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1.
Cerebellum ; 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544370

RESUMO

There are no effective treatments in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of theta burst repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on postural instability in PSP. Twenty PSP patients underwent a session of sham or real cerebellar rTMS in a crossover design. Before and after stimulation, static balance was evaluated with instrumented (lower back accelerometer, Rehagait®, Hasomed, Germany) 30-s trials in semitandem and tandem positions. In tandem and semitandem tasks, active stimulation was associated with increase in time without falls (both p=0.04). In the same tasks, device-extracted parameters revealed significant improvement in area (p=0.007), velocity (p=0.005), acceleration and jerkiness of sway (p=0.008) in real versus sham stimulation. Cerebellar rTMS showed a significant effect on stability in PSP patients, when assessed with mobile digital technology, in a double-blind design. These results should motivate larger and longer trials using non-invasive brain stimulation for PSP patients.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Progranulin-related frontotemporal dementia (FTD-GRN) is a fast progressive disease. Modelling the cascade of multimodal biomarker changes aids in understanding the aetiology of this disease and enables monitoring of individual mutation carriers. In this cross-sectional study, we estimated the temporal cascade of biomarker changes for FTD-GRN, in a data-driven way. METHODS: We included 56 presymptomatic and 35 symptomatic GRN mutation carriers, and 35 healthy non-carriers. Selected biomarkers were neurofilament light chain (NfL), grey matter volume, white matter microstructure and cognitive domains. We used discriminative event-based modelling to infer the cascade of biomarker changes in FTD-GRN and estimated individual disease severity through cross-validation. We derived the biomarker cascades in non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) and behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD) to understand the differences between these phenotypes. RESULTS: Language functioning and NfL were the earliest abnormal biomarkers in FTD-GRN. White matter tracts were affected before grey matter volume, and the left hemisphere degenerated before the right. Based on individual disease severities, presymptomatic carriers could be delineated from symptomatic carriers with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 96.1%. The estimated disease severity strongly correlated with functional severity in nfvPPA, but not in bvFTD. In addition, the biomarker cascade in bvFTD showed more uncertainty than nfvPPA. CONCLUSION: Degeneration of axons and language deficits are indicated to be the earliest biomarkers in FTD-GRN, with bvFTD being more heterogeneous in disease progression than nfvPPA. Our data-driven model could help identify presymptomatic GRN mutation carriers at risk of conversion to the clinical stage.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2030194, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404617

RESUMO

Importance: Behavioral disturbances are core features of frontotemporal dementia (FTD); however, symptom progression across the course of disease is not well characterized in genetic FTD. Objective: To investigate behavioral symptom frequency and severity and their evolution and progression in different forms of genetic FTD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal cohort study, the international Genetic FTD Initiative (GENFI), was conducted from January 30, 2012, to May 31, 2019, at 23 multicenter specialist tertiary FTD research clinics in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Germany, Sweden, Finland, and Canada. Participants included a consecutive sample of 232 symptomatic FTD gene variation carriers comprising 115 with variations in C9orf72, 78 in GRN, and 39 in MAPT. A total of 101 carriers had at least 1 follow-up evaluation (for a total of 400 assessments). Gene variations were included only if considered pathogenetic. Main Outcomes and Measures: Behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms were assessed across disease duration and evaluated from symptom onset. Hierarchical generalized linear mixed models were used to model behavioral and neuropsychiatric measures as a function of disease duration and variation. Results: Of 232 patients with FTD, 115 (49.6%) had a C9orf72 expansion (median [interquartile range (IQR)] age at evaluation, 64.3 [57.5-69.7] years; 72 men [62.6%]; 115 White patients [100%]), 78 (33.6%) had a GRN variant (median [IQR] age, 63.4 [58.3-68.8] years; 40 women [51.3%]; 77 White patients [98.7%]), and 39 (16.8%) had a MAPT variant (median [IQR] age, 56.3 [49.9-62.4] years; 25 men [64.1%]; 37 White patients [94.9%]). All core behavioral symptoms, including disinhibition, apathy, loss of empathy, perseverative behavior, and hyperorality, were highly expressed in all gene variant carriers (>50% patients), with apathy being one of the most common and severe symptoms throughout the disease course (51.7%-100% of patients). Patients with MAPT variants showed the highest frequency and severity of most behavioral symptoms, particularly disinhibition (79.3%-100% of patients) and compulsive behavior (64.3%-100% of patients), compared with C9orf72 carriers (51.7%-95.8% of patients with disinhibition and 34.5%-75.0% with compulsive behavior) and GRN carriers (38.2%-100% with disinhibition and 20.6%-100% with compulsive behavior). Alongside behavioral symptoms, neuropsychiatric symptoms were very frequently reported in patients with genetic FTD: anxiety and depression were most common in GRN carriers (23.8%-100% of patients) and MAPT carriers (26.1%-77.8% of patients); hallucinations, particularly auditory and visual, were most common in C9orf72 carriers (10.3%-54.5% of patients). Most behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms increased in the early-intermediate phases and plateaued in the late stages of disease, except for depression, which steadily declined in C9orf72 carriers, and depression and anxiety, which surged only in the late stages in GRN carriers. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study suggests that behavioral and neuropsychiatric disturbances differ between the common FTD gene variants and have different trajectories throughout the course of disease. These findings have crucial implications for counseling patients and caregivers and for the design of disease-modifying treatment trials in genetic FTD.

4.
Brain Stimul ; 14(2): 241-249, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of a Random Forest (RF) classifier on Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) measures in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). METHODS: We applied a RF classifier on TMS measures obtained from a multicenter cohort of patients with MCI, including MCI-Alzheimer's Disease (MCI-AD), MCI-frontotemporal dementia (MCI-FTD), MCI-dementia with Lewy bodies (MCI-DLB), and healthy controls (HC). All patients underwent TMS assessment at recruitment (index test), with application of reference clinical criteria, to predict different neurodegenerative disorders. The primary outcome measures were the classification accuracy, precision, recall and F1-score of TMS in differentiating each disorder. RESULTS: 160 participants were included, namely 64 patients diagnosed as MCI-AD, 28 as MCI-FTD, 14 as MCI-DLB, and 47 as healthy controls (HC). A series of 3 binary classifiers was employed, and the prediction model exhibited high classification accuracy (ranging from 0.72 to 0.86), high precision (0.72-0.90), high recall (0.75-0.98), and high F1-scores (0.78-0.92), in differentiating each neurodegenerative disorder. By computing a new classifier, trained and validated on the current cohort of MCI patients, classification indices showed even higher accuracy (ranging from 0.83 to 0.93), precision (0.87-0.89), recall (0.83-1.00), and F1-scores (0.85-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: TMS may be considered a useful additional screening tool to be used in clinical practice in the prodromal stages of neurodegenerative dementias.

5.
Neuroimage Clin ; 29: 102540, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418170

RESUMO

Mutations in the granulin gene (GRN) cause familial frontotemporal dementia. Understanding the structural brain changes in presymptomatic GRN carriers would enforce the use of neuroimaging biomarkers for early diagnosis and monitoring. We studied 100 presymptomatic GRN mutation carriers and 94 noncarriers from the Genetic Frontotemporal dementia initiative (GENFI), with MRI structural images. We analyzed 3T MRI structural images using the FreeSurfer pipeline to calculate the whole brain cortical thickness (CTh) for each subject. We also perform a vertex-wise general linear model to assess differences between groups in the relationship between CTh and diverse covariables as gender, age, the estimated years to onset and education. We also explored differences according to TMEM106B genotype, a possible disease modifier. Whole brain CTh did not differ between carriers and noncarriers. Both groups showed age-related cortical thinning. The group-by-age interaction analysis showed that this age-related cortical thinning was significantly greater in GRN carriers in the left superior frontal cortex. TMEM106B did not significantly influence the age-related cortical thinning. Our results validate and expand previous findings suggesting an increased CTh loss associated with age and estimated proximity to symptoms onset in GRN carriers, even before the disease onset.

6.
Cells ; 10(1)2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466431

RESUMO

The role of autoimmunity in central nervous system (CNS) disorders is rapidly expanding. In the last twenty years, different types of autoantibodies targeting subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors have been found in a variety of patients affected by brain disorders. Several of these antibodies are directed against NMDA receptors (NMDAR), mostly in autoimmune encephalitis, whereas a growing field of research has identified antibodies against AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunits in patients with different types of epilepsy or frontotemporal dementia. Several in vitro and in vivo studies performed in the last decade have dramatically improved our understanding of the molecular and functional effects induced by both NMDAR and AMPAR autoantibodies at the excitatory glutamatergic synapse and, consequently, their possible role in the onset of clinical symptoms. In particular, the method by which autoantibodies can modulate the localization at synapses of specific target subunits leading to functional impairments and behavioral alterations has been well addressed in animal studies. Overall, these preclinical studies have opened new avenues for the development of novel pharmacological treatments specifically targeting the synaptic activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors.

7.
Cereb Cortex ; 31(1): 97-105, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797208

RESUMO

We investigated in a longitudinal multicenter cohort study functional cortical connectivity changes along the course of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) from the prodromal stage of the diseases. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded in 18 FTD and 18 AD patients at the prodromal stage of dementia, at dementia onset, and 3 years after dementia onset. Twenty healthy controls (HC) underwent EEG recordings at the same time interval as the patients. Mutual information (MI) analysis measured the strength of functional network connectivity. FTD and AD patients showed greater MI at the prodromal stage of dementia (FTD vs. HC P = 2 × 10-8; AD vs. HC P = 4 × 10-3). Local connectivity was higher in left and right frontal areas of FTD (P = 7 × 10-5 and 0.03) and in left and right posterior areas in AD (P = 3 × 10-5 and 5 × 10-5) versus HC. We showed cortical hyperconnectivity at the prodromal stage of dementia in areas involved in the specific pathological process of FTD (frontal regions) and AD (posterior regions). Hyperconnectivity disappeared during follow-up, thus suggesting that it is an early electrophysiological feature of dementia, potentially useful to identify prodromal FTD and AD.

8.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316852

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Apathy adversely affects prognosis and survival of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We test whether apathy develops in presymptomatic genetic FTD, and is associated with cognitive decline and brain atrophy. METHODS: Presymptomatic carriers of MAPT, GRN or C9orf72 mutations (N = 304), and relatives without mutations (N = 296) underwent clinical assessments and MRI at baseline, and annually for 2 years. Longitudinal changes in apathy, cognition, gray matter volumes, and their relationships were analyzed with latent growth curve modeling. RESULTS: Apathy severity increased over time in presymptomatic carriers, but not in non-carriers. In presymptomatic carriers, baseline apathy predicted cognitive decline over two years, but not vice versa. Apathy progression was associated with baseline low gray matter volume in frontal and cingulate regions. DISCUSSION: Apathy is an early marker of FTD-related changes and predicts a subsequent subclinical deterioration of cognition before dementia onset. Apathy may be a modifiable factor in those at risk of FTD.

9.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185611

RESUMO

Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome. Defects of copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) homeostasis are involved in the development of several neurodegenerative diseases and their homeostasis is interconnected by the Cu-protein ceruloplasmin (Cp), responsible for Fe oxidative state. In this study we assessed Fe, transferrin (Trf), ferritin, Cp specific activity (eCp/iCp), Cp/Trf ratio, and Trf saturation in 60 FTLD patients and 43 healthy controls, and discussed the results in relation to Cu homeostasis. The significant decrease of the eCp/iCp in the FTLD patients supports the involvement of Fe imbalance in the onset and progression of FTLD.

10.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215845

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The presymptomatic phase of neurodegenerative disease can last many years, with sustained cognitive function despite progressive atrophy. We investigate this phenomenon in familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD). METHODS: We studied 121 presymptomatic FTD mutation carriers and 134 family members without mutations, using multivariate data-driven approach to link cognitive performance with both structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Atrophy and brain network connectivity were compared between groups, in relation to the time from expected symptom onset. RESULTS: There were group differences in brain structure and function, in the absence of differences in cognitive performance. Specifically, we identified behaviorally relevant structural and functional network differences. Structure-function relationships were similar in both groups, but coupling between functional connectivity and cognition was stronger for carriers than for non-carriers, and increased with proximity to the expected onset of disease. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that the maintenance of functional network connectivity enables carriers to maintain cognitive performance.

11.
Brain Commun ; 2(2)2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210084

RESUMO

Frontotemporal dementia is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder characterized by neuronal loss in the frontal and temporal lobes. Despite progress in understanding which genes are associated with the aetiology of frontotemporal dementia, the biological basis of how mutations in these genes lead to cell loss in specific cortical regions remains unclear. In this work we combined gene expression data for 16,772 genes from the Allen Institute for Brain Science atlas with brain maps of gray matter atrophy in symptomatic C9orf72, GRN and MAPT mutation carriers obtained from the Genetic Frontotemporal dementia Initiative study. No significant association was seen between C9orf72, GRN and MAPT expression and the atrophy patterns in the respective genetic groups. After adjusting for spatial autocorrelation, between 1,000 and 5,000 genes showed a negative or positive association with the atrophy pattern within each individual genetic group, with the most significantly associated genes being TREM2, SSBP3 and GPR158 (negative association in C9orf72, GRN and MAPT respectively) and RELN, MXRA8 and LPA (positive association in C9orf72, GRN and MAPT respectively). An overrepresentation analysis identified a negative association with genes involved in mitochondrial function, and a positive association with genes involved in vascular and glial cell function in each of the genetic groups. A set of 423 and 700 genes showed significant positive and negative association, respectively, with atrophy patterns in all three maps. The gene set with increased expression in spared cortical regions was enriched for neuronal and microglial genes, while the gene set with increased expression in atrophied regions was enriched for astrocyte and endothelial cell genes. Our analysis suggests that these cell types may play a more active role in the onset of neurodegeneration in frontotemporal dementia than previously assumed, and in the case of the positively-associated cell marker genes, potentially through emergence of neurotoxic astrocytes and alteration in the blood-brain barrier respectively.

12.
Cortex ; 133: 384-398, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221702

RESUMO

A key symptom of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is difficulty interacting socially with others. Social cognition problems in FTD include impaired emotion processing and theory of mind difficulties, and whilst these have been studied extensively in sporadic FTD, few studies have investigated them in familial FTD. Facial Emotion Recognition (FER) and Faux Pas (FP) recognition tests were used to study social cognition within the Genetic Frontotemporal Dementia Initiative (GENFI), a large familial FTD cohort of C9orf72, GRN, and MAPT mutation carriers. 627 participants undertook at least one of the tasks, and were separated into mutation-negative healthy controls, presymptomatic mutation carriers (split into early and late groups) and symptomatic mutation carriers. Groups were compared using a linear regression model with bootstrapping, adjusting for age, sex, education, and for the FP recognition test, language. Neural correlates of social cognition deficits were explored using a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study. All three of the symptomatic genetic groups were impaired on both tasks with no significant difference between them. However, prior to onset, only the late presymptomatic C9orf72 mutation carriers on the FER test were impaired compared to the control group, with a subanalysis showing differences particularly in fear and sadness. The VBM analysis revealed that impaired social cognition was mainly associated with a left hemisphere predominant network of regions involving particularly the striatum, orbitofrontal cortex and insula, and to a lesser extent the inferomedial temporal lobe and other areas of the frontal lobe. In conclusion, theory of mind and emotion processing abilities are impaired in familial FTD, with early changes occurring prior to symptom onset in C9orf72 presymptomatic mutation carriers. Future work should investigate how performance changes over time, in order to gain a clearer insight into social cognitive impairment over the course of the disease.

14.
Brain Commun ; 2(2): fcaa086, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094279

RESUMO

Regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in dendritic spines is crucial for learning and memory formation. Hence, defects in the actin cytoskeleton pathways are a biological trait of several brain diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Here, we describe a novel synaptic mechanism governed by the cyclase-associated protein 2, which is required for structural plasticity phenomena and completely disrupted in Alzheimer's disease. We report that the formation of cyclase-associated protein 2 dimers through its Cys32 is important for cyclase-associated protein 2 binding to cofilin and for actin turnover. The Cys32-dependent cyclase-associated protein 2 homodimerization and association to cofilin are triggered by long-term potentiation and are required for long-term potentiation-induced cofilin translocation into spines, spine remodelling and the potentiation of synaptic transmission. This mechanism is specifically affected in the hippocampus, but not in the superior frontal gyrus, of both Alzheimer's disease patients and APP/PS1 mice, where cyclase-associated protein 2 is down-regulated and cyclase-associated protein 2 dimer synaptic levels are reduced. Notably, cyclase-associated protein 2 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid are significantly increased in Alzheimer's disease patients but not in subjects affected by frontotemporal dementia. In Alzheimer's disease hippocampi, cofilin association to cyclase-associated protein 2 dimer/monomer is altered and cofilin is aberrantly localized in spines. Taken together, these results provide novel insights into structural plasticity mechanisms that are defective in Alzheimer's disease.

15.
Brain Commun ; 2(2): fcaa142, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094285

RESUMO

The pathological deposition of the transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa occurs in the majority (∼97%) of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in around 45% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration cases. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration clinically overlap, presenting a continuum of phenotypes. Both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration lack treatments capable of interfering with the underlying pathological process and early detection of transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa pathology would facilitate the development of disease-modifying drugs. The real-time quaking-induced conversion reaction showed the ability to detect prions in several peripheral tissues of patients with different forms of prion and prion-like diseases. Despite transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa displays prion-like properties, to date the real-time quaking-induced conversion reaction technology has not yet been adapted to this protein. The aim of this study was to adapt the real-time quaking-induced conversion reaction technique for the transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa substrate and to exploit the intrinsic ability of this technology to amplify minute amount of mis-folded proteins for the detection of pathological transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa species in the cerebrospinal fluid of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients. We first optimized the technique with synthetic transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa-pre-formed aggregates and with autopsy-verified brain homogenate samples and subsequently analysed CSF samples from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients and controls. Transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa real-time quaking-induced conversion reaction was able to detect as little as 15 pg of transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa aggregates, discriminating between a cohort of patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration and age-matched controls with a total sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 85%. Our data give a proof-of-concept that transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa is a suitable substrate for the real-time quaking-induced conversion reaction. Transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa real-time quaking-induced conversion reaction could be an innovative and useful tool for diagnosis and drug development in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid detection of transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa pathological aggregates may be exploited as a disease biomarker for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration patients.

16.
Neurol Sci ; 41(12): 3471-3474, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090303

RESUMO

A wide range of neurological signs and symptoms have been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the present report, we described two Italian patients diagnosed with diaphragmatic myoclonus after COVID-19. In both cases, mild lymphocytosis at cerebrospinal fluid analysis and no structural brain changes were reported. The pathophysiological origin of the myoclonus in the two cases was different. In case 1, electroencephalogram did not reveal any cortical correlates and brain imaging of the spine was unremarkable, while in case 2, cortical origin of myoclonus was demonstrated. With the present two cases, we confirm and extend the neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diafragma/fisiopatologia , Mioclonia/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias
17.
Neurol Res ; : 1-8, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059546

RESUMO

Objective: Diagnosis of idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (iNPH) relies solely on clinical and radiological criteria while, unlike other neurological diseases, the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid markers is not used in clinical practice. Nevertheless, the overlapping of neurodegenerative diseases affects the long-term shunt efficacy and this occurrence should be detected before surgery. Therefore, we performed this study in order to assess the correlation between pre-surgical levels of CSF Beta Amyloid protein, Total Tau protein and Phospho-Tau protein with long-term clinical outcome. Methods: Between March 2012 and May 2016 we prospective evaluated all patients with iNPH according to guidelines criteria and we analysed CSF concentration of these proteins before and during surgery. Two years after surgery we evaluated iNPH score for all patients, grouping them in shunt responders and non-responders. Results: A total of 117 patients were included: Tap Test non-responders were 58 and at two years we had 35 shunt responders and 15 shunt non-responders. We found a significative difference between shunt-responders and shunt non-responders for pre surgical T-Tau (p: 0.02) and for P-Tau (p: 0.01). All the proteins were significantly associated with clinical outcome after surgery with different cut-off values; in particular, having a 'low' value of T-Tau, P-Tau and Aß1-42 resulted in favourable outcome after surgery. Conclusions: Low level of P-Tau is a useful CSF biochemical prognostic factor for good clinical outcome at least two years after shunt; meanwhile a lower Aß1-42 might suggest that the pathophysiology of iNPH could have something in common with other neurodegenerative diseases of the elderly.

18.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972771

RESUMO

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a clinical, genetic, and pathologic heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of APOƐ4, rs5848 in GRN, and rs1042522 in TP53 gene as disease risk factors and/or phenotype modifiers in 440 FTD patients, including 175 C9orf72 expansion carriers. We found that the C9orf72 expansion carriers showing an earlier age at onset (p < 0.001). Among the clinical groups, the FTD-MND (motoneuron disease) showed the lowest survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.12), and the progressive nonfluent aphasia group showed the highest onset age (p = 0.03). In our cohort, the rs1042522 in TP53 was associated with disease onset (p = 0.02) and survival (HR = 1.73) and rs5848 GRN with a significantly shorter survival in CC homozygous patients (HR = 1.98). The frequency of APOƐ4 carriers was significantly increased in the C9orf72 noncarriers (p = 0.022). Although validation of our findings is necessary, our results suggest that TP53, GRN, and APOE genes may act as phenotype modifiers in FTD and should be considered in future clinical trials.

19.
Neurology ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943482

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterise C9orf72 expansions in relation to genetic ancestry and age at onset (AAO), and to use these parameters to discriminate the behavioural from the language variant syndrome, in a large pan-European cohort of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) cases. METHODS: We evaluated expansions frequency in the entire cohort (n=1396; bvFTD [n=800], PPA [n=495] and FTLD-MND [n=101]). We then focused on the bvFTD and PPA cases and tested for association between expansion status, syndromes, genetic ancestry, and AAO applying statistical tests comprising Fisher's Exact, ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc tests, and logistic and non-linear mixed-effects model regressions. RESULTS: We found C9orf72 pathogenic expansions in 4% of all cases (56/1396). Expansion carriers differently distributed across syndromes: 12/101 FTLD-MNDs (11.9%), 40/800 bvFTDs (5%) and 4/495 of PPAs (0.8%). While addressing population-substructure through principal component analysis (PCA), we defined 2 patients groups with Central/Northern (n=873) and Southern European (n=523) ancestry. The proportion of expansion carriers was significantly higher in bvFTDs compared to PPAs (5% vs. 0.8% [p=2.17x10-5; OR=6.4; CI:2.31-24.99]), as well as in individuals with Central/Northern European compared to Southern European ancestry (4.4% vs. 1.8% [p=1.1x10-2; OR=2.5; CI:1.17-5.99]). Pathogenic expansions and Central/Northern European ancestry independently and inversely correlated with AAO. Our prediction model (based on expansions status, genetic ancestry and AAO) predicted a diagnosis of bvFTD with 64% accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate correlation between pathogenic C9orf72 expansions, AAO, PCA-based Central/Northern European ancestry and a diagnosis of bvFTD, implying to complex genetic risk-architectures differently underpinning the behavioural and language variant syndromes.

20.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 77(3): 1129-1141, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is still unknown if serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a useful marker in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum GFAP in a large cohort of patients with FTLD. METHODS: In this retrospective study, performed on 406 participants, we measured serum GFAP concentration with an ultrasensitive Single molecule array (Simoa) method in patients with FTLD, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and in cognitively unimpaired elderly controls. We assessed the role of GFAP as marker of disease severity by analyzing the correlation with clinical variables, neurophysiological data, and cross-sectional brain imaging. Moreover, we evaluated the role of serum GFAP as a prognostic marker of disease survival. RESULTS: We observed significantly higher levels of serum GFAP in patients with FTLD syndromes, except progressive supranuclear palsy, compared with healthy controls, but not compared with AD patients. In FTLD, serum GFAP levels correlated with measures of cognitive dysfunction and disease severity, and were associated with indirect measures of GABAergic deficit. Serum GFAP concentration was not a significant predictor of survival. CONCLUSION: Serum GFAP is increased in FTLD, correlates with cognition and GABAergic deficits, and thus shows promise as a biomarker of disease severity in FTLD.

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