemented. The bad news is that by freezing capabilities into low-level services expressive power and flexibility is lost. In this paper we express visualization systems in a programming language that more naturally supports this kind of processing model. Lazy functional languages support fine-grained demand-driven processing, a natural form of streaming, and pipeline-like function composition for assembling applications. The technology thus appears well suited to visualization applications. Using surface extraction algorithms as illustrative examples, and the lazy functional language Haskell, we argue the benefits of clear and concise expression combined with fine-grained, demand-driven computation. Just as visualization provides insight into data, functional abstraction provides new insight into visualization.

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