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Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361832


In recent times, researchers have aimed for new strategies to combat cancer by the implementation of nanotechnologies in biomedical applications. This work focuses on developing protein-based nanoparticles loaded with a newly synthesized NIR emitting and absorbing phthalocyanine dye, with photodynamic and photothermal properties. More precisely, we synthesized highly reproducible bovine serum albumin-based nanoparticles (75% particle yield) through a two-step protocol and successfully encapsulated the NIR active photosensitizer agent, achieving a good loading efficiency of 91%. Making use of molecular docking simulations, we confirm that the NIR photosensitizer is well protected within the nanoparticles, docked in site I of the albumin molecule. Encouraging results were obtained for our nanoparticles towards biomedical use, thanks to their negatively charged surface (-13.6 ± 0.5 mV) and hydrodynamic diameter (25.06 ± 0.62 nm), favorable for benefitting from the enhanced permeability and retention effect; moreover, the MTT viability assay upholds the good biocompatibility of our NIR active nanoparticles. Finally, upon irradiation with an NIR 785 nm laser, the dual phototherapeutic effect of our NIR fluorescent nanoparticles was highlighted by their excellent light-to-heat conversion performance (photothermal conversion efficiency 20%) and good photothermal and size stability, supporting their further implementation as fluorescent therapeutic agents in biomedical applications.

Indóis/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/química , Luz , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
Biomater Sci ; 9(18): 6183-6202, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346411


Among women, ovarian cancer is the fifth most frequent type of cancer, and despite benefiting from current standard treatment plans, 90% of patients relapse in the subsequent 18 months and, eventually, perish. As a result, via embracing nanotechnological advancements in the field of medical science, researchers working in the areas of cancer therapy and imaging are looking for the next breakthrough treatment strategy to ensure lower cancer recurrence rates and improved outcomes for patients. Herein, we design a novel phototheranostic agent with optical features in the biological window of the electromagnetic spectrum via encapsulating a newly synthesized phthalocyanine dye within biocompatible protein nanoparticles, allowing the targeted fluorescence imaging and synergistic dual therapy of ovarian cancer. The nanosized agent displays great biocompatibility and enhanced aqueous biostability and photothermal activity, as well as high reactive-oxygen-species generation efficiency. To achieve the active targeting of the desired malignant tissue and suppress the rapid clearance of the photosensitive agent from the peritoneal cavity, the nanoparticles are biofunctionalized with an anti-folate receptor antibody. A2780 ovarian cancer cells are employed to confirm the improved targeting capabilities and the in vitro cytotoxic efficiency of the theranostic nanoparticles after exposure to a 660 nm LED lamp; upon measurement via MTT and flow cytometry assays, a significant 95% decrease in the total number of viable cells is seen. Additionally, the therapeutic performance of our newly designed nanoparticles was evaluated in vivo, via real-time thermal monitoring and histopathological assays, upon the irradiation of tumour-bearing mice with a 660 nm LED lamp (0.05 W cm-2). Foremost, separately from steady-state fluorescence imaging, we found that, via utilizing FLIM investigations, the differences in fluorescence lifetimes of antibody biofunctionalized and non-functionalized nanoparticles can be correlated to different intracellular localization and internalization pathways of the fluorescent agent, which is relevant for the development of a cutting-edge method for the detection of cancer cells that overexpress folate receptors at their surfaces.

Nanopartículas , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Imagem Óptica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Fototerapia , Medicina de Precisão , Nanomedicina Teranóstica
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 2147-2171, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746512


The use of fluorescence imaging technique for visualization, resection and treatment of cancerous tissue, attained plenty of interest once the promise of whole body and deep tissue near-infrared (NIR) imaging emerged. Why is NIR so desired? Contrast agents with optical properties in the NIR spectral range offer an upgrade for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, by dint of the deep tissue penetration of light in the NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum, also known as the optical window in biological tissue. Thus, the development of a new generation of NIR emitting and absorbing contrast agents able to overcome the shortcomings of the basic free dye administration is absolutely essential. Several examples of nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully implemented as carriers for NIR dye molecules to the tumour site owing to their prolonged blood circulation time and enhanced accumulation within the tumour, as well as their increased fluorescence signal relative to free fluorophore emission and active targeting of cancerous cells. Due to their versatile structure, good biocompatibility and capability to efficiently load dyes and bioconjugate with diverse cancer-targeting ligands, the research area of developing protein-based NPs encapsulated or conjugated with NIR dyes is highly promising but still in its infancy. The current review aims to provide an up-to-date overview on the biocompatibility, specific targeting and versatility offered by protein-based NPs loaded with different classes of NIR dyes as next-generation fluorescent agents. Moreover, this study brings to light the newest and most relevant advances involving the state-of-the-art NIR fluorescent agents for the real-time interventional NIR fluorescence imaging of cancer in clinical trials.

Corantes/química , Retroalimentação , Raios Infravermelhos , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Proteínas/química , Animais , Fluorescência , Humanos
Talanta ; 225: 121960, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592715


Photoluminescent gold nanoclusters have attracted an extensive research interest in bioimaging and therapeutics due to several distinctive advantages such as high fluorescent photostability, good dispersibility, low toxicity and large Stokes shift. However, a better understanding of the correlation between optical properties in various environments and their uptake by specific cancer cells is still needed. Herein, we developed bovine serum albumin stabilized gold nanoclusters (BSA-AuNCs) with an intrinsic tunable photoluminescence emission in the first biological window. The as-synthetized BSA-AuNCs agents consists in protein polymerized-chains dopped with AuNCs with an average size of 2-3 nm and were found to exhibit relevant properties as high photostability, temperature-dependent and excitation induced tunable red photoluminescence. The photostable BSA-AuNCs were functionalized with folic acid (FA-BSA-AuNCs) in order to achieve for the first time an active targeting of NIH:OVCAR-3 human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells, via AuNCs, towards bioimaging applications. After confirming their biocompatibility up to a concentration of 40 mg/ml, the improved cellular uptake and staining ability of FA-BSA-AuNCs compared to the BSA-AuNCs was validated by conventional wide-field epi-fluorescence microscopy, while the intracellular localization was monitored by confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Considering their valuable intrinsic photoluminescent properties, the synthesized FA-BSA-AuNCs hold great promise for direct application in cellular imaging as efficient contrast agents towards early cancer diagnosis and image-guided therapy of cancer.

Nanopartículas Metálicas , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Ácido Fólico , Ouro , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Imagem Óptica , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico por imagem
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 194: 111213, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622254


A great amount of effort is directed towards the progress of cancer treatment approaches aspiring to develop non-invasive, targeted and highly efficient therapies. In this context, Photothermal (PTT) and Photodynamic (PDT) Therapies were proven as promising. This work aims to integrate the therapeutic activities of two near-infrared (NIR) photoactive biomaterials - gold nano-bipyramids (AuBPs) and Indocyanine Green (ICG) - into one single targeted hybrid nanosystem able to operate as dual PTT-PDT agent with higher efficiency compared with each one alone. Firstly, different aspect ratio' AuBPs were systematically investigated in water solution for their intrinsic ability to efficiently generate toxic reactive oxygen species, namely oxygen singlet (1O2), under NIR laser irradiation, as this effect is less investigated in literature. Interestingly, the photodynamic activity of AuBPs measured by monitoring the photooxidation of 9,10-Anthracenediyl-bis(methylene)dimalonic acid (ABDA) - a well-known 1O2 sensor, is important, counting for 30 % decrease in ABDA optical absorbance for the most active AuBPs, well-correlating with the previously determined photothermal conversion efficiency. Furthermore, ICG was successfully grafted onto the Poly-lactic acid (PLA) coating of plasmonic nanoparticles and, consequently, the as-designed fully integrated hybrid nanosystem shows improved PTT-PDT performance in solution. Specifically, by triggering simultaneous PTT-PDT activities, the 1O2 amount is doubled, while the heating monitoring shows higher and faster increase in temperature compared to AuBPs alone. Finally, the efficiency of the combined PTT-PDT therapeutic activity was validated in vitro against B16-F10 cell line by covalent conjugation of the nanosystem with Folic Acid, which ensures the cellular recognition by overexpression of folate receptor.

Melanoma , Fotoquimioterapia , Ouro , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina , Triazenos
Nanotechnology ; 31(31): 315102, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315999


Nowadays, extensive research is being carried out to find innovative solutions for the development of stable, reproductible, and highly efficient fluorescent contrast agents with the ability of targeting specific cells, which can be further implemented for fluorescent-guided surgery in a real clinical setting. The present study is focused on the development of fluorescent dye-loaded protein nanoparticles (NPs) to overcome the drawbacks of the standard administration of free organic fluorophores, such as cytotoxicity, aqueousinstability, and rapid photo-degradation. Precisely, human serum albumin (HSA) NPs loaded with two different FDA approved dyes, namely indocyanine green (ICG) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), with a fluorescence response in the near-infrared and visible spectral domains, respectively, have been successfully designed. Even though the diameter of fluorescent HSA NPs is around 30 nm as proven by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy investigations, they present good loading efficiencies of almost 50% for ICG, and over 30% for FITC and a high particle yield of over 75%. Molecular docking simulations of ICG and FITC within the structure of HSA confirmed that the dyes were loaded inside the NPs, and docked in Site I (subdomain IIA) of the HSA molecule. After the confirmation of their high fluorescence photostability, the NPs were covalently conjugated with folic acid (HSA-FA NPs) in order to bind specifically to the folate receptor alpha (FRα) protein overexpressed on NIH:OVCAR3 ovarian cancer cells. Finally, fluorescence microscopy imaging investigations validate the improved internalization of folate targeted HSA&FITC NPs compared to cells treated with untargeted ones. Furthermore, TEM examinations of the distribution of HSA NPs into the NIH:OVCAR3 cells revealed anincreased number of NP-containing vesicles for the cells treated with HSA-FA NPs, compared to the cells exposed to untargeted HAS NPs, upholding the enhanced cellular uptake through FRα-mediated potocytosis.

Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Albumina Sérica Humana/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato/química , Ácido Fólico/química , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nanopartículas , Regulação para Cima