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1.
Rural Remote Health ; 20(1): 5424, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204596

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Self-assessment of health status can be considered a good predictor of population morbidity and mortality. Sociodemographic, environmental and health conditions can influence health self-perception. However, in rural areas, the identification of morbidities that affect workers' health and their general health condition is unknown. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between health self-perception and the occurrence of morbidities according to type of work. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, population-based study of a rural area of Brazil. Health self-perception outcomes were classified as good (very good or good) or not good (fair, poor or very poor). Rural work, classified as yes or no, was considered to be the exposure. Crude and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed, obtaining prevalence ratio (PR) estimates and the respective confidence intervals (95%CI). All analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for confounding factors. RESULTS: The sample comprised 893 individuals. The not good health self-perception prevalence was 27.6%, with a significant difference between the sexes (24.2% of men v 32.5% of women, p=0.014). Although associated with rural work in the crude model, self-perception was not associated with type of work after adjustment (PR: 1.02, 95%CI: 0.83-1.27). The risk of developing obesity (PR: 0.65, 95%CI: 0.47-0.91) and cardiovascular diseases (PR: 0.32, 95%CI: 0.12-0.87) was lower in men who developed rural activities. Also, women who reported doing rural work presented a lower risk for respiratory diseases (PR: 0.47; 95%CI: 0.22-0.97). CONCLUSION: The association between rural work and not good health self-perception, cardiovascular disease and obesity in women, and respiratory diseases in men seems to be highly dependent on sociodemographic context.

2.
Nutrition ; 71: 110636, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The number of chronic diseases is associated with the reduction in muscle mass and strength in older people (≥60 y of age). The purpose of this study was to asses the association between multimorbidities and handgrip strength in older community-dwelling individuals from a city in southern Brazil, identifying potential differences according to sex and loss of muscle mass. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional population-based study among older individuals living in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Grip strength was assessed with digital dynamometers according to the criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) to define dynapenia. Multimorbidity was defined by self-report as the presence of at least 5 diseases diagnosed by a physician. Covariates of the study were age, sex, socioeconomic status, schooling, marital status, nutritional status, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits. Statistical analyses were stratified according to the presence of myopenia (low muscle mass). RESULTS: We received completed information from 1336 individuals ≥60 y of age. Multimorbidity was 50% and 16% more prevalent, respectively, among men and women classified in the lower quartile of manual grip strength (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-1.95 for men and PR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.32 for women) compared with those from the upper quartile. Among men without myopenia, the presence of dynapenia increased the odds of having multimorbidity (PR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.71). Among those with myopenia, there was a 10% increase in the prevalence of multimorbidity only for women with dynapenia (PR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21). CONCLUSION: Results from the present study indicated an association between manual grip strength and multimorbidity among this population, and the effect measures were greater in men. Manual grip strength proved to be a good marker of health in this population, especially in those who did not present with myopenia.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1260, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the prevalence and the factors associated with repeated high systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at 6- and 11-year follow-ups of children from the Pelotas (Brazil) 2004 Birth Cohort. METHODS: All live births to mothers living in the urban area of Pelotas were enrolled in the cohort. Blood pressure (BP) values were transformed into Z-scores by sex, age, and height. High SBP and DBP were defined as repeated systolic and diastolic BP Z-scores on the ≥95th percentile at the two follow-ups. Prevalence (95% confidence interval) of repeated high SBP, DBP, and both (SDBP) were calculated. Associations with maternal and child characteristics were explored in crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: A total of 3182 cohort participants were analyzed. Prevalence of repeated high SBP, DBP and SDBP was 1.7% (1.2-2.1%), 2.3% (1.8-2.9%) and 1.2% (0.9-1.6%), respectively. Repeated high SBP was associated with males, gestational diabetes mellitus (2.92; 1.13-7.58) and obesity at 11 years (2.44; 1.29-4.59); while repeated high DBP was associated with females, family history of hypertension from both sides (3.95; 1.59-9.85) and gestational age < 34 weeks (4.08; 1.52-10.96). Repeated high SDBP was not associated with any of the characteristics investigated. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of repeated high SBP, DBP, and SDBP were within the expected distribution at the population level. Nonetheless, gestational diabetes mellitus, obesity, family history of hypertension, and prematurity increased the risk of repeated high blood pressure measured at two occasions 5 years apart.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
4.
Rev Saude Publica ; 52(suppl 1): 3s, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the planning, sampling, operational aspects of the field, and the sample obtained during a research conducted in a rural area, specifying and discussing the main logistical difficulties unique to these places and the solutions adopted. METHODS: We carried out a population-based, cross-sectional survey between January and June 2016, with a representative sample of the population aged 18 years or over living in the rural area of Pelotas (approximately 22,000 individuals), State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We collected demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related information, such as alcohol consumption, cigarette consumption, depressive symptoms, quality of diet, quality of life, physical activity, satisfaction with the health unit, overweight or obesity, and sleep problems. RESULTS: In the 720 domiciles sampled, 1,697 individuals were identified and 1,519 were interviewed (89.5%). The study initially drew 24 census tracts and proposed the visit to 42 households per tract; however, we need to adjust the method, such as decreasing the number of households per census tract (from 42 to 30) and identifying housing centers in each tract. The main reasons for these changes were difficulty accessing the area, large distances between households, misconceptions in the satellite data available (which did not fit the reality), and high cost of the field work. CONCLUSIONS: The previous detailed recognition of the research environment was crucial for decision making as the maps and territory had geographical inconsistencies. The strategies and techniques used in studies for the urban area are not applicable to the rural area given the outcomes observed in Pelotas. The decisions taken, keeping the methodological rigor, were essential to ensure the timely execution of the study with the financial resources available.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária/normas , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Geografia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Amostragem , Adulto Jovem
5.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 53(5): 487-496, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453749

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Urban violence is a major problem in Brazil and may contribute to mental disorders among victims. The aim of this study was to assess the association between robbery victimisation and mental health disorders in late adolescence. METHODS: At age 18 years, 4106 participants in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study were assessed. A questionnaire about history of robbery victimisation was administered, the Self-Report Questionnaire was used to screen for common mental disorders, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess major depressive disorder and generalised anxiety disorder. Cross-sectional prevalence ratios between lifetime robbery victimisation and mental disorders were estimated using Poisson regression with robust standard errors, adjusting for socioeconomic variables measured at birth and violence in the home and maltreatment measured at age 15. RESULTS: There was a dose-response relationship between frequency of lifetime robberies and risk of mental disorders. Adolescents who had been robbed three or more times had twice the risk (PR 2.04; 95% CI 1.64-2.56) for common mental disorders, over four times the risk for depression (PR 4.59; 95% CI 2.60-8.12), and twice the risk for anxiety (PR 1.93; 95% CI 1.06-3.50), compared with non-victims, adjusting for covariates. Experiencing frequent robberies had greater impact on common mental disorders than experiencing an armed robbery. Population attributable fractions with regard to robbery were 9% for common mental disorders, 13% for depression, and 8% for anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Robberies are associated with common mental disorders in late adolescence, independently of violence between family members. Reducing urban violence could significantly help in preventing common mental illnesses.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Distribuição de Poisson , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Análise de Regressão , Autorrelato
6.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 52(supl.1): 4s, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-962282

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the quality of life and its determinants in a population living in a rural area. METHODS This is a population-based, cross-sectional study with individuals aged 18 years or over from the rural area of Pelotas, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We evaluated quality of life using the WHOQOL-BREF, which has four domains (physical, psychological, social relations, and environment) and two questions: overall quality of life and satisfaction with health. We considered as independent variables the demographic, socioeconomic, and health variables. We evaluated the associations using linear regression in the four domains and ordinal logistic regression in the two general questions on quality of life and satisfaction with health. RESULTS The sample consisted of 1,479 individuals. The prevalence of the perception of overall very poor quality of life and dissatisfaction with health were 22.5% and 26.3%, respectively. Individuals who were older (p < 0.001), non-white (p = 0.004), with lower education level (p < 0.001), poorer (p = 0.001), and who had always lived in the rural area (p = 0.049) were less likely to have a better perception of overall quality of life. As for satisfaction with health, women (p = 0.001), older individuals (p = 0.001), those unemployed (p = 0.023), and those with diseases were less likely to report higher satisfaction with health. For the four domains evaluated, the results were consistent with those observed for the general questions. CONCLUSIONS The most relevant aspects that negatively defined the quality of life of the population were being a woman, older, non-white, having a low income, having a lower education level, having always lived in the rural area, being unemployed, and having a disease. Given that they are significant factors as determinants of health, these results suggest that quality of life is an issue that should be placed among health needs, especially regarding the most vulnerable groups in rural areas.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a qualidade de vida e seus determinantes em uma população residente na zona rural. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal de base populacional com indivíduos de 18 anos ou mais, da zona rural de Pelotas, Sul do Brasil. A qualidade de vida foi avaliada pelo WHOQOL-BREF, composto por quatro domínios (físico, psicológico, relações sociais e meio ambiente), e duas perguntas: qualidade de vida global e satisfação com a saúde. Variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas e de saúde foram consideradas entre as variáveis independentes. As associações foram avaliadas por regressão linear nos quatro domínios e por regressão logística ordinal nas duas perguntas gerais de qualidade de vida e satisfação com a saúde. RESULTADOS A amostra foi composta por 1.479 indivíduos. As prevalências de percepção de qualidade de vida global muito ruim e insatisfação com a saúde foram, respectivamente, 22,5% e 26,3%. Indivíduos mais velhos (p < 0,001), com cor da pele não branca (p = 0,004), com menor escolaridade (p < 0,001), mais pobres (p = 0,001) e que residiram a vida toda na zona rural (p = 0,049) apresentaram menor chance de ter melhor percepção de qualidade de vida global. Quanto à satisfação com a saúde, as mulheres (p = 0,001), os mais velhos (p = 0,001), os desempregados (p = 0,023) e aqueles portadores de doenças tiveram menor chance de relatarem maior satisfação com a saúde. Para os quatro domínios avaliados, os resultados foram consistentes com os observados para as perguntas gerais. CONCLUSÕES O fato de ser mulher, mais velho, não ser branco, ter baixa renda, ter menor escolaridade, residir a vida toda na zona rural, estar desempregado e portar alguma doença foram os aspectos mais relevantes para definir negativamente a qualidade de vida da população. Tendo em vista que são fatores significativamente importantes como determinantes da saúde, estes resultados sugerem que a qualidade de vida é um tema que deve ser colocado entre as necessidades de saúde, principalmente com relação aos grupos mais vulneráveis das áreas rurais.

7.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 52(supl.1): 3s, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-962287

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the planning, sampling, operational aspects of the field, and the sample obtained during a research conducted in a rural area, specifying and discussing the main logistical difficulties unique to these places and the solutions adopted. METHODS We carried out a population-based, cross-sectional survey between January and June 2016, with a representative sample of the population aged 18 years or over living in the rural area of Pelotas (approximately 22,000 individuals), State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We collected demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related information, such as alcohol consumption, cigarette consumption, depressive symptoms, quality of diet, quality of life, physical activity, satisfaction with the health unit, overweight or obesity, and sleep problems. RESULTS In the 720 domiciles sampled, 1,697 individuals were identified and 1,519 were interviewed (89.5%). The study initially drew 24 census tracts and proposed the visit to 42 households per tract; however, we need to adjust the method, such as decreasing the number of households per census tract (from 42 to 30) and identifying housing centers in each tract. The main reasons for these changes were difficulty accessing the area, large distances between households, misconceptions in the satellite data available (which did not fit the reality), and high cost of the field work. CONCLUSIONS The previous detailed recognition of the research environment was crucial for decision making as the maps and territory had geographical inconsistencies. The strategies and techniques used in studies for the urban area are not applicable to the rural area given the outcomes observed in Pelotas. The decisions taken, keeping the methodological rigor, were essential to ensure the timely execution of the study with the financial resources available.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever o planejamento, a amostragem, os aspectos operacionais do campo e a amostra obtida durante pesquisa realizada na zona rural, especificando e discutindo as principais dificuldades logísticas peculiares a esses locais e as soluções adotadas. MÉTODOS Entre janeiro e junho de 2016, foi realizado inquérito transversal de base populacional, com amostra representativa da população com 18 anos de idade ou mais residente na zona rural de Pelotas (cerca de 22 mil), RS, Brasil. Foram coletadas informações demográficas, socioeconômicas e relacionadas à saúde, como consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, consumo de cigarros, sintomas depressivos, qualidade da alimentação, qualidade de vida, atividade física, satisfação com a unidade de saúde, excesso de peso ou obesidade e problemas do sono. RESULTADOS Em 720 domicílios amostrados, 1.697 indivíduos foram identificados e 1.519 foram entrevistados (89,5%). O estudo, inicialmente, sorteou 24 setores e propôs-se a visitar 42 domicílios/setor, mas foram necessárias adequações metodológicas, especialmente a redução do número de domicílios por setor (de 42 para 30) e a identificação de núcleos habitacionais nos setores. As principais razões para as adequações foram dificuldade de acesso aos locais, grandes distâncias entre residências, equívocos nos dados geográficos disponíveis via satélite (não condiziam com a realidade) e alto custo. CONCLUSÕES O prévio reconhecimento detalhado do ambiente de pesquisa foi fundamental para a tomada de decisão perante às inconsistências geográficas entre mapas e território. As estratégias e técnicas dos estudos na zona urbana não são aplicáveis à zona rural no que tange ao contexto observado em Pelotas. As medidas adotadas, mantendo o rigor metodológico, foram fundamentais para garantir a execução do estudo no tempo planejado e com os recursos financeiros disponíveis.

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