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1.
Blood Adv ; 3(22): 3688-3699, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765480

RESUMO

We conducted a clinical trial and report the long-term outcome of 773 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia upon risk-adapted therapy accrued in trial CoALL 07-03 (from the Cooperative Study Group for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia). In a 2-step stratification, patients were allocated to receive either low- or high-risk treatment, based on initial white blood cell count, age, and immunophenotype. A second stratification was performed according to the results of in vitro pharmacosensitivity toward prednisolone, vincristine, and asparaginase (PVA score) and in vivo response after induction therapy (minimal residual disease [MRD]). Therapy was reduced for both risk groups in patients with a low PVA score or negative MRD result, and intensified in patients with a high PVA score. Overall outcome improved significantly compared with the predecessor CoALL 06-97 trial, with identical therapy backbone despite treatment reduction in 15.8% of patients (10-year probability of event-free survival, 83.5% vs 73.9%; overall survival, 90.7% vs 83.8%). Outcome for patients in the reduced treatment arms was superior to that of patients in the standard arms, associated with a profound reduction in frequency and severity of infectious complications. Importantly, we observed a lack of correlation between in vitro and in vivo drug response, as well as a lower predictive value of in vitro drug testing, reflecting an intrinsic limitation of this methodology that prevents its use for treatment stratification in future trials. In conclusion, it might be possible to reduce chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia selected by stringent in vivo measurement of MRD without jeopardizing overall outcome.

3.
Leukemia ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690822

RESUMO

The proximal DNA damage response kinase ATM is frequently inactivated in human malignancies. Germline mutations in the ATM gene cause Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), characterized by cerebellar ataxia and cancer predisposition. Whether ATM deficiency impacts on tumor initiation or also on the maintenance of the malignant state is unclear. Here, we show that Atm reactivation in initially Atm-deficient B- and T cell lymphomas induces tumor regression. We further find a reduced T cell abundance in B cell lymphomas from Atm-defective mice and A-T patients. Using T cell-specific Atm-knockout models, as well as allogeneic transplantation experiments, we pinpoint impaired immune surveillance as a contributor to cancer predisposition and development. Moreover, we demonstrate that Atm-deficient T cells display impaired proliferation capacity upon stimulation, due to replication stress. Altogether, our data indicate that T cell-specific restoration of ATM activity or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may prevent lymphomagenesis in A-T patients.

4.
Blood Adv ; 3(20): 3143-3156, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648313

RESUMO

Survival of patients with pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is mainly compromised by leukemia relapse, carrying dismal prognosis. As novel individualized therapeutic approaches are urgently needed, we performed whole-exome sequencing of leukemic blasts of 10 children with post-allo-SCT relapses with the aim of thoroughly characterizing the mutational landscape and identifying druggable mutations. We found that post-allo-SCT ALL relapses display highly diverse and mostly patient-individual genetic lesions. Moreover, mutational cluster analysis showed substantial clonal dynamics during leukemia progression from initial diagnosis to relapse after allo-SCT. Only very few alterations stayed constant over time. This dynamic clonality was exemplified by the detection of thiopurine resistance-mediating mutations in the nucleotidase NT5C2 in 3 patients' first relapses, which disappeared in the post-allo-SCT relapses on relief of selective pressure of maintenance chemotherapy. Moreover, we identified TP53 mutations in 4 of 10 patients after allo-SCT, reflecting acquired chemoresistance associated with selective pressure of prior antineoplastic treatment. Finally, in 9 of 10 children's post-allo-SCT relapse, we found alterations in genes for which targeted therapies with novel agents are readily available. We could show efficient targeting of leukemic blasts by APR-246 in 2 patients carrying TP53 mutations. Our findings shed light on the genetic basis of post-allo-SCT relapse and may pave the way for unraveling novel therapeutic strategies in this challenging situation.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1901694, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644328

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Minimal residual disease (MRD) helps to accurately assess when children with late bone marrow relapses of B-cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) will benefit from allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). More detailed dissection of MRD response heterogeneity and the specific genetic aberrations could improve current practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: MRD was assessed after induction treatment and at different times during relapse treatment until allo-HSCT (indicated in poor responders to induction; MRD ≥ 10-3) for patients being treated for late BCP-ALL bone marrow relapses (n = 413; median follow-up, 9.4 years) in the ALL-REZ BFM 2002 trial/registry (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00114348). RESULTS: Patients with both good (MRD < 10-3) and poor responses to induction treatment reached excellent event-free survival (EFS; 72% v 65%) and overall survival (OS; 82% v 74%). Patients with MRD of 10-2 or greater after induction had reduced EFS (56%), and their MRD persisted until allo-HSCT more frequently than it did in patients with MRD of 10-3 or greater to less than 10-2 (P = .037). Patients with 25% or more leukemic blasts after induction (early nonresponders) had the poorest prognosis (EFS, 22%). Interestingly, patients with MRD of 10-3 or greater before allo-HSCT (late nonresponders) still had an EFS of 50% and OS of 63%, which in principle justifies allo-HSCT in these patients. From a panel of selected candidate genes, TP53 alterations (frequency, 8%) were the only genetic alteration with independent prognostic value in any MRD-based response subgroup. CONCLUSION: After induction treatment, MRD-based treatment stratification resulted in excellent survival in patients with late relapsed BCP-ALL. Prognosis could be further improved in very poor responders by intensifying treatment directly after induction. TP53 alterations can be defined as a novel genetic high-risk marker in all MRD response groups in late relapsed BCP-ALL. Here we identified early and late nonresponders to be considered as events in future trials.

6.
Leukemia ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578451

RESUMO

AML SCT-BFM 2007 was the first hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) trial in Germany to comply with the European Clinical Trials Directive, and aimed to standardize pediatric HCT for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) across centers in Germany, Austria, and the Czech Republic. Children with high-risk features and a good early response achieving a complete first remission (CR-1) and those in CR-2 after a first relapse were stratified to receive HCT from a matched donor after myeloablative conditioning consisting of busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and melphalan. Four-year EFS and OS were 61 and 70%. Cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) was 22%. TRM was 15% and correlated with age reaching 9% (SE 3%) in children younger than 12 years and 31% (SE 9%) in older children and adolescents. Children with poorly responding primary disease or relapse were allocated to receive early HCT after a cytoreductive regimen with fludarabine, amsacrine, and cytarabine, followed by reduced intensity conditioning and prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusions. Four-year EFS and OS were 49 and 53%. CIR was 38% and TRM 11%. For patients with primary poor response disease, early use of RIC HCT followed by prophylactic DLI can induce long-term remissions in more than 50% (EFS 46% (SE 9%)).

7.
Gut ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Fragile X mental retardation (FMR) syndrome is a frequently inherited intellectual disability caused by decreased or absent expression of the FMR protein (FMRP). Lack of FMRP is associated with neuronal degradation and cognitive dysfunction but its role outside the central nervous system is insufficiently studied. Here, we identify a role of FMRP in liver disease. DESIGN: Mice lacking Fmr1 gene expression were used to study the role of FMRP during tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-induced liver damage in disease model systems. Liver damage and mechanistic studies were performed using real-time PCR, Western Blot, staining of tissue sections and clinical chemistry. RESULTS: Fmr1null mice exhibited increased liver damage during virus-mediated hepatitis following infection with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Exposure to TNF resulted in severe liver damage due to increased hepatocyte cell death. Consistently, we found increased caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation following TNF stimulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate FMRP to be critically important for regulating key molecules in TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1)-dependent apoptosis and necroptosis including CYLD, c-FLIPS and JNK, which contribute to prolonged RIPK1 expression. Accordingly, the RIPK1 inhibitor Necrostatin-1s could reduce liver cell death and alleviate liver damage in Fmr1null mice following TNF exposure. Consistently, FMRP-deficient mice developed increased pathology during acute cholestasis following bile duct ligation, which coincided with increased hepatic expression of RIPK1, RIPK3 and phosphorylation of MLKL. CONCLUSIONS: We show that FMRP plays a central role in the inhibition of TNF-mediated cell death during infection and liver disease.

10.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(11): 1847-1858, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089287

RESUMO

Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) provides high cure rates for children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), relapses remain the main cause of treatment failure. Whereas donor killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genotype was shown to impact on relapse incidence in adult myeloid leukaemia similar studies in paediatric ALL are largely missing. Effect of donor KIR genotype on transplant outcome was evaluated in 317 children receiving a first myeloablative HSCT from an HLA-matched unrelated donor or sibling within the prospective ALL-SCT-BFM-2003 trial. Analysis of donor KIR gene polymorphism revealed that centromeric presence and telomeric absence of KIR B haplotypes was associated with reduced relapse risk. A centromeric/telomeric KIR score (ct-KIR score) integrating these observations correlated with relapse risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0.58; P = 0.002) while it had no impact on graft-versus-host disease or non-relapse mortality. In multivariable analyses ct-KIR score was associated with reduced relapse risk (HR 0.58; P = 0.003) and a trend towards improved event-free survival (HR 0.76; P = 0.059). This effect proved independent of MRD level prior to HSCT. Our data suggest that in children with ALL undergoing HSCT after myeloablative conditioning, donor selection based on KIR genotyping holds promise to improve clinical outcome by decreasing relapse risk and prolonged event-free survival.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 145(12): 3402-3413, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081944

RESUMO

Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain cancer in children. Since previous studies have mainly focused on alterations in the coding genome, our understanding of the contribution of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) to medulloblastoma biology is just emerging. Using patient-derived data, we show that the promoter of lncRNA TP73-AS1 is hypomethylated and that the transcript is highly expressed in the SHH subgroup. Furthermore, high expression of TP73-AS1 is correlated with poor outcome in patients with TP53 wild-type SHH tumors. Silencing TP73-AS1 in medulloblastoma tumor cells induced apoptosis, while proliferation and migration were inhibited in culture. In vivo, silencing TP73-AS1 in medulloblastoma tumor cells resulted in reduced tumor growth, reduced proliferation of tumor cells, increased apoptosis and led to prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice. Together, our study suggests that the lncRNA TP73-AS1 is a prognostic marker and therapeutic target in medulloblastoma tumors and serves as a proof of concept that lncRNAs are important factors in the disease.

13.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(3): 246, 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867410

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is the most common brain tumor characterized by a dismal prognosis. GBM cancer stem cells (gCSC) or tumor-initiating cells are the cell population within the tumor-driving therapy resistance and recurrence. While temozolomide (TMZ), an alkylating agent, constitutes the first-line chemotherapeutic significantly improving survival in GBM patients, resistance against this compound commonly leads to GBM recurrence and treatment failure. Although the roles of protein-coding transcripts, proteins and microRNA in gCSC, and therapy resistance have been comprehensively investigated, very little is known about the role of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in this context. Using nonoverlapping, independent RNA sequencing and gene expression profiling datasets, we reveal that TP73-AS1 constitutes a clinically relevant lncRNA in GBM. Specifically, we demonstrate significant overexpression of TP73-AS1 in primary GBM samples, which is particularly increased in the gCSC. More importantly, we demonstrate that TP73-AS1 comprises a prognostic biomarker in glioma and in GBM with high expression identifying patients with particularly poor prognosis. Using CRISPRi to downregulate our candidate lncRNA in gCSC, we demonstrate that TP73-AS1 promotes TMZ resistance in gCSC and is linked to regulation of the expression of metabolism- related genes and ALDH1A1, a protein known to be expressed in cancer stem cell markers and protects gCSC from TMZ treatment. Taken together, our results reveal that high TP73-AS1 predicts poor prognosis in primary GBM cohorts and that this lncRNA promotes tumor aggressiveness and TMZ resistance in gCSC.

15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1459, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926794

RESUMO

Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is the most common B-cell lymphoma in children. Within the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), we performed whole genome and transcriptome sequencing of 39 sporadic BL. Here, we unravel interaction of structural, mutational, and transcriptional changes, which contribute to MYC oncogene dysregulation together with the pathognomonic IG-MYC translocation. Moreover, by mapping IGH translocation breakpoints, we provide evidence that the precursor of at least a subset of BL is a B-cell poised to express IGHA. We describe the landscape of mutations, structural variants, and mutational processes, and identified a series of driver genes in the pathogenesis of BL, which can be targeted by various mechanisms, including IG-non MYC translocations, germline and somatic mutations, fusion transcripts, and alternative splicing.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Burkitt/genética , Genoma Humano , Transcriptoma/genética , Adolescente , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/química , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pontos de Quebra do Cromossomo , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mutação INDEL/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/genética , Translocação Genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
16.
Fam Cancer ; 18(3): 353-358, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680470

RESUMO

Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant brain tumor in childhood. This highly malignant neoplasm occurs usually before 10 years of age and more frequently in boys. The 5-year event-free survival rate for high-risk medulloblastoma is low at 62% despite a multimodal therapy including surgical resection, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. We report the case of a boy, who was born to consanguineous parents. Prominently, he had multiple café-au-lait spots. At the age of 3 years he was diagnosed with a high-risk metastatic medulloblastoma. The patient died only 11 months after diagnosis of a fulminant relapse presenting as meningeal and spinal dissemination. Whole-exome sequencing of germline DNA was employed to detect the underlying mutation for this putative cancer syndrome presenting with the combination of medulloblastoma and skin alterations. After screening all possible homozygous gene SNVs, we identified a mutation of SON, an essential protein in cell cycle regulation and cell proliferation, as the most likely genetic cause.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 144(1): 26-33, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098208

RESUMO

The "delayed infection hypothesis" states that a paucity of infections in early childhood may lead to higher risks of childhood leukemia (CL), especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using prospectively collected data from six population-based birth cohorts we studied the association between birth order (a proxy for pathogen exposure) and CL. We explored whether other birth or parental characteristics modify this association. With 2.2 × 106 person-years of follow-up, 185 CL and 136 ALL cases were ascertained. In Cox proportional hazards models, increasing birth order (continuous) was inversely associated with CL and ALL; hazard ratios (HR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): (0.77-0.99) and 0.85: (0.73-0.99), respectively. Being later-born was associated with similarly reduced hazards of CL and ALL compared to being first-born; HRs = 0.78: 95% CI: 0.58-1.05 and 0.73: 0.52-1.03, respectively. Successive birth orders were associated with decreased CL and ALL risks (P for trend 0.047 and 0.055, respectively). Multivariable adjustment somewhat attenuated the associations. We found statistically significant and borderline interactions between birth weight (p = 0.024) and paternal age (p = 0.067), respectively, in associations between being later-born and CL, with the lowest risk observed for children born at <3 kg with fathers aged 35+ (HR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06-0.50). Our study strengthens the theory that increasing birth order confers protection against CL and ALL risks, but suggests that this association may be modified among subsets of children with different characteristics, notably advanced paternal age and lower birth weight. It is unclear whether these findings can be explained solely by infectious exposures.


Assuntos
Ordem de Nascimento , Peso ao Nascer , Idade Paterna , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2400, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386345

RESUMO

Serine/threonine kinase 4 (STK4) deficiency is an autosomal recessive genetic condition that leads to primary immunodeficiency (PID) typically characterized by lymphopenia, recurrent infections and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) induced lymphoproliferation and -lymphoma. State-of-the-art treatment regimens consist of prevention or treatment of infections, immunoglobulin substitution (IVIG) and restoration of the immune system by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here, we report on two patients from two consanguineous families of Turkish (patient P1) and Moroccan (patient P2) decent, with PID due to homozygous STK4 mutations. P1 harbored a previously reported frameshift (c.1103 delT, p.M368RfsX2) and P2 a novel splice donor site mutation (P2; c.525+2 T>G). Both patients presented in childhood with recurrent infections, CD4 lymphopenia and dysregulated immunoglobulin levels. Patient P1 developed a highly malignant B cell lymphoma at the age of 10 years and a second, independent Hodgkin lymphoma 5 years later. To our knowledge she is the first STK4 deficient case reported who developed lymphoma in the absence of detectable EBV or other common viruses. Lymphoma development may be due to the lacking tumor suppressive function of STK4 or the perturbed immune surveillance due to the lack of CD4+ T cells. Our data should raise physicians' awareness of [1] lymphoma proneness of STK4 deficient patients even in the absence of EBV infection and [2] possibly underlying STK4 deficiency in pediatric patients with a history of recurrent infections, CD4 lymphopenia and lymphoma and unknown genetic make-up. Patient P2 experienced recurrent otitis in childhood, but when she presented at the age of 14, she showed clinical and immunological characteristics similar to patients suffering from Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS): elevated DNT cell number, non-malignant lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly, hematolytic anemia, hypergammaglobulinemia. Also patient P1 presented with ALPS-like features (lymphadenopathy, elevated DNT cell number and increased Vitamin B12 levels) and both were initially clinically diagnosed as ALPS-like. Closer examination of P2, however, revealed active EBV infection and genetic testing identified a novel STK4 mutation. None of the patients harbored typically ALPS-associated mutations of the Fas receptor mediated apoptotic pathway and Fas-mediated apoptosis was not affected. The presented case reports extend the clinical spectrum of STK4 deficiency.

19.
J Med Chem ; 61(22): 10299-10309, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365892

RESUMO

Dual- or multitarget drugs have emerged as a promising alternative to combination therapies. Proteasome inhibitors (PIs) possess synergistic activity with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors due to the simultaneous blockage of the ubiquitin degradation and aggresome pathways. Here, we present the design, synthesis, binding modes, and anticancer properties of RTS-V5 as the first-in-class dual HDAC-proteasome ligand. The inhibition of both targets was confirmed by biochemical and cellular assays as well as X-ray crystal structures of the 20S proteasome and HDAC6 complexed with RTS-V5. Cytotoxicity assays with leukemia and multiple myeloma cell lines as well as therapy refractory primary patient-derived leukemia cells demonstrated that RTS-V5 possesses potent and selective anticancer activity. Our results will thus guide the structure-based optimization of dual HDAC-proteasome inhibitors for the treatment of hematological malignancies.

20.
Trends Cancer ; 4(11): 718-728, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352675

RESUMO

Inherited diseases are not always expressed in the same way in every individual that carries the same variant in a disease-causing gene. This phenomenon is known as reduced or incomplete penetrance. Variable and incomplete penetrance may explain why inherited diseases are occasionally transmitted through unaffected parents, but also why clinically healthy individuals can carry potentially pathogenic variants without expressing features of the disease. Here, we will provide an overview of factors that play a fundamental role in the concept of penetrance and expressivity of cancer predisposing genes in children with malignancies. These findings are important to understand the complexity of inherited diseases and cancer development and to improve genetic counselling for the affected families.

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