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1.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(9): 1929-1937, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465695

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Linaclotide improves abdominal pain and constipation in patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). Patients report additional bothersome abdominal symptoms of bloating and discomfort. The intention of this study was to evaluate linaclotide's efficacy in relieving IBS-C-related abdominal symptoms (bloating, discomfort, and pain) using a novel multi-item Abdominal Score (AS). METHODS: Patients with IBS-C with abdominal pain ≥3 (0-10 scale) were randomized to linaclotide 290 µg or placebo daily for 12 weeks. The AS, derived from the Diary for IBS Symptoms-Constipation, is the average of abdominal bloating, discomfort, and pain at their worst (0 = none, 10 = worst possible). The primary end point was overall change from baseline (CFB) in AS. Secondary end points included CFB in 12-week AS evaluated using cumulative distribution function and 6-week/12-week AS responder (AS improvement ≥2 points for ≥6-week/12-week). RESULTS: Overall, 614 patients (mean age 46.7 years; 81% female) were randomized. All prespecified end points showed significant benefit of linaclotide vs placebo. The mean overall CFB AS reduction for linaclotide was -1.9 vs -1.2 for placebo (P < 0.0001); the 6-week/12-week AS responder rate was 40.5% for linaclotide vs 23.4% for placebo (odds ratio = 2.2 [95% confidence interval, 1.55-3.12; P < 0.0001]). Diarrhea was the most common treatment-emergent adverse event (linaclotide = 4.6%, placebo = 1.6%). DISCUSSION: Linaclotide significantly reduced multiple abdominal symptoms important to patients with IBS-C (bloating, discomfort, and pain) compared with placebo, as measured by a novel multi-item AS. The AS, derived from the Diary for IBS Symptoms-Constipation, should be considered for use in future IBS-C clinical studies to measure clinically meaningful improvements beyond traditional end points.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Agonistas da Guanilil Ciclase C/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(2): 354-361, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065589

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immediate-release (IR) formulation of linaclotide 290 µg improves abdominal pain and constipation (APC) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with constipation. Delayed-release (DR) formulations were developed on the premise that targeting the ileum (delayed-release formulation 1 [DR1]) or ileocecal junction and cecum (MD-7246, formerly DR2) would modulate linaclotide's secretory effects while preserving pain relief effects. METHODS: This phase 2b study randomized patients with IBS with constipation to placebo or 1 of 7 once-daily linaclotide doses (DR1 30, 100, or 300 µg; MD-7246 30, 100, or 300 µg; or IR 290 µg) for 12 weeks. Key efficacy endpoints were change from baseline in abdominal pain and complete spontaneous bowel movement frequency, and 6/12-week combined APC+1 responder rate. RESULTS: Overall, 532 patients were randomized; mean age was 45.1 years, and most were women (83.3%) and White (64.7%). All linaclotide DR1 and MD-7246 groups experienced greater improvements in abdominal pain from baseline and vs placebo throughout treatment. Linaclotide DR1 and IR led to numerically greater improvements from baseline in complete spontaneous bowel movement frequency and higher APC+1 responder rates compared with placebo; MD-7246 results were similar to placebo. Diarrhea was the most common adverse event with DR1 and IR; rates were similar between MD-7246 and placebo. DISCUSSION: Altering the site of drug delivery in the intestine might uncouple linaclotide's pain relief from secretory effects. Persistent, modest abdominal pain improvement with limited impact on bowel symptom parameters, as seen across MD-7246 doses, warrants further study of MD-7246 as a novel treatment for abdominal pain, regardless of IBS subtype.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Agonistas da Guanilil Ciclase C/administração & dosagem , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Dor Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Defecação , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
J Clin Oncol ; 33(7): 723-31, 2015 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25624429

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Orteronel (TAK-700) is an investigational, nonsteroidal, reversible, selective 17,20-lyase inhibitor. This study examined orteronel in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that progressed after docetaxel therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In our study, 1,099 men were randomly assigned in a 2:1 schedule to receive orteronel 400 mg plus prednisone 5 mg twice daily or placebo plus prednisone 5 mg twice daily, stratified by region (Europe, North America [NA], and non-Europe/NA) and Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form worst pain score. Primary end point was overall survival (OS). Key secondary end points (radiographic progression-free survival [rPFS], ≥ 50% decrease of prostate-specific antigen [PSA50], and pain response at 12 weeks) were to undergo statistical testing only if the primary end point analysis was significant. RESULTS: The study was unblinded after crossing a prespecified OS futility boundary. The median OS was 17.0 months versus 15.2 months with orteronel-prednisone versus placebo-prednisone (hazard ratio [HR], 0.886; 95% CI, 0.739 to 1.062; P = .190). Improved rPFS was observed with orteronel-prednisone (median, 8.3 v 5.7 months; HR, 0.760; 95% CI, 0.653 to 0.885; P < .001). Orteronel-prednisone showed advantages over placebo-prednisone in PSA50 rate (25% v 10%, P < .001) and time to PSA progression (median, 5.5 v 2.9 months, P < .001) but not pain response rate (12% v 9%; P = .128). Adverse events (all grades) were generally more frequent with orteronel-prednisone, including nausea (42% v 26%), vomiting (36% v 17%), fatigue (29% v 23%), and increased amylase (14% v 2%). CONCLUSION: Our study did not meet the primary end point of OS. Longer rPFS and a higher PSA50 rate with orteronel-prednisone indicate antitumor activity.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Docetaxel , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naftalenos/administração & dosagem , Naftalenos/efeitos adversos , Gradação de Tumores , América do Norte , Razão de Chances , Medição da Dor , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 53(11): 1121-30, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23939631

RESUMO

Ligands of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily and activin-receptor signaling play an important role in erythropoiesis. Sotatercept, an activin receptor type IIA (ActRIIA) ligand trap, is a novel, recombinant, fusion protein comprising the extracellular domain of human ActRIIA linked to the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G1. Sotatercept, originally developed to increase bone mineral density, was noted to have robust effects on erythropoiesis. Here, we evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetic properties, and pharmacodynamic effects of sotatercept in 31 healthy postmenopausal women. Sotatercept was administered at dose level 0.1, 0.3, or 1 mg/kg every 28 days subcutaneously for up to four doses. Sotatercept was generally safe and well tolerated, and elicited clinically significant, dose-dependent increases in hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell counts that persisted for up to 4 months. The effect of sotatercept on hemoglobin was dose-limiting. Sotatercept also increased bone mineral density and biomarkers of bone formation. The sotatercept serum exposure-dose relationship was linear, with a mean terminal half-life of approximately 23 days. ActRIIA ligands are important regulators of erythrocyte production in healthy individuals. Clinical studies are ongoing to explore the potential of sotatercept to treat anemia and diseases of ineffective erythropoiesis as well as an agent to increase bone mineral density.


Assuntos
Eritropoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Receptores de Activinas Tipo II , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Feminino , Hematócrito , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator de Transcrição PAX5/sangue , Pós-Menopausa , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacocinética
5.
Muscle Nerve ; 47(3): 416-23, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23169607

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: ACE-031 is a soluble form of activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB). ACE-031 promotes muscle growth by binding to myostatin and other negative regulators of muscle mass. METHODS: This double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ACE-031 in 48 healthy, postmenopausal women randomized to receive 1 dose of ACE-031 (0.02-3 mg/kg s.c.) or placebo (3:1). RESULTS: ACE-031 was generally well-tolerated. Adverse events included injection site erythema. Mean ACE-031 AUC(0-∞) and C(max) increased linearly with dose; mean T(½) was 10-15 days. Statistically significant increases in mean total body lean mass (3.3%; P = 0.03, by DXA) and thigh muscle volume (5.1%; P = 0.03, by MRI) were observed at day 29 in the 3 mg/kg group. Statistically significant changes in serum biomarkers suggest ACE-031 also improved bone and fat metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: Single-dose ACE-031 treatment was generally well-tolerated and resulted in increases in muscle mass in healthy postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/farmacologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Densidade Óssea , Estudos de Coortes , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Determinação de Ponto Final , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Soluções Farmacêuticas
6.
J Pediatr Urol ; 4(6): 428-33, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19013412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated long-term (> or =12 months) efficacy and safety of tolterodine in children with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Subjects successfully completed one of three 12-week, open-label studies and had stable neurologic disease and urodynamic evidence of neurogenic detrusor overactivity requiring intermittent catheterization. Drug formulation and dosing were based on age (4 months-4 years, tolterodine oral solution 0.2-2mg twice daily; 5-10 years, tolterodine oral solution 0.5-4 mg twice daily; 11-16 years, tolterodine extended-release capsules 2, 4, or 6 mg once daily). Daily doses were individualized for each subject. Efficacy was evaluated urodynamically and using parent-completed 3-day bladder diaries. RESULTS: Thirty subjects were enrolled. Functional bladder capacity (volume at first leakage, first sensation of bladder fullness or 40 cm H(2)O pressure) increased by month 12 in the younger age groups but not in the oldest subjects. Volume to first detrusor contraction >10 cm H(2)O pressure and detrusor leak point pressure did not change in any age group. The number of incontinence episodes per 24h decreased in all subjects, as did the number of catheterizations per 24h. Mean volume per catheterization increased in all subjects. Seven treatment-related adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Both tolterodine formulations were effective and well tolerated in children with neurogenic detrusor overactivity.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Cresóis/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Hipertonia Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Fenilpropanolamina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cresóis/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Hipertonia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Fenilpropanolamina/efeitos adversos , Tartarato de Tolterodina , Resultado do Tratamento , Bexiga Urinária/efeitos dos fármacos , Bexiga Urinária/fisiologia , Urodinâmica
7.
Eur Urol ; 52(5): 1511-6, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17574729

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term tolerability of tolterodine extended release (ER) in children (aged 5-11 yr) with urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). METHODS: This was a multicenter, open-label extension of a 12-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of tolterodine ER. Patients had UUI suggestive of detrusor overactivity (>/=1 diurnal incontinence episode per 24h for >/=5 of 7 d) and >/=6 voids per 24h at baseline and had completed the 12-wk double-blind study. Patients received tolterodine ER (2mg once daily) for 12 mo. The primary end points were the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs) and the incidence and reasons for withdrawals. Visits were scheduled at 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo, and investigators were instructed to report all AEs. At 6 and 12 mo, vital signs were recorded and a physical examination was performed. RESULTS: A total of 318 patients were enrolled (double-blind tolterodine ER, n=221; placebo, n=97). The majority of patients were white (90%), mean+/-SD age was 7.6+/-1.5 yr, and 54% were boys. Forty-nine percent of patients reported >/=1 AE during the study, similar to that observed in the preceding 12-wk study (42%). The most frequent AEs were urinary tract infection (7%), nasopharyngitis (5%), headache (5%), and abdominal pain (4%); 111 (35%) patients withdrew. The most common reasons for withdrawal were lack of efficacy (12%), symptom improvement (8%), and withdrawn consent (6%). Ten patients (3%) withdrew because of AEs. CONCLUSION: Long-term treatment with tolterodine ER was well tolerated in children with UUI.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Cresóis/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Fenilpropanolamina/efeitos adversos , Incontinência Urinária de Urgência/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cresóis/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Fenilpropanolamina/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Tartarato de Tolterodina , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária de Urgência/fisiopatologia , Urodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
J Urol ; 174(4 Pt 2): 1647-51; discussion 1651, 2005 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16148673

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Three exploratory studies were conducted to investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of tolterodine in children 1 month to 15 years old with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. We urodynamically evaluated the dose and concentration effects of tolterodine to establish safe and effective dosing regimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three open-label, dose escalating studies were conducted in children with stable neurological disease and detrusor overactivity. In studies 1 (patient aged 1 month to 4 years) and 2 (5 to 10 years) patients received 0.03, 0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg tolterodine solution day twice daily for 4 weeks each. In study 3 (patient age 11 to 15 years) patients received 2, 4 and 6 mg tolterodine extended-release capsules once daily for 4 weeks each. PK was assessed after 8 weeks, urodynamic assessments were conducted after each 4-week dosing period and 3-day micturition diaries were completed. RESULTS: Patients in studies 1 (19) and 2 (15) showed some dose related increases in volume to first detrusor contraction and cystometric bladder capacity. In study 3 (11 patients) there were no obvious dose-response relationships. PK results from studies 1 and 2 suggest that there was no apparent effect of age (< or =10 y) on these parameters. In study 3 time of maximum observed serum concentration and apparent terminal half-life were delayed, which is consistent with the extended-release formulation. Tolterodine was well tolerated, and there was no apparent relationship between tolterodine dose and adverse events in any study. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the safety of age and body weight adjusted dosing regimens for further clinical evaluation of tolterodine in children with neurogenic detrusor overactivity.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacocinética , Cresóis/farmacocinética , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/farmacocinética , Fenilpropanolamina/farmacocinética , Bexiga Urinaria Neurogênica/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Área Sob a Curva , Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cresóis/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Fenilpropanolamina/administração & dosagem , Segurança , Tartarato de Tolterodina , Resultado do Tratamento , Bexiga Urinária/efeitos dos fármacos , Urodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
J Urol ; 173(4): 1334-9, 2005 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15758796

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We report the results of the first 2 large randomized controlled trials designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tolterodine extended release in children 5 to 10 years old with symptoms of urinary urge incontinence suggestive of detrusor overactivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two double-blind, placebo controlled trials were conducted sequentially. Children 5 to 10 years old with incontinence suggestive of detrusor overactivity (1 or more diurnal incontinence episodes per 24 hours) were randomized to tolterodine (2 mg daily) or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary end point was the change from baseline to week 12 in the number of incontinence episodes per week. Changes from baseline in the number of voids per 24 hours and volume of urine per void were also evaluated. Exploratory analyses were conducted to determine whether particular subsets of patients showed differential responses to treatment. RESULTS: A total of 224 and 487 children (mean age 8 years) were randomized to placebo and tolterodine, respectively. Differences in the number of incontinence episodes per week, voids per 24 hours, and volume of urine per void between tolterodine and placebo did not reach statistical significance. This finding may be explained by a high placebo response and under dosage of tolterodine among children with greater body weight. Tolterodine was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the primary efficacy outcome did not reveal a statistically significant effect of treatment. However, secondary analyses demonstrated that tolterodine was well tolerated among 5 to 10-year-old children with diurnal incontinence. Exploratory analyses also showed that children weighing 35 kg or less with detrusor overactivity characterized by incontinence and/or frequent voiding benefited most from tolterodine treatment, suggesting that a weight adjusted dosing regimen may be required for optimal response among older and heavier children.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Cresóis/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Fenilpropanolamina/uso terapêutico , Incontinência Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ritmo Circadiano , Cresóis/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Fenilpropanolamina/administração & dosagem , Efeito Placebo , Placebos , Segurança , Tartarato de Tolterodina , Resultado do Tratamento , Bexiga Urinária/efeitos dos fármacos , Incontinência Urinária/urina , Micção/efeitos dos fármacos
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