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1.
J Interpers Violence ; 35(3-4): 662-681, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29294639

RESUMO

Retrospective studies using adult self-report data have demonstrated that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase risk of violence perpetration and victimization. However, research examining the associations between adolescent reports of ACE and school violence involvement is sparse. The present study examines the relationship between adolescent reported ACE and multiple types of on-campus violence (bringing a weapon to campus, being threatened with a weapon, bullying, fighting, vandalism) for boys and girls as well as the risk of membership in victim, perpetrator, and victim-perpetrator groups. The analytic sample was comprised of ninth graders who participated in the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (n ~ 37,000). Multinomial logistic regression models calculated the risk of membership for victim only, perpetrator only, and victim-perpetrator subgroups, relative to no violence involvement, for students with ACE as compared with those with no ACE. Separate logistic regression models assessed the association between cumulative ACE and school-based violence, adjusting for age, ethnicity, family structure, poverty status, internalizing symptoms, and school district size. Nearly 30% of students were exposed to at least one ACE. Students with ACE represent 19% of no violence, 38% of victim only, 40% of perpetrator only, and 63% of victim-perpetrator groups. There was a strong, graded relationship between ACE and the probability of school-based victimization: physical bullying for boys but not girls, being threatened with a weapon, and theft or property destruction (ps < .001) and perpetration: bullying and bringing a weapon to campus (ps < .001), with boys especially vulnerable to the negative effects of cumulative ACE. We recommend that schools systematically screen for ACE, particularly among younger adolescents involved in victimization and perpetration, and develop the infrastructure to increase access to trauma-informed intervention services. Future research priorities and implications are discussed.

2.
Fam Syst Health ; 37(3): 244-248, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318230

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate parents' interest in additional primary care-based resources for their children's behavioral health, including parenting support. METHOD: We surveyed 264 English- or Spanish-speaking parents (80% mothers) of children between the ages of 3 and 11 years as they arrived for an appointment at an urban, pediatric primary care clinic. Measures included demographics, the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-17) as a parent report of the child's behavioral health, and interest in behavioral resources (e.g., a parenting class, online videos). We used multiple regression to evaluate the predictors of resource interest. RESULTS: Most parents reported interest in behavioral health resources, including many parents not reporting behavioral symptoms high enough to meet criteria for a positive PSC-17. Overall, 82% of parents reported interest in at least 1 resource item; 28% reported interest in all 7 resource items. The resource item with the most interest was online videos and resources (64%). More behavioral health issues (indicated by higher PSC-17 total scores) were positively related to interest in resources; 20% screened positive for behavioral health concerns. DISCUSSION: Parental report of child behavioral health issues was related to greater interest in resources for children's behavioral health; of note, much of the interest came from parents reporting levels of behavioral health concerns that would be scored as negative on the screening tool in practice. These results provide support for efforts to increase parenting and behavioral health resources through primary care, and raise questions about how to best direct resources. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
Prev Sci ; 20(1): 56-67, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29644545

RESUMO

Parenting programs are an effective strategy to prevent multiple risky outcomes during adolescence. However, these programs usually enroll one caregiver and have low attendance. This study evaluated the preliminary results, cost, and satisfaction of adaptive recruitment and parenting interventions for immigrant Latino families. A mixed methods study was conducted integrating a pre-post design with embedded qualitative and process evaluations. Fifteen immigrant Latino families with an adolescent child aged 10-14 were recruited. Two-caregiver families received a home visit to increase enrollment of both caregivers. All families participated in an adaptive parenting program that included group sessions and a one-to-one component (online videos plus follow-up telephone calls) for those who did not attend the group sessions. The intervention addressed positive parenting practices using a strengths-based framework. Primary outcomes were the proportion of two-parent families recruited and intervention participation. Secondary outcomes were change in parenting self-efficacy, practices, fidelity, costs, and satisfaction. Participants completed questionnaires and interaction tasks before and after participating in the intervention. In addition, participants and program facilitators completed individual interviews to assess satisfaction with the program components. Overall, 23 parents participated in the intervention; 73% of two-parent families enrolled with both parents. Most participants completed 75% or more of the intervention. Fathers were more likely to use the one-to-one component of the intervention than mothers (p = .038). Participants were satisfied with program modifications. In sum, adaptive recruitment and parenting interventions achieved high father enrollment and high participation. These findings warrant further evaluation in randomized trials.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Família , Hispano-Americanos , Poder Familiar , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Seleção de Pacientes , Medicina de Precisão , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
J Interpers Violence ; 34(9): 1801-1819, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27377563

RESUMO

This study examines relationships between emotional health, stress management skills, fight-avoidance skills, and two forms of violence perpetration among adolescent girls at high risk for violence involvement. Participants ( n = 253) were 13- to 17-year-old girls enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. The current study was completed with baseline data collected prior to the start of the intervention. Analyses examined self-report outcome measures of physical violence perpetration in the past 6 months (five-item scale, α = .79) and relational aggression perpetration in the past 30 days (six-item scale, α = .77). Independent variables included baseline measures of self-esteem (four-item scale, α = .89), emotional distress (six-item scale, α = .89), stress management skills (eight-item scale, α = .86), and fight avoidance skills (five-item scale, α = .70). Multivariate regression models predicted each form of violence perpetration controlling for age, race/ethnicity, violence victimization, and clustering of participants within clinics. Initial bivariate results showed that stress management skills and fight avoidance skills were inversely and significantly related to perpetration of both relational and physical violence. Emotional distress was related to significantly higher levels of both violence outcomes. In contrast, self-esteem was not significantly related to either violence outcome. Multivariate analyses revealed that stress management skills and fight avoidance skills were significantly protective against perpetration of both relational aggression and physical violence. In conclusion, findings suggest that clinicians providing services to adolescent girls involved in high risk behaviors assess and foster girls' development of stress management and fight avoidance skills to help reduce their risk of involvement in relational violence and physical fighting.

5.
Child Abuse Negl ; 81: 380-388, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803147

RESUMO

Primary efforts to screen for adverse childhood experiences (ACE/ACEs) are often focused on the well child/adolescent visit. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between ACEs and youth likelihood of receiving preventive care. Data are from 126,868 students in the 8th, 9th, and 11th grades who participated in the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey, an anonymous, self-report questionnaire examining youth behaviors, experiences, and perceptions. Logistic regression models were used to determine if 10 types of ACEs, including abuse, household dysfunction, and food and housing insecurity were associated with receipt of recommended preventive medical and dental care after adjustment for demographic covariates and self-reported health. ACEs scores were entered into regression models to test for cumulative impact of adversities on preventive care outcomes. More than one third (38.5%) of youth identified at least one ACE, most commonly having a parent or guardian who had ever been in jail or prison. Each type of ACE was significantly associated with reduced odds of receiving preventive care in the last year. Associations with food insecurity were of greatest magnitude, associated with 0.32 [CI: 0.64-0.72] to 0.54 [CI: 0.44-0.49] decreased odds of receiving care. Each one point increase in the total ACE score was associated with 0.07 [CI: 0.92-0.94] to 0.15 [CI: 0.84-0.86] decreased odds of having had a preventive care visit in the last year. Findings add to the growing literature documenting significant relationships between ACEs and health, in this case, youth missing opportunities to receive recommended surveillance and anticipatory guidance.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Programas de Rastreamento , Adolescente , Criança , Assistência Odontológica , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota , Pais , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Glob Pediatr Health ; 5: 2333794X18769555, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687049

RESUMO

This study examines relationships between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adolescent health indicators among a sample of 8th, 9th, and 11th graders participating in the 2016 Minnesota Student Survey. Logistic regression was used to determine whether 10 types of ACEs were associated with health indicators that may link to health in adulthood, including self-rated health, body mass index (BMI), sleep duration, and dietary and physical activity participation after adjustment for demographic covariates. Individual and cumulative ACEs measures were significantly associated with adverse health indicators, including poorer self-rated health, increased odds of BMI ≥85% and frequent fast food intake, and reduced odds of adequate sleep duration, daily fruit intake, and physical activity participation on most days of the week. Findings advocate screening for ACEs as a means to inform anticipatory guidance strategies and to support development of care models that are relevant and responsive to youth and family needs.

7.
Prev Sci ; 19(6): 813-821, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29032496

RESUMO

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience disproportionate rates of bullying compared to their heterosexual peers. Schools are well-positioned to address these disparities by creating supportive school climates for LGBT youth, but more research is needed to examine the variety of practices and professional development opportunities put in place to this end. The current study examines how school practices to create supportive LGBT student climate relate to student reports of bullying. Student-level data come from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey, a state-wide survey of risk and protective factors. Ninth and eleventh grade students (N = 31,183) reported on frequency of physical and relational bullying victimization and perpetration and sexual orientation-based harassment. School administrators reported on six practices related to creating supportive LGBT school climate (N = 103 schools): having a point person for LGBT student issues, displaying sexual orientation-specific content, having a gay-straight alliance, discussing bullying based on sexual orientation, and providing professional development around LGBT inclusion and LGBT student issues. An index was created to indicate how many practices each school used (M = 2.45; SD = 1.76). Multilevel logistic regressions indicated that students attending schools with more supportive LGBT climates reported lower odds of relational bullying victimization, physical bullying perpetration, and sexual orientation-based harassment compared to students in schools with less supportive LGBT climates. Sexual orientation did not moderate these relations, indicating that LGBT-supportive practices may be protective for all students, regardless of their sexual orientation. Findings support school-wide efforts to create supportive climates for LGBQ youth as part of a larger bullying prevention strategy.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Meio Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Acad Pediatr ; 18(1): 51-58, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28838795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure how weight status and weight perception relate to mental distress and psychosocial protective factors in adolescents. METHODS: Adolescents in 8th, 9th, and 11th grade participating in the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (N = 122,180) were classified on the basis of weight perception (overweight or not overweight) and weight status (not overweight, overweight, obese). Bivariate tests were used to assess the relationship of weight status and weight perception with internal mental distress, and generalized linear models were used to measure the association between weight status and weight perception with psychosocial protective factors including parent, school, and friend connectedness, social competency, and positive identity. Logistic regressions measured the relationship between psychosocial protective factors and internal mental distress. RESULTS: Prevalence of internal mental distress ranged from 14.5% for overweight boys who perceived themselves as not overweight to 55.0% for girls who were not overweight but self-perceived as overweight. Across all weight-status categories, adolescents who perceived themselves as overweight, compared to those who did not, had higher internal mental distress and lower mean levels of psychosocial protective factors. All psychosocial protective factors were related to lower odds of internal mental distress, with significant small differences by weight status and weight perception. CONCLUSIONS: Weight status and weight perception affected both mental distress and psychosocial protective factors. Those who perceived themselves as overweight, regardless of weight status, had the highest prevalence of mental distress and the lowest levels of psychosocial protective factors. Health care providers should consider screening for weight perception to provide a tailored approach to adolescent care.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Amigos , Relações Pais-Filho , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Autoimagem , Habilidades Sociais , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Prev Sci ; 19(4): 570-578, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29150747

RESUMO

Adolescent substance use continues to be a significant public health problem. Parent training interventions are effective preventive strategies to reduce youth substance use. However, little is known about differences in effectiveness for youth across demographic characteristics. This review assessed the effectiveness of parent training programs at reducing adolescent substance use by participant gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Pubmed/MEDLINE, ERIC, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched from database origin to October 31, 2016. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated parent training interventions; reported youth initiation or use of tobacco, alcohol, or other illicit substances; and included adolescents aged 10 to 19. Two independent reviewers extracted data. Disagreements were resolved by consensus or a third researcher. Data were synthesized using harvest plots stratified by participant demographics. A total of 1806 publications were identified and reviewed; 38 unique studies were included. Risk of bias of included studies was high. No studies targeted male teens or youth in late adolescence. Few studies targeted Asian-American, Black/African-American, or Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Overall, interventions including male and female youth and youth in early adolescence (age 10 to 14 or in 5th to 8th grade) were more beneficial than interventions including female-only or both young and older adolescents. Programs tailored to specific racial/ethnic groups, as well as programs designed for youth from multiple races/ethnic groups, were effective. Current evidence supports the benefits of offering parenting guidance to all families with adolescent children, regardless of the gender, age, or race/ethnicity of the adolescent.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Pais/educação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Youth Adolesc ; 46(11): 2289-2304, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28584921

RESUMO

Involvement in bullying and sexual harassment in adolescence is associated with a variety of internalizing, externalizing, and health-risk behaviors. Yet, the two behaviors are often studied independently. The current study examined how bullying and sexual harassment co-occur and whether social connections protected youth from risk patterns. The data for this study come from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (N = 121,311; 50% female, 74% White, 26% received free or reduced-price lunch; M age = 14.9, SD = 1.3). Students reported on bullying and sexual harassment victimization and perpetration. Using latent class analysis, youth were classified into five patterns: High-Risk of All Forms of Victimization and Perpetration (7%), Relational and Cyberbullying Victimization (17%), Sexual Harassment Victimization and Perpetration (8%), Physical Bullying Perpetration (6%), and Low-Risk (62%). Compared to the low-risk class, the four other classes had lower levels of social connections, particularly with teachers and parents. Older youth (9th and 11th grade students) were at greater risk for the sexual harassment pattern, while younger youth (8th grade students) were at greater risk for bullying patterns. The results indicate that efforts to reduce bullying should also address sexual harassment and social connections with adults.


Assuntos
Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota , Pais , Fatores de Proteção , Professores Escolares , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Sch Health ; 87(3): 174-181, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28147459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although nearly all states in the United States require school districts to adopt anti-bullying policies, little research examines the effect of these policies on student bullying and health. Using a statewide sample, we investigated associations between the quality of school district anti-bullying policies and student bullying involvement and adjustment. METHODS: School district anti-bullying policies (N = 208) were coded for their quality based on established criteria. District-level data were combined with student reports of bullying involvement, emotional distress, and school connectedness from a state surveillance survey of 6th, 9th, and 12th grade students (N = 93,437). RESULTS: Results indicated that policy quality was positively related to bullying victimization. Furthermore, students reporting frequent perpetration/victimization who also attended districts with high-quality policies reported more emotional distress and less school connectedness compared with students attending districts with low quality policies. Although statistically significant, the magnitude of these associations was small. CONCLUSIONS: Having a high-quality school district anti-bullying policy is not sufficient to reduce bullying and protect bullying-involved young people. Future studies examining policy implementation will inform best practices in bullying prevention.


Assuntos
Bullying/prevenção & controle , Política Organizacional , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
12.
Addict Behav ; 68: 30-34, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28088740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have investigated associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and nonmedical use of prescription medication (NMUPM) in population-based samples of adolescents, and even fewer have examined whether promotive factors might buffer these effects. The present study assesses the direct effects of ACE and positive student-teacher relationships on NUMPD and whether positive student-teacher relationships moderate this association. DESIGN: Data were from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (MSS), an in-school survey administered every three years to students throughout Minnesota. The analytic sample (n=104,332) was comprised of 8th, 9th, and 11th graders. RESULTS: Approximately 3% of students acknowledged past year NMUPM, the majority of whom reported at least one ACE. The most frequently used prescription drug was Ritalin/ADHD medications (1.71%) followed by opiate-based painkillers (1.67%), tranquilizers (0.92%), and stimulants (0.75%). Students who reported any use tended to use more than one medication. For every additional ACE, there was a 56%, 51%, 47%, and 52% increase in the odds of past year stimulant use, ADHD medication, pain reliever, and tranquilizer use, respectively. The estimated rate of the number of prescription drugs used increased by 62% for every additional ACE. Positive student- teacher relationships buffered the association between ACE and NMUPD, especially at higher levels of ACEs. CONCLUSION: Our findings have important implications for prevention work. Training educators to recognize trauma symptomology and cultivating strong student-teacher relationships are important considerations for future school-based substance use prevention initiatives.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/psicologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Prev Med ; 87: 132-137, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26921659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment has been linked to adulthood cardiovascular disease (CVD). Little is known about the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) in late adolescence and young adulthood and CVD risk later in adulthood. PURPOSE: To examine whether IPV perpetration and victimization experienced in late adolescence and young adulthood are associated with CVD risk among adults in the United States and whether this relationship differs by sex. METHODS: Data include 9976 participants (50% female) in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Physical and sexual IPV were measured at wave 3 (2001/02) with items from the revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Participants'30-year risk of CVD was calculated at wave 4 (2008/09) using a Framingham prediction model. Linear regression models adjusted for confounders and IPV by sex interaction terms were tested to examine the relationship. RESULTS: The mean CVD risk score was 13.18% (95% CI: 12.71, 13.64). Aone-standard deviation increase in the victimization score was associated with a 0.28% (95% CI: 0.03, 0.54) increase in CVD risk. Perpetration was similarly positively associated with CVD risk (beta: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.62). When measured as a composite, all violence types were associated with increased CVD risk but only prior exposure to both victimization and perpetration reached statistical significance (0.62%, 95% CI: 0.01, 1.22). No differences by sex were detected. CONCLUSIONS: Effect sizes are not large, but early detection of increased CVD risk in this relatively young population is notable and worthy of further study to inform the clinical response.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 55(14): 1338-1345, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26888965

RESUMO

Routine health care plays a central role in health promotion and disease prevention for children and in reducing health disparities. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of routine physical examination among racially and ethnically diverse adolescents at 5 different time points. The study used data from the Minnesota Student Survey. Measures include frequency of physical examination by race/ethnicity, poverty status, and family structure. The analytic sample included 351 510 adolescents (1998, n = 67 239; 2001, n = 69 177; 2004, n = 71 084; 2007, n = 72 312; and 2010, n = 71 698). There were significant differences by racial/ethnic group at each time point. For example, in 2010, never having a physical examination was reported by 9.2% American Indian, 8.7% Asian American/Pacific Islander, 7.0% Hispanic/Latino, 4.3% Black/African American, 3.7% mixed race, and 2.6% of White respondents ( P < .001). Patterns of association emerged when the measure of routine physical examination was stratified by poverty and family structure.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Exame Físico/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Preventiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota
16.
Prev Med ; 76: 26-30, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25849883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine long-term cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk disparities by sexual identity using a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States. METHODS: Data include participants in wave 4 (2008/09; ages 24-34years) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (7087 females; 6340 males). Sexual identity was self-reported (heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly homosexual, homosexual) and a Framingham-based prediction model was used to estimate participants' risk of a CVD event over 30years. Differences in CVD risk by sexual identity, relative to heterosexuals, were calculated with linear regression models adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, and financial distress. RESULTS: Average 30-year CVD risk was 17.2% (95% CI: 16.7, 17.7) in males and 9.0% (95% CI: 8.6, 9.3) in females. Compared to heterosexual females, mostly heterosexual (0.8%; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.4) and mostly homosexual females (2.8%; 95% CI: 0.8, 4.9) had higher CVD risk. Bisexual and homosexual females had higher but not statistically significant CVD risk compared to heterosexuals. Among males, differences in CVD risk by sexual identity were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Sexual identity was associated with CVD risk in sexual minority subgroups. Population- and clinic-based prevention strategies are needed to minimize disparities in subsequent disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Comportamento Sexual , Sexualidade , Adulto , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
17.
Matern Child Health J ; 19(1): 58-66, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24748215

RESUMO

Educational achievement and attainment are associated with health outcomes across the entire life span. The objective of this study was to determine whether racial/ethnic disparities in academic achievement and educational aspirations have changed over time. The study used data from the Minnesota Student Survey (MSS) from 1998, 2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010. The MSS is administered to adolescents in public secondary schools, charter schools, and tribal schools. Measures of academic achievement and educational aspirations were examined by race/ethnicity, poverty status, and family structure. Chi square tests evaluated differences in the above proportions. The analytic sample included 351,510 adolescents (1998, N = 67,239; 2001, N = 69,177; 2004, N = 71,084; 2007, N = 72,312; and 2010, N = 71,698). Study participants ranged in age from 13 to 19 years (mean = 15.9, SD = 1.6). Most were white (81.7 %), followed by 5.4 % Asian American/Pacific Islander, 4.3 % Black/African American, 2.7 % Hispanic/Latino, 1 % American Indian, and 4.9 % mixed race. Results showed that academic achievement fluctuated amongst all the racial/ethnic groups, but there were significant race/ethnic disparities at every time point. Overall, academic aspirations increased over time among the adolescents. Poverty was associated with poorer academic indicators for white youth, but not consistently for other racial/ethnic groups of youth. Family structure, however, was significantly associated with the educational indicators across all racial and ethnic groups. Despite many efforts to improve educational outcomes, there remain significant disparities in educational achievement and aspirations related to race-ethnicity and social status. Findings have implications for efforts to improve adolescent health at both individual and community levels.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Família , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Minnesota , Pobreza/etnologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 9(3): e92204, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24658452

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence has adverse health consequences, but little is known about its association with hypertension. This study investigates sex differences in the relationship between intimate partner violence and blood pressure outcomes. Data included 9,699 participants from waves 3 (2001-02) and 4 (2008-09) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (51% female). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and incident hypertension (SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication) were ascertained at wave 4. Intimate partner violence was measured at wave 3 with 8 items from the revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Separate victimization and perpetration scores were calculated. Sex-specific indicators of severe victimization and perpetration were created using the 66th percentile among those exposed as a cut point. Sex-specific, linear and logistic regression models were developed adjusting for age, race, financial stress, and education. Thirty-three percent of men and 47% of women reported any intimate partner violence exposure; participants were categorized as having: no exposure, moderate victimization and / or perpetration only, severe victimization, severe perpetration, and severe victimization and perpetration. Men experiencing severe perpetration and victimization had a 2.66 mmHg (95% CI: 0.05, 5.28) higher SBP and a 59% increased odds (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.37) of incident hypertension compared to men not exposed to intimate partner violence. No other category of violence was associated with blood pressure outcomes in men. Intimate partner violence was not associated with blood pressure outcomes in women. Intimate partner violence may have long-term consequences for men's hemodynamic health. Screening men for victimization and perpetration may assist clinicians to identify individuals at increased risk of hypertension.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Vítimas de Crime , Hipertensão/etiologia , Maus-Tratos Conjugais , Violência , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
19.
Acad Pediatr ; 13(3): 214-21, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23680340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether infrequent bullying perpetration and victimization (once or twice a month) are associated with elevated levels of internalizing and externalizing problems and to assess evidence for a minimum frequency threshold for bullying involvement. METHODS: The analytic sample included 128,681 6th, 9th, and 12th graders who completed the 2010 Minnesota Student Survey. Logistic regression and general linear models examined the association between bullying frequency and adjustment correlates including emotional distress, self-harm, physical fighting, and substance use while controlling for demographic characteristics. Gender and grade were included as moderators. RESULTS: Infrequent bullying perpetration and victimization were associated with increased levels of all adjustment problems relative to those who did not engage in bullying in the past 30 days. Grade moderated many of these findings, with perpetration frequency being more strongly related to substance use, self-harm, and suicidal ideation for 6th graders than 12th graders, whereas victimization frequency was associated with self-harm more strongly for 12th graders than 6th graders. Evidence for minimum thresholds for bullying involvement across all outcomes, grades, and bullying roles was inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS: Infrequent bullying involvement may pose risks to adolescent adjustment; thus, clinicians and school personnel should address even isolated instances of bullying behavior. Researchers should reexamine the use of cut points in bullying research in order to more fully understand the nature of bullying in adolescence. These data indicate the need for prevention and intervention programs that target diverse internalizing and externalizing problems for bullies and victims, regardless of bullying frequency.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Ajustamento Social , Adolescente , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 52(6): 557-67, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23572448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare depression identification and management perceptions and practices between professions and disciplines in primary care and examine factors that increase the likelihood of administering a standardized depression screening instrument, asking about patients' depressive symptoms, and using best practice when managing depressed adolescents. METHODS: Data came from an online survey of clinicians in Minnesota (20% response rate). Analyses involved bivariate tests and linear regressions. RESULTS: The analytic sample comprised 260 family medicine physicians, 127 pediatricians, 96 family nurse practitioners, and 54 pediatric nurse practitioners. Overall, few differences emerged between physicians and nurse practitioners or family and pediatric clinicians regarding addressing depression among adolescents. Two factors associated with administering a standardized instrument included having clear protocols for follow-up after depression screening and feeling better prepared to address depression among adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Enhancing clinicians' competence to address depression and developing postscreening protocols could help providers implement universal screening in primary care.


Assuntos
Depressão/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
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