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Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(13): 4272-4292, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633509


PURPOSE: The aim of this review is to give an overview of the current status of targeted optical fluorescence imaging in the field of oncology, cardiovascular, infectious and inflammatory diseases to further promote clinical translation. METHODS: A meta-narrative approach was taken to systematically describe the relevant literature. Consecutively, each field was assigned a developmental stage regarding the clinical implementation of optical fluorescence imaging. RESULTS: Optical fluorescence imaging is leaning towards clinical implementation in gastrointestinal and head and neck cancers, closely followed by pulmonary, neuro, breast and gynaecological oncology. In cardiovascular and infectious disease, optical imaging is in a less advanced/proof of concept stage. CONCLUSION: Targeted optical fluorescence imaging is rapidly evolving and expanding into the clinic, especially in the field of oncology. However, the imaging modality still has to overcome some major challenges before it can be part of the standard of care in the clinic, such as the provision of pivotal trial data. Intensive multidisciplinary (pre-)clinical joined forces are essential to overcome the delivery of such compelling phase III registration trial data and subsequent regulatory approval and reimbursement hurdles to advance clinical implementation of targeted optical fluorescence imaging as part of standard practice.

Fluorescência , Imagem Óptica , Cardiologia , Previsões , Humanos , Infectologia , Inflamação , Oncologia
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 48(1): 241-253, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594196


BACKGROUND: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly used for the treatment of advanced heart failure. LVADs improve quality of life and decrease mortality, but the driveline carries substantial risk for major infections. These device-related LVAD and driveline infections are difficult to diagnose with conventional imaging. We reviewed and analysed the current literature on the additive value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging for the diagnosis of LVAD-related infections." MATERIALS/METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review using several databases from their inception until the 31st of December, 2019. Studies investigating the diagnostic performance of FDG-PET/CT in patients with suspected LVAD infection were retrieved. After a bias risk assessment using QUADAS-2, a study-aggregate meta-analysis was performed on a per examination-based analysis. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies were included in the systematic review, eight of which were also eligible for study-aggregate meta-analysis. For the meta-analysis, a total of 256 FDG-PET/CT scans, examining pump/pocket and/or driveline infection, were acquired in 230 patients. Pooled sensitivity of FDG-PET/CT was 0.95 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-0.97) and pooled specificity was 0.91 (95% CI 0.54-0.99) for the diagnosis of device-related infection. For pump/pocket infection, sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT were 0.97 (95%CI 0.69-1.00) and 0.93 (95%CI 0.64-0.99), respectively. For driveline infection, sensitivity and specificity were 0.96 (95%CI 0.88-0.99) and 0.99 (95%CI 0.13-1.00) respectively. Significant heterogeneity existed across studies for specificity, mostly caused by differences in scan procedures. Predefined criteria for suspicion of LVAD and/or driveline infection were lacking in all included studies. CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET/CT is a valuable tool for assessment of device-related infection in LVAD patients, with high sensitivity and high, albeit variable, specificity. Standardization of FDG-PET/CT procedures and criteria for suspected device-related LVAD infections are needed for consistent reporting of FDG-PET/CT scans.

Coração Auxiliar , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico por imagem , Qualidade de Vida , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
Eur Radiol ; 30(11): 5794-5804, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506262


OBJECTIVES: Assessment of thoracic aortic dimensions with non-ECG-triggered contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) is accompanied with motion artefacts and requires gadolinium. To avoid both motion artefacts and gadolinium administration, we evaluated the similarity and reproducibility of dimensions measured on ECG-triggered, balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) MRA as alternative to CE-MRA. METHODS: All patients, with varying medical conditions, referred for thoracic aortic examination between September 2016 and March 2018, who underwent non-ECG-triggered CE-MRA and SSFP-MRA (1.5 T) were retrospectively included (n = 30). Aortic dimensions were measured after double-oblique multiplanar reconstruction by two observers at nine landmarks predefined by literature guidelines. Image quality was scored at the sinus of Valsalva, mid-ascending aorta and mid-descending aorta by semi-automatically assessing the vessel sharpness. RESULTS: Aortic dimensions showed high agreement between non-ECG-triggered CE-MRA and SSFP-MRA (r = 0.99, p < 0.05) without overestimation or underestimation of aortic dimensions in SSFP-MRA (mean difference, 0.1 mm; limits of agreement, - 1.9 mm and 1.9 mm). Intra- and inter-observer variabilities were significantly smaller with SSFP-MRA for the sinus of Valsalva and sinotubular junction. Image quality of the sinus of Valsalva was significantly better with SSFP-MRA, as fewer images were of impaired quality (3/30) than in CE-MRA (21/30). Reproducibility of dimensions was significantly better in images scored as good quality compared to impaired quality in both sequences. CONCLUSIONS: Thoracic aortic dimensions measured on SSFP-MRA and non-ECG-triggered CE-MRA were similar. As expected, SSFP-MRA showed better reproducibility close to the aortic root because of lesser motion artefacts, making it a feasible non-contrast imaging alternative. KEY POINTS: • SSFP-MRA provides similar dimensions as non-ECG-triggered CE-MRA. • Intra- and inter-observer reproducibilities improve for the sinus of Valsalva and sinotubular junction with SSFP-MRA. • ECG-triggered SSFP-MRA shows better image quality for landmarks close to the aortic root in the absence of cardiac motion.

Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Artefatos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 34, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393281


BACKGROUND: The clinical application of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T2 and T2* mapping is currently limited as ranges for healthy and cardiac diseases are poorly defined. In this meta-analysis we aimed to determine the weighted mean of T2 and T2* mapping values in patients with myocardial infarction (MI), heart transplantation, non-ischemic cardiomyopathies (NICM) and hypertension, and the standardized mean difference (SMD) of each population with healthy controls. Additionally, the variation of mapping outcomes between studies was investigated. METHODS: The PRISMA guidelines were followed after literature searches on PubMed and Embase. Studies reporting CMR T2 or T2* values measured in patients were included. The SMD was calculated using a random effects model and a meta-regression analysis was performed for populations with sufficient published data. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-four studies, including 13,804 patient and 4392 control measurements, were included. T2 values were higher in patients with MI, heart transplantation, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, amyloidosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and myocarditis (SMD of 2.17, 1.05, 0.87, 1.39, 1.62, 1.95, 1.90 and 1.33, respectively, P <  0.01) compared with controls. T2 values in iron overload patients (SMD = - 0.54, P = 0.30) and Anderson-Fabry disease patients (SMD = 0.52, P = 0.17) did both not differ from controls. T2* values were lower in patients with MI and iron overload (SMD of - 1.99 and - 2.39, respectively, P <  0.01) compared with controls. T2* values in HCM patients (SMD = - 0.61, P = 0.22), DCM patients (SMD = - 0.54, P = 0.06) and hypertension patients (SMD = - 1.46, P = 0.10) did not differ from controls. Multiple CMR acquisition and patient demographic factors were assessed as significant covariates, thereby influencing the mapping outcomes and causing variation between studies. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical utility of T2 and T2* mapping to distinguish affected myocardium in patients with cardiomyopathies or heart transplantation from healthy myocardium seemed to be confirmed based on this meta-analysis. Nevertheless, variation of mapping values between studies complicates comparison with external values and therefore require local healthy reference values to clinically interpret quantitative values. Furthermore, disease differentiation seems limited, since changes in T2 and T2* values of most cardiomyopathies are similar.

Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Transplante de Coração , Hipertensão/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 17(5): 516-9, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25586670


The aim of the present study was to determine whether single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) can non-invasively assess triglyceride content in both supraclavicular fat depots and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) to determine whether these measurements correlate to metabolic variables. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were studied using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and (15)O-H2O PET perfusion during cold exposure, and (1)H-MRS at ambient temperature. Image-guided biopsies were collected from nine volunteers. The supraclavicular triglyceride content determined by (1)H-MRS varied between 60 and 91% [mean ± standard deviation (s.d.) 77 ± 10%]. It correlated positively with body mass index, waist circumference, subcutaneous and visceral fat masses and 8-year diabetes risk based on the Framingham risk score and inversely with HDL cholesterol and insulin sensitivity (M-value; euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp). Subcutaneous WAT had a significantly higher triglyceride content, 76-95% (mean ± s.d. 87 ± 5%; p = 0.0002). In conclusion, the triglyceride content in supraclavicular fat deposits measured by (1)H-MRS may be an independent marker of whole-body insulin sensitivity, independent of brown adipose tissue metabolic activation.

Tecido Adiposo Marrom/química , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/análise , Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/química , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , HDL-Colesterol , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/análise , Risco , Temperatura , Circunferência da Cintura
Osteoporos Int ; 25(2): 653-62, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23943163


UNLABELLED: Inphase and out-of-phase magnetic resonance imaging is a robust and fast method which can provide similar vertebral bone marrow fat estimation as (1)H proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, indicating that this technique is a potentially useful tool in both research and clinical practice. INTRODUCTION: The importance of evaluating bone marrow fat lies in the fact that osteoporosis and obesity, two disorders of body composition, are growing in prevalence. Bone fat mass can be reliably assessed using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), but this method is technically demanding and needs advanced post-processing unlike inphase and out-of-phase magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is a robust and fast method. METHODS: We compared vertebral bone marrow fat (BMF) content assessed by inphase and out-of-phase MRI and (1)H MRS using a 1.5-T MRI scanner in mothers (n = 34, aged 49.4 years), fathers (n = 31, aged 53.1 years) and their daughters (n = 40, aged 20.3 years) who participated in the CALEX family study. Signal intensity on the inphase and out-of-phase MRI was analyzed from the same location and size of the single-voxel (1)H MRS measurement. RESULTS: Positive correlations were found between (1)H MRS and inphase and out-of-phase MRI in the axial plane (r = 0.746, p < 0.001) and sagittal plane (r = 0.804, p < 0.001). The mean differences between (1)H MRS and inphase and out-of-phase MRI in the axial and sagittal planes were relatively small, at 4.13 and 2.67 %, and the agreement between techniques was 89.4 and 93.2 %, respectively. Girls had a significantly lower vertebral BMF than mothers and fathers with both methods (for all, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that inphase and out-of-phase MRI can provide similar vertebral BMF estimation as (1)H MRS, indicating that this technique is a potentially useful tool in both research and clinical practice.

Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Medula Óssea/anatomia & histologia , Vértebras Lombares/anatomia & histologia , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Adulto , Envelhecimento/patologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem