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1.
Nano Lett ; 21(23): 9997-10005, 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813330

RESUMO

The capacity degredation in layered Ni-rich LiNixCoyMnzO2 (x ≥ 0.8) cathode largely originated from drastic surface reactions and intergranular cracks in polycrystalline particles. Herein, we report a highly stable single-crystal LiNi0.83Co0.12Mn0.05O2 cathode material, which can deliver a high specific capacity (∼209 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C, 2.8-4.3 V) and meanwhile display excellent cycling stability (>96% retention for 100 cycles and >93% for 200 cycles). By a combination of in situ X-ray diffraction and in situ pair distribution function analysis, an intermediate monoclinic distortion and irregular H3 stack are revealed in the single crystals upon charging-discharging processes. These structural changes might be driven by unique Li-intercalation kinetics in single crystals, which enables an additional strain buffer to reduce the cracks and thereby ensure the high cycling stability.

2.
Chem Mater ; 33(14): 5652-5667, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483480

RESUMO

Solid electrolytes are crucial for next-generation solid-state batteries, and Na3PS4 is one of the most promising Na+ conductors for such applications, despite outstanding questions regarding its structural polymorphs. In this contribution, we present a detailed investigation of the evolution in structure and dynamics of Na3PS4 over a wide temperature range 30 < T < 600 °C through combined experimental-computational analysis. Although Bragg diffraction experiments indicate a second-order phase transition from the tetragonal ground state (α, P4̅21 c) to the cubic polymorph (ß, I4̅3m) above ∼250 °C, pair distribution function analysis in real space and Raman spectroscopy indicate remnants of a tetragonal character in the range 250 < T < 500 °C, which we attribute to dynamic local tetragonal distortions. The first-order phase transition to the mesophasic high-temperature polymorph (γ, Fddd) is associated with a sharp volume increase and the onset of liquid-like dynamics for sodium-cations (translational) and thiophosphate-polyanions (rotational) evident by inelastic neutron and Raman spectroscopies, as well as pair-distribution function and molecular dynamics analyses. These results shed light on the rich polymorphism of Na3PS4 and are relevant for a range host of high-performance materials deriving from the Na3PS4 structural archetype.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 60(10): 7217-7227, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956446

RESUMO

The effect of crystallizing solution chemistry on the chemistry of subsequently as-grown materials was investigated for Mo-substituted iron oxides prepared by thermally activated co-precipitation. In the presence of Mo ions, we find that varying the oxidation state of the iron precursor from Fe(II) to Fe(III) causes a progressive loss of atomic long-range order with the stabilization of 2-4 nm particles for the sample prepared with Fe(III). The oxidation state of the Fe precursor also affects the distribution of Fe and Mo cations within the spinel structure. Increasing the Fe precursor oxidation state gives decreased Fe-ion occupation and increased Mo-ion occupation of tetrahedral sites, as revealed by the extended X-ray absorption fine structure. The stabilization of Mo within tetrahedral sites appears to be unexpected, considering the octahedral preferred coordination number of Mo(VI). The analysis of the atomic structure of the sample prepared with Fe(III) indicates a local ordering of vacancies and that the occupation of tetrahedral sites by Mo induces a contraction of the interatomic distances within the polyhedra as compared to Fe atoms. Moreover, the occupancy of Mo into the thermodynamic site preference of a Mo dopant in Fe2O3 assessed by density functional theory calculations points to a stronger preference for Mo substitution at octahedral sites. Hence, we suggest that the synthetized compound is thermodynamically metastable, that is, kinetically trapped. Such a state is suggested to be a consequence of the tetrahedral site occupation by Mo ions. The population of these sites, known to be reactive sites enabling particle growth, is concomitant with the stabilization of very small particles. We confirmed our hypothesis by using a blank experiment without Mo ions, further supporting the impact of tetrahedral Mo ions on the growth of iron oxide nanoparticles. Our findings provide new insights into the relationships between the Fe-chemistry of the crystallizing solution and the structural features of the as-grown Mo-substituted Fe-oxide materials.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(17): 10498-10508, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899859

RESUMO

Topochemical reactions involving ionic exchange have been used to assess a large number of metastable compositions, particularly in layered metal oxides. This method encompasses complex reactions that are poorly explored, yet are of prime importance to understand and control the materials' properties. In this work, we embark on investigating the reactions involved during the ionic exchange between a layered Na-titanate (lepidocrocite-type structure) and an acidic solution (HCl), leading to a protonic (H3O+) titanate (trititanate structure). The reactions involve an ionic exchange provoking a structural change from the lepidocrocite-type to the trititanate structure as shown by real-space refinements of ex situ pair distribution function data. Mobile Na+ ions are exchanged by hydronium ions inducing high proton mobility in the final structure. Moreover, the reaction was followed by ex situ23Na and 1H solid-state MAS NMR which allowed, among other things, confirming that the Na+ ions are in the interlayer space and specifying their local environment. Strikingly, the ionic exchange reaction induces progressive exfoliation of the Na-titanate particles leading to 2-5 nm thin elongated crystallites. To further understand the different steps associated with the ionic exchange, the evolution of the electrolytic conductivity, using conductimetric titration, has been monitored upon HCl addition, enabling characterization of the intercalation(H+)/de-intercalation(Na+) reactions and assessing kinetic parameters. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that the exfoliation of the particles is due to the accumulation of charges at the particle level in relation to the rapid intercalation of protons. This work provides novel insights into ionic exchange reactions involved in layered oxide compounds.

5.
ACS Nano ; 14(11): 14846-14860, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170644

RESUMO

Sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) is a route to the precision deposition of inorganic solids in analogy to atomic layer deposition but occurs within (vs upon) a soft material template. SIS has enabled exquisite nanoscale morphological complexity in various oxides through selective nucleation in block copolymers templates. However, the earliest stages of SIS growth remain unresolved, including the atomic structure of nuclei and the evolution of local coordination environments, before and after polymer template removal. We employed In K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure and atomic pair distribution function analysis of high-energy X-ray scattering to unravel (1) the structural evolution of InOxHy clusters inside a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) host matrix and (2) the formation of porous In2O3 solids (obtained after annealing) as a function of SIS cycle number. Early SIS cycles result in InOxHy cluster growth with high aspect ratio, followed by the formation of a three-dimensional network with additional SIS cycles. That the atomic structures of the InOxHy clusters can be modeled as multinuclear clusters with bonding patterns related to those in In2O3 and In(OH)3 crystal structures suggests that SIS may be an efficient route to 3D arrays of discrete-atom-number clusters. Annealing the mixed inorganic/polymer films in air removes the PMMA template and consolidates the as-grown clusters into cubic In2O3 nanocrystals with structural details that also depend on SIS cycle number.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(43): 18422-18436, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054192

RESUMO

Fast-ion conductors are critical to the development of solid-state batteries. The effects of mechanochemical synthesis that lead to increased ionic conductivity in an archetypical sodium-ion conductor Na3PS4 are not fully understood. We present here a comprehensive analysis based on diffraction (Bragg and pair distribution function), spectroscopy (impedance, Raman, NMR and INS), and ab initio simulations aimed at elucidating the synthesis-property relationships in Na3PS4. We consolidate previously reported interpretations regarding the local structure of ball-milled samples, underlining the sodium disorder and showing that a local tetragonal framework more accurately describes the structure than the originally proposed cubic one. Through variable-pressure impedance spectroscopy measurements, we report for the first time the activation volume for Na+ migration in Na3PS4, which is ∼30% higher for the ball-milled samples. Moreover, we show that the effect of ball-milling on increasing the ionic conductivity of Na3PS4 to ∼10-4 S/cm can be reproduced by applying external pressure on a sample from conventional high-temperature ceramic synthesis. We conclude that the key effects of mechanochemical synthesis on the properties of solid electrolytes can be analyzed and understood in terms of pressure, strain, and activation volume.

7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(43): 19247-19253, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649793

RESUMO

Aluminium batteries constitute a safe and sustainable high-energy-density electrochemical energy-storage solution. Viable Al-ion batteries require suitable electrode materials that can readily intercalate high-charge Al3+ ions. Here, we investigate the Al3+ intercalation chemistry of anatase TiO2 and how chemical modifications influence the accommodation of Al3+ ions. We use fluoride- and hydroxide-doping to generate high concentrations of titanium vacancies. The coexistence of these hetero-anions and titanium vacancies leads to a complex insertion mechanism, attributed to three distinct types of host sites: native interstitial sites, single vacancy sites, and paired vacancy sites. We demonstrate that Al3+ induces a strong local distortion within the modified TiO2 structure, which affects the insertion properties of the neighbouring host sites. Overall, specific structural features induced by the intercalation of highly polarising Al3+ ions should be considered when designing new electrode materials for polyvalent batteries.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(5): 2506-2513, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913621

RESUMO

Mn oxides are among the most ubiquitous minerals on Earth and play critical roles in numerous elemental cycles in biotic/abiotic loops as the key redox center. Yet, it has long puzzled geochemists why the laboratory synthesis of todorokite, a tunnel-structured Mn oxide, is extremely difficult while it is the dominant form over other tunneled phases in low-temperature natural environments. This study employs a novel electrochemical method to mimic the cyclic redox reactions occurring over long geological time scales in an accelerated manner. The results revealed that the kinetics and electron flux of the cyclic redox reaction are key to the layer-to-tunnel structure transformation of Mn oxides, provided new insights for natural biotic and abiotic redox reactions, and explained the dominance of todorokite in nature.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 58(21): 14389-14402, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625736

RESUMO

Cation ordering/disordering in spinel oxides plays an essential role in the rich physical and chemical properties which are hallmarks of the structural archetype. A variety of cation-ordering motifs have been reported for spinel oxides with multiple cations residing on the octahedral site (or B-site). This has attracted tremendous attention from both experimental and theoretical communities in the last few decades. However, no unified view has been reached, presumably due to the richness of cation species and corresponding complex arrangements emergent in this large family of compounds. In this report, local cation-ordered ground states of (inverse) spinel oxides with two different cations on the octahedral site have been thoroughly investigated using neutron and X-ray total scattering, and a comprehensive theory has been proposed to explain the commonly observed cation-ordered polymorphs. It is found that a cation-zigzag-ordered structure (space group P4122) is the ground state for inverse spinel oxides with a pure or strong ionic lattice, while a cation-linear-ordered arrangement (space group Imma) emerges when one of the B-site cations forms very strong directional covalent bonds with lattice oxygen. The degree and length scale of cation ordering is strongly correlated with the charge and ionic radius difference between the two octahedral site cations. More complicated cation ordering schemes can be formed when there is a concomitant charge and orbital ordering which fall on a similar energy scale. This can lead to the formation of orbital-driven cation clusters or the broad concept of "molecules" in solid- state compounds. It is expected these findings will help to better understand the observed physical properties of spinel oxides and thus facilitate design strategies for improved functional materials.

10.
Acta Crystallogr A Found Adv ; 75(Pt 5): 758-765, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475919

RESUMO

Structural investigations of amorphous and nanocrystalline phases forming in solution are historically challenging. Few methods are capable of in situ atomic structural analysis and rigorous control of the system. A mixed-flow reactor (MFR) is used for total X-ray scattering experiments to examine the short- and long-range structure of phases in situ with pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. The adaptable experimental setup enables data collection for a range of different system chemistries, initial supersaturations and residence times. The age of the sample during analysis is controlled by adjusting the flow rate. Faster rates allow for younger samples to be examined, but if flow is too fast not enough data are acquired to average out excess signal noise. Slower flow rates form older samples, but at very slow speeds particles settle and block flow, clogging the system. Proper background collection and subtraction is critical for data optimization. Overall, this MFR method is an ideal scheme for analyzing the in situ structures of phases that form during crystal growth in solution. As a proof of concept, high-resolution total X-ray scattering data of amorphous and crystalline calcium phosphates and amorphous calcium carbonate were collected for PDF analysis.

11.
ACS Omega ; 4(6): 10929-10938, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460191

RESUMO

Manipulating the atomic structure of semiconductors is a fine way to tune their properties. The rationalization of their modified properties is, however, particularly challenging as defects locally disrupt the long-range structural ordering, and a deeper effort is required to fully describe their structure. In this work, we investigated the photoelectrochemical properties of an anatase-type structure featuring a high content of titanium vacancies stabilized by dual-oxide substitution by fluoride and hydroxide anions. Such atomic modification induces a slight red-shift band gap energy of 0.08 eV as compared to pure TiO2, which was assigned to changes in titanium-anion ionocovalent bonding. Under illumination, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the formation of TiIII and O2 - radicals which were not detected in defect-free TiO2. Consequently, the modified anatase shows higher ability to oxidize water with lower electron-hole recombination rate. To further increase the photoelectrochemical properties, we subsequently modified the compound by a surface functionalization with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). This treatment further modifies the chemical composition, which results in a red shift of the band gap energy to 3.03 eV. Moreover, the interaction of the NMP electron-donating molecules with the surface induces an absorption band in the visible region with an estimated band gap energy of 2.25-2.50 eV. Under illumination, the resulting core-shell structure produces a high concentration of reduced TiIII and O2 -, suggesting an effective charge carrier separation which is confirmed by high photoelectrochemical properties. This work provides new opportunities to better understand the structural features that affect the photogenerated charge carriers.

12.
ACS Nano ; 13(5): 5760-5770, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964280

RESUMO

The nature of the interface between the solute and the solvent in a colloidal solution has attracted attention for a long time. For example, the surface of colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) is specially designed to impart colloidal stability in a variety of polar and nonpolar solvents. This work focuses on a special type of colloids where the solvent is a molten inorganic salt or organic ionic liquid. The stability of such colloids is hard to rationalize because solvents with high density of mobile charges efficiently screen the electrostatic double-layer repulsion, and purely ionic molten salts represent an extreme case where the Debye length is only ∼1 Å. We present a detailed investigation of NC dispersions in molten salts and ionic liquids using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our SAXS analysis confirms that a wide variety of NCs (Pt, CdSe/CdS, InP, InAs, ZrO2) can be uniformly dispersed in molten salts like AlCl3/NaCl/KCl (AlCl3/AlCl4-) and NaSCN/KSCN and in ionic liquids like 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium halides (BMIM+X-, where X = Cl, Br, I). By using a combination of PDF analysis and molecular modeling, we demonstrate that the NC surface induces a solvent restructuring with electrostatic correlations extending an order of magnitude beyond the Debye screening length. These strong oscillatory ion-ion correlations, which are not accounted by the traditional mechanisms of steric and electrostatic stabilization of colloids, offer additional insight into solvent-solute interactions and enable apparently "impossible" colloidal stabilization in highly ionized media.

13.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(1): 107-112, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565946

RESUMO

The properties of crystalline solids can be significantly modified by deliberately introducing point defects. Understanding these effects, however, requires understanding the changes in geometry and electronic structure of the host material. Here we report the effect of forming anion vacancies, via dehydroxylation, in a hexagonal tungsten-bronze-structured iron oxyfluoride, which has potential use as a lithium-ion battery cathode. Our combined pair distribution function and density functional theory analysis indicates that oxygen vacancy formation is accompanied by spontaneous rearrangement of fluorine anions and vacancies, producing dual pyramidal (FeF4)-O-(FeF4) structural units containing 5-fold-coordinated Fe atoms. The addition of lattice oxygen introduces new electronic states above the top of the valence band, with a corresponding reduction in the optical band gap from 4.05 to 2.05 eV. This band gap reduction relative to the FeF3 parent material is correlated with a significant improvement in lithium insertion capability relative to a defect-free compound.

14.
Nat Mater ; 16(11): 1142-1148, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28920941

RESUMO

In contrast to monovalent lithium or sodium ions, the reversible insertion of multivalent ions such as Mg2+ and Al3+ into electrode materials remains an elusive goal. Here, we demonstrate a new strategy to achieve reversible Mg2+ and Al3+ insertion in anatase TiO2, achieved through aliovalent doping, to introduce a large number of titanium vacancies that act as intercalation sites. We present a broad range of experimental and theoretical characterizations that show a preferential insertion of multivalent ions into titanium vacancies, allowing a much greater capacity to be obtained compared to pure TiO2. This result highlights the possibility to use the chemistry of defects to unlock the electrochemical activity of known materials, providing a new strategy for the chemical design of materials for practical multivalent batteries.

15.
Inorg Chem ; 56(16): 10099-10106, 2017 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28796492

RESUMO

The potential application of high capacity Sn-based electrode materials for energy storage, particularly in rechargeable batteries, has led to extensive research activities. In this scope, the development of an innovative synthesis route allowing to downsize particles to the nanoscale is of particular interest owing to the ability of such nanomaterial to better accommodate volume changes upon electrochemical reactions. Here, we report on the use of room temperature ionic liquid (i.e., [EMIm+][TFSI-]) as solvent, template, and stabilizer for Sn-based nanoparticles. In such a media, we observed, using Cryo-TEM, that pure Sn nanoparticles can be stabilized. Further washing steps are, however, mandatory to remove residual ionic liquid. It is shown that the washing steps are accompanied by the partial oxidation of the surface, leading to a core-shell structured Sn/SnOx composite. To understand the structural features of such a complex architecture, HRTEM, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and the pair distribution function were employed to reveal a crystallized ß-Sn core and a SnO and SnO2 amorphous shell. The proportion of oxidized phases increases with the final washing step with water, which appeared necessary to remove not only salts but also the final surface impurities made of the cationic moieties of the ionic liquid. This work highlights the strong oxidation reactivity of Sn-based nanoparticles, which needs to be taken into account when evaluating their electrochemical properties.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(21): 7273-7286, 2017 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28471174

RESUMO

The alloying mechanism of high-capacity tin anodes for sodium-ion batteries is investigated using a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS) and high-throughput screening using a species-swap method provide insights into a range of possible sodium-tin structures. These structures are linked to experiments using both average and local structure probes in the form of operando pair distribution function analysis, X-ray diffraction, and 23Na solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR), along with ex situ 119Sn ssNMR. Through this approach, we propose structures for the previously unidentified crystalline and amorphous intermediates. The first electrochemical process of sodium insertion into tin results in the conversion of crystalline tin into a layered structure consisting of mixed Na/Sn occupancy sites intercalated between planar hexagonal layers of Sn atoms (approximate stoichiometry NaSn3). Following this, NaSn2, which is predicted to be thermodynamically stable by AIRSS, forms; this contains hexagonal layers closely related to NaSn3, but has no tin atoms between the layers. NaSn2 is broken down into an amorphous phase of approximate composition Na1.2Sn. Reverse Monte Carlo refinements of an ab initio molecular dynamics model of this phase show that the predominant tin connectivity is chains. Further reaction with sodium results in the formation of structures containing Sn-Sn dumbbells, which interconvert through a solid-solution mechanism. These structures are based upon Na5-xSn2, with increasing occupancy of one of its sodium sites commensurate with the amount of sodium added. ssNMR results indicate that the final product, Na15Sn4, can store additional sodium atoms as an off-stoichiometry compound (Na15+xSn4) in a manner similar to Li15Si4.

17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(6): 3223-3232, 2017 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28218537

RESUMO

The role of microbial activities on the transformation of chromium (Cr) remediation products has generally been overlooked. This study investigated the stability of Cr(III)-Fe(III)-(oxy)hydroxides, common Cr(VI) remediation products, with a range of compositions in the presence of common microbial exudates, siderophores and small organic acids. In the presence of a representative siderophore, desferrioxamine B (DFOB), iron (Fe) was released at higher rates and to greater extents relative to Cr from all solid phases. The presence of oxalate alone caused the release of Cr, but not of Fe, from all solid phases. In the presence of both DFOB and oxalate, oxalate acted synergistically with DFOB to increase the Fe, but not the Cr, release rate. Upon reaction with DFOB or DFOB + oxalate, the remaining solids became enriched in Cr relative to Fe. Such incongruent dissolution led to solid phases with different compositions and increased solubility relative to the initial solid phases. Thus, the presence of microbial exudates can promote the release of Cr(III) from remediation products via both ligand complexation and increased solid solubility. Understanding the potential reaction kinetics and pathways of Cr(VI) remediation products in the presence of microbial activities is necessary to assess their long-term stability.


Assuntos
Cromo , Sideróforos , Compostos Férricos , Hidróxidos , Ferro , Oxirredução , Solubilidade
18.
Nano Lett ; 17(3): 1696-1702, 2017 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28221809

RESUMO

Virtually all intercalation compounds exhibit significant changes in unit cell volume as the working ion concentration varies. NaxFePO4 (0 < x < 1, NFP) olivine, of interest as a cathode for sodium-ion batteries, is a model for topotactic, high-strain systems as it exhibits one of the largest discontinuous volume changes (∼17% by volume) during its first-order transition between two otherwise isostructural phases. Using synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis, we discover a new strain-accommodation mechanism wherein a third, amorphous phase forms to buffer the large lattice mismatch between primary phases. The amorphous phase has short-range order over ∼1nm domains that is characterized by a and b parameters matching one crystalline end-member phase and a c parameter matching the other, but is not detectable by powder diffraction alone. We suggest that this strain-accommodation mechanism may generally apply to systems with large transformation strains.

19.
Microsc Microanal ; 22(3): 698-705, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27329315

RESUMO

Bioavailability of arsenic in contaminated soils and wastes can be reduced to insignificant levels by precipitation of mimetite Pb5(AsO4)3Cl. The objective of this study is to elucidate mechanisms of the reaction between solution containing lead ions and arsenates adsorbed on synthetic goethite (AsO4-goethite), or arsenate ions in the solution and goethite saturated with adsorbed Pb (Pb-goethite). These reactions, in the presence of Cl, result in rapid crystallization of mimetite. Formation of mimetite is faster than desorption of AsO4 but slower than desorption of Pb from the goethite surface. Slow desorption of arsenates from AsO4-goethite results in heterogeneous precipitation and formation of mimetite incrustation on goethite crystals. Desorption of lead from Pb-goethite is at least as fast as diffusion and advection of AsO4 and Cl in suspension allowing for homogeneous crystallization of mimetite in intergranular solution. Therefore, the mechanism of nucleation is primarily driven by the kinetics of constituent supply to the saturation front, rather than by the thermodynamics of nucleation. The products of the reactions are well documented using microscopy methods such as scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

20.
Inorg Chem ; 55(14): 7182-7, 2016 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27351834

RESUMO

Anatase TiO2 with exposed highly reactive (001) surface is commonly prepared using solution-based synthesis in the presence of a fluorinating agent acting as a structure-directing agent. Recently, the solvothermal reaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide in the presence of aqueous HF has resulted in the stabilization of an oxyhydroxyfluorinated anatase phase featuring cationic vacancies. In the present work, we have studied its formation mechanism, revealing a solid-state transformation of a highly defective anatase phase having a hydroxyfluoride composition that subsequently evolves through an oxolation reaction into an oxyhydroxyfluoride phase. Importantly, this work confirms that titanium alkoxide precursors can react with HF via a fluorolysis process yielding fluorinated molecular precursors, which further condense to produce new composition and structural features deviating from a well-ordered anatase network.

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