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1.
Clin Transplant ; 33(8): e13658, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular mortality is increased in chronic kidney disease, a condition with a high prevalence of periodontal disease. Whether periodontitis treatment improves prognosis is unknown. METHODS: The effect of periodontal treatment on the incidence of cardiovascular events and death in 206 waitlist hemodialysis subjects was compared with that in 203 historical controls who did not undergo treatment. Patients were followed up for 24 months or until death or transplantation. RESULTS: The prevalence of moderate/severe periodontitis was 74%. Coronary artery disease correlated with the severity of periodontal disease (P = .02). Survival free of cardiovascular events (94% vs 83%, log-rank 0.009), coronary events (97% vs 89%, log-rank = 0.009), and cardiovascular death (96% vs 87%, log-rank = 0.037) was higher in the evaluated group. Death by any cause did not differ between groups. Multivariate analysis showed that treatment was associated with reduction in cardiovascular events (HR 0.43; 95% CI 0.22-0.87), coronary events (HR 0.31; 95% CI 0.12-0.83), and cardiovascular deaths (HR 0.43; 95% CI 0.19-0.98). CONCLUSION: Periodontal treatment reduced the 24-month incidence of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death, suggesting that periodontal treatment may improve cardiovascular outcomes. We suggest that periodontal screening and eventual treatment may be considered in patients with advanced renal disease.

2.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(10): 4695-4702, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216002

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of endocrine hypertension (HT). HT remission (defined as blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg without antihypertensive drugs) has been reported in approximately 50% of patients with unilateral PA after adrenalectomy. HT duration and severity are predictors of blood pressure response, but the prognostic role of somatic KCNJ5 mutations is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical and molecular features associated with HT remission after adrenalectomy in patients with unilateral PA. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 100 patients with PA (60 women; median age at diagnosis 48 years with a median follow-up of 26 months). Anatomopathological analysis revealed 90 aldosterone-producing adenomas, 1 carcinoma, and 9 unilateral adrenal hyperplasias. All patients had biochemical cure after unilateral adrenalectomy. KCNJ5 gene was sequenced in 76 cases. RESULTS: KCNJ5 mutations were identified in 33 of 76 (43.4%) tumors: p.Gly151Arg (n = 17), p.Leu168Arg (n = 15), and p.Glu145Gln (n = 1). HT remission was reported in 37 of 100 (37%) patients. Among patients with HT remission, 73% were women (P = 0.04), 48.6% used more than three antihypertensive medications (P = 0.0001), and 64.9% had HT duration <10 years (P = 0.0015) compared with those without HT remission. Somatic KCNJ5 mutations were associated with female sex (P = 0.004), larger nodules (P = 0.001), and HT remission (P = 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, only a somatic KCNJ5 mutation was an independent predictor of HT remission after adrenalectomy (P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: The presence of a KCNJ5 somatic mutation is an independent predictor of HT remission after unilateral adrenalectomy in patients with unilateral PA.

3.
Hypertension ; 73(3): 571-577, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661477

RESUMO

Bariatric surgery is an effective strategy for blood pressure (BP) reduction, but most of the evidence relies on office BP measurements. In this study, we evaluated the impact of bariatric surgery on 24-hour BP profile, BP variability, and resistant hypertension prevalence. This is a randomized trial including obese patients with grade 1 and 2 using at least 2 antihypertensive drugs at maximal doses or >2 at moderate doses. Patients were allocated to either Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) combined with medical therapy or medical therapy alone for 12 months. The primary outcome was the 24-hour BP profile and variability (average real variability of daytime and night time BP). We evaluated the nondipping status and prevalence of resistant hypertension as secondary end points. We included 100 patients (76% female, body mass index, 36.9±2.7 kg/m2). The 24-hour BP profile (including nondipping status) was similar after 12 months, but the RYGB group required less antihypertensive classes as compared to the medical therapy alone (0 [0-1] versus 3 [2.5-4] classes; P<0.01). The average real variability of systolic nighttime BP was lower after RYGB as compared to medical therapy (between-group difference, -1.63; 95% CI, -2.91 to -0.36; P=0.01). Prevalence of resistant hypertension was similar at baseline (RYGB, 10% versus MT, 16%; P=0.38), but it was significantly lower in the RYGB at 12 months (0% versus 14.9%; P<0.001). In conclusion, RYGB significantly reduced antihypertensive medications while promoting similar 24-hour BP profile and nondipping status. Interestingly, bariatric surgery improved BP variability and may decrease the burden of resistant hypertension associated with obesity. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01784848.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Prevalência , Prognóstico
4.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 12(4): 394-401, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-984334

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The functioning of attention is complex, a primordial function in several cognitive processes and of great interest to neuropsychology. The Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A) is a continuous computerized performance test that evaluates some attention components such as response time to a stimulus and errors due to inattention and impulsivity. Objective: 1) To evaluate the applicability of T.O.V.A in Brazilian adults; 2) To analyze the differences in performance between genders, age ranges, and levels of education; 3) To examine the association between T.O.V.A variables and other attention and cognitive screening tests. Methods: The T.O.V.A was applied to 63 healthy adults (24 to 78 years of age) who also underwent the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Digit Span and Digit Symbol (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults ­ WAIS-III) and the Trail Making Test. Results: The T.O.V.A was little influenced by age or education, but was influenced by gender. The correlations between some T.O.V.A variables and the Digit Symbol and Trail Making test were weak (r-values between 0.2 and 0.4), but significant (p<0.05). There was no correlation with the Digit Span test. Conclusion: The T.O.V.A showed good applicability and proved adequate for evaluating attentional processes in adults.


RESUMO: O funcionamento da atenção é complexo, função primordial em diversos processos cognitivos e de grande interesse para a neuropsicologia. O Teste de Variáveis de Atenção (T.O.V.A) é um teste computadorizado de desempenho contínuo que avalia alguns componentes de atenção, como tempo de resposta a um estímulo e erros por desatenção e impulsividade. Objetivo: 1) Avaliar a aplicabilidade do T.O.V.A em adultos brasileiros; 2) Analisar as diferenças de desempenho entre os gêneros, faixas etárias e níveis de escolaridade; 3) Examinar a associação entre as variáveis T.O.V.A e outros testes de atenção e triagem cognitiva. Métodos: O TOVA foi aplicado a 63 adultos saudáveis (24 a 78 anos) submetidos ao Mini-Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Digit Span e Digit Symbol (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults ­ WAIS-III) e o Trail Making Test. Resultados: T.O.V.A teve pouca influência da idade e escolaridade, mas foi influenciado pelo gênero. As correlações entre algumas variáveis T.O.V.A e o símbolo Digit e o teste Trail Making foram fracas (valores de r entre 0,2 e 0,4), mas significativas (p <0,05). Não houve correlação com o teste Digit Span. Conclusão: T.O.V.A apresentou boa aplicabilidade e foi adequado para avaliar os processos de atenção em adultos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Atenção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cognição
5.
Hypertension ; 72(4): 979-985, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354706

RESUMO

A nondipping blood pressure (BP) pattern is common in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, it is unclear how useful a nondipping BP pattern is in screening for OSA. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited consecutive patients with clinical indications for performing ambulatory BP monitoring evaluating the following dipping patterns: (1) normal: ≥10% but <20%; (2) extreme: ≥20%; (3) reduced: ≥0% but <10%; and (4) reverse (riser): <0%. Sleep questionnaires and sleep studies were performed within 7 days after ambulatory BP monitoring. OSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 events/h. We evaluated 153 patients (OSA frequency, 50.3%). Patients with OSA had higher BPs during sleep, were taking more antihypertensive drugs, and more frequently used hypertensive drugs during the night than patients without OSA. Considering systolic BP, the frequency of OSA in patients with reverse dippers (73.5%) was higher than normal (37.3%), extreme (46.2%), and reduced dippers (49.1%; P=0.012). For diastolic BP, OSA was more common in reduced (66.7%) and reverse dippers (69.6%) as compared to normal (41.4%) or extreme dippers (33.3%; P=0.007). In the regression analysis, reverse systolic dipper was independently associated with OSA (odds ratio, 3.92; 95% CI, 1.31-11.78). Both reduced and reverse diastolic dippers increased the likelihood of OSA for 2.7-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively. Snoring and positive sleep questionnaire findings were associated with a modest increase in the accuracy of reverse dipping pattern for predicting OSA. In conclusion, reverse systolic, as well as reduced and reverse diastolic dippers are independently associated with OSA.

6.
Hypertension ; 72(2): 399-407, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29941513

RESUMO

Untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in patients with hypertension and may impair blood pressure (BP) and target-organ damage responses to antihypertensive therapy. In this study, we recruited hypertensive patients who underwent treatment with a 30-day regimen of hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg plus enalapril (20 mg BID) or losartan (50 mg BID) and were assessed with a baseline clinical evaluation, polysomnography, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. All the examinations except for polysomnography were repeated at 6 and 18 months of follow-up. We studied 94 hypertensive patients (mean age, 55±9 years). The frequency of OSA was 55%. Compared with baseline, we did not observe significant differences between groups in 24-hour BP, daytime systolic and diastolic BPs, or night-time systolic BP at 6 and 18 months. The BP control rate at 24 hours (<130/80 mm Hg) was similar between the groups (baseline, 42.3% versus 45.2%; 6 months, 46.9% versus 57.5%; 18 months, 66.7% versus 61.5%). However, patients with OSA had higher night-time diastolic BP decrease than did the non-OSA group (6 months, -4.9±11.8 versus -0.3±10.3 mm Hg; 18 months, -6.7±11.1 versus -1.2±10.6 mm Hg; P=0.027). There were no differences in the number and class of antihypertensive medications prescribed during follow-up. In terms of arterial stiffness, patients with OSA had higher pulse wave velocity than did patients without OSA at baseline (10.3±1.9 versus 9.2±1.7 m/s; P=0.024), but both groups had similar decreases in pulse wave velocity during follow-up. In conclusion, with combined antihypertensive treatment aimed at controlling BP, hypertensive patients with OSA had similar 24-hour BP and arterial stiffness to those without OSA.

7.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 73: e226, 2018 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Misuse of anabolic androgenic steroids in athletes is a strategy used to enhance strength and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, its abuse leads to an imbalance in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, increased vascular resistance, and increased blood pressure. However, the mechanisms underlying these alterations are still unknown. Therefore, we tested whether anabolic androgenic steroids could impair resting baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac sympathovagal control. In addition, we evaluate pulse wave velocity to ascertain the arterial stiffness of large vessels. METHODS: Fourteen male anabolic androgenic steroid users and 12 nonusers were studied. Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate were recorded. Baroreflex sensitivity was estimated by the sequence method, and cardiac autonomic control by analysis of the R-R interval. Pulse wave velocity was measured using a noninvasive automatic device. RESULTS: Mean spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, baroreflex sensitivity to activation of the baroreceptors, and baroreflex sensitivity to deactivation of the baroreceptors were significantly lower in users than in nonusers. In the spectral analysis of heart rate variability, high frequency activity was lower, while low frequency activity was higher in users than in nonusers. Moreover, the sympathovagal balance was higher in users. Users showed higher pulse wave velocity than nonusers showing arterial stiffness of large vessels. Single linear regression analysis showed significant correlations between mean blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity and pulse wave velocity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence for lower baroreflex sensitivity and sympathovagal imbalance in anabolic androgenic steroid users. Moreover, anabolic androgenic steroid users showed arterial stiffness. Together, these alterations might be the mechanisms triggering the increased blood pressure in this population.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/efeitos adversos , Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Barorreflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Vago/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Barorreflexo/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Transversais , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Rigidez Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
J Hum Hypertens ; 32(7): 518-523, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29789691

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the main secondary form associated with resistant hypertension (RH), but it is largely underdiagnosed and consequently undertreated in clinical practice. The Berlin questionnaire (BQ) is a useful tool among general population, but seems to not perform well among patients with RH. Recently, NoSAS score was validated in a large population, however, has not been tested in the cardiovascular scenario. Thus, we aimed to compare BQ versus the NoSAS score as screening tools for OSA in RH. In the present study, patients with confirmed diagnosis of RH were invited to perform polysomnography. OSA was diagnosed by an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥15 events/h. BQ and NoSAS were applied in a blinded way. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and area under the curve (AUC) of the two sleep questionnaires to detect OSA in RH. The frequency of OSA was 64%. The BQ presented a better sensitivity (91 vs. 72%) and higher values of NPV (67 vs. 54%) than NoSAS score. In contrast, the NoSAS score had higher specificity for excluding OSA (58 vs. 33%) and higher PPV (75 vs. 70%). Compared to the BQ, NoSAS score had a better AUC (0.55 vs. 0.64) but these values are in the fail to poor accuracy range. In conclusion, both BQ and NoSAS score had low accuracy for detecting OSA in RH. Considering the high frequency of OSA, objective sleep study may be considered in these patients.

9.
J Lipid Res ; 59(6): 1027-1033, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29628442

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore lipoprotein metabolism in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We studied 15 men with severe OSA [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥30 events/hour] and 12 age-, BMI-, and waist circumference-matched volunteers without OSA (AHI <5 events/hour). Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was determined by a blind examiner. After 12 h fasting, a triglyceride-rich chylomicron-like emulsion, labeled with [14C]cholesteryl oleate and [3H]triolein, was injected intravenously followed by blood sample collection at preestablished times. Fractional clearance rate (FCR) of the radiolabeled lipids was estimated by compartmental analysis of radioisotope decay curves. Compared with controls, patients with OSA showed a significant delay in both cholesteryl ester FCR (0.0126 ± 0.0187 vs. 0.0015 ± 0.0025 min-1; P = 0.0313) and triglycerides FCR (0.0334 ± 0.0390 vs. 0.0051 ± 0.0074 min-1; P = 0.0001). CIMT was higher in the OSA group: 620 ± 17 vs. 725 ± 29 µm; P = 0.004. Cholesteryl ester FCRs were inversely related to total sleep time <90% (r = -0.463; P = 0.029) and CIMT (r = -0.601; P = 0.022). The triglyceride FCR was inversely correlated with AHI (r = -0.537; P = 0.04). In a subgroup of patients treated with CPAP for 3 months (n = 7), triglyceride FCR increased 5-fold (P = 0.025), but the cholesteryl ester FCR was unchanged. In conclusion, severe OSA decreased lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and delayed removal of remnants. CPAP treatment may be effective to restore the lipolysis rates.

10.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord ; 16(1): 2-5, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29298404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and may contribute to metabolic deregulation, inflammation, and atherosclerosis in these patients. In clinical practice, however, OSA is frequently underdiagnosed. We sought to investigate the clinical predictors of OSA in patients with MetS. METHODS: We studied consecutive patients newly diagnosed with MetS (Adult Treatment Panel-III). All participants underwent clinical evaluation, standard polysomnography, and laboratory measurements. We performed a logistic regression model, including the following variables: gender, age >50 years, neck and waist circumferences, hypertension, diabetes, body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2, high risk for OSA by Berlin questionnaire, presence of excessive daytime somnolence (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), abnormal serum glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. RESULTS: We studied 197 patients (60% men; age: 49 ± 10 years; BMI: 32.9 ± 5.1 kg/m2). OSA (defined by an apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 events per hour) was diagnosed in 117 patients [59%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 52-66]. In multivariate analysis, male gender [odds ratio (OR): 3.28; 95% CI: 1.68-6.41; P < 0.01], abnormal glucose levels (OR: 3.01; 95% CI: 1.50-6.03; P < 0.01), excessive daytime sleepiness (OR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.13-5.04; P = 0.02), and high risk for OSA by Berlin questionnaire (OR: 4.33; 95% CI: 2.06-9.11; P < 0.001) were independently associated with OSA. CONCLUSIONS: Simple clinical and metabolic characteristics may help to improve the underdiagnosis of OSA in patients with MetS.

11.
Sleep Breath ; 22(3): 721-728, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29275523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The reasons for the high prevalence and whether OSA is associated with vascular impairment, end-organ damage, and prognosis are not completely clear. METHODS: We evaluated patients with low cardiovascular risk on HD, not treated by CPAP. Laboratory tests, sleep questionnaires (Berlin and Epworth) and polysonography studies, echocardiography, and markers of arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis were performed. After the initial evaluation, patients were followed up until cardiovascular events, renal transplantation, or death. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients (49% male, 50 ± 9 years, body mass index 24.7 ± 4.5 kg/m2) were included. OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 5 events/h) occurred in 73% of the patients. The proportion of patients with interdialytic weight gain > 2 kg was higher in patients with OSA than those without OSA (96 vs. 55%; p = 0.002). Left ventricular (LV) posterior wall thickness (10.0 ± 1.9 vs. 11.3 ± 1.8 mm; p = 0.04) and LV diastolic diameter (48 ± 5 vs. 53 ± 5 mm; p = 0.003) were higher in patients with OSA than in patients without OSA, respectively. Sleep questionnaires did not predict OSA. No significant differences were found in pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness, and ankle-brachial index between the groups. Multivariate analysis showed that interdialytic weight gain > 2 kg and LV diastolic diameter were independently associated with OSA. On follow-up (median 45 months), OSA was found to be associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular (CV) events (28 vs. 7%, log-rank = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: OSA was associated with increased risk of CV events. Significant (> 2 kg) interdialytic weight gain was independently associated with OSA.

12.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 24(1): 14-17, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29200023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the arterial distensibility of large vessels and changes in microvasculature in primary antiphospholipid syndrome. METHODS: Twenty-two antiphospholipid syndrome (APL) patients and 66 age-, sex-, height-, and blood pressure-matched controls were evaluated. Second derivative of the finger photoplethysmogram (SDPTG) was used as a noninvasive method to evaluate the pulse wave. The b/a and d/a indices, which reflect, respectively, large-vessel and small-vessel properties, were calculated from the SDPTG waveform components. Vascular age index was also determined. RESULTS: Arterial thrombosis occurred in 59.1% (13/22) of APL patients, with a predominance of stroke episodes (61.5%). Venous thromboembolism was observed in 36.4% (all deep venous thrombosis), and obstetric complications in 36.4%. Frequency of diabetes mellitus, smoking, and dyslipidemia was comparable in APL patients and control subjects (P > 0.05). Concerning plethysmography findings, b/a ratio was higher in patients than in control subjects (-0.44 ± 0.16 vs. -0.54 ± 0.18, P = 0.034), whereas d/a ratio (-0.30 ± 0.16 vs. -0.31 ± 0.18, P = 0.83) was comparable. Moreover, SDPTG (-0.16 ± 0.35 vs. -0.30 ± 0.38, P = 0.16) and vascular age index values (53.5 ± 11.6 vs. 51.8 ± 16.1, P = 0.65) were alike in both groups. Regarding disease-related factors, patients with arterial and venous thrombosis had similar b/a, d/a, and vascular age indices (P = 0.95; P = 0.06; P = 0.12, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The higher b/a ratio in APL patients suggests decreased distensibility of large arteries and may be why APL patients are at higher risk for cardiovascular events. The d/a ratio, that is considered a marker of small vessel vascular resistance, was not different than controls. Further studies are needed to evaluate vascular factors that predispose APL patients to atherosclerotic events.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica , Aterosclerose , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Tromboembolia Venosa , Adulto , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/sangue , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/sangue , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/complicações , Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias/patologia , Artérias/fisiopatologia , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Microvasos/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fotopletismografia/métodos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Resistência Vascular , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
13.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 20(1): 22-30, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106057

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment and elevated arterial stiffness have been described in patients with arterial hypertension, but their association has not been well studied. We evaluated the correlation of arterial stiffness and different cognitive domains in patients with hypertension compared with those with normotension. We evaluated 211 patients (69 with normotension and 142 with hypertension). Patients were age matched and distributed according to their blood pressure: normotension, hypertension stage 1, and hypertension stage 2. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and a battery of neuropsychological evaluations that assessed six main cognitive domains. Pulse wave velocity was measured using a Complior device, and carotid properties were assessed by radiofrequency ultrasound. Central arterial pressure and augmentation index were obtained using applanation tonometry. The hypertension stage 2 group had higher arterial stiffness and worse performance either by Mini-Mental State Examination (26.8±2.1 vs 27.3±2.1 vs 28.0±2.0, P=.003) or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test (23.4±3.5 vs 24.9±2.9 vs 25.6±3.0, P<.001). On multivariable regression analysis, augmentation index, intima-media thickness, and pulse wave velocity were the variables mainly associated with lower cognitive performance at different cognitive domains. Cognitive impairment in different domains was associated with higher arterial stiffness.

14.
Clinics ; 73: e226, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Misuse of anabolic androgenic steroids in athletes is a strategy used to enhance strength and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. However, its abuse leads to an imbalance in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, increased vascular resistance, and increased blood pressure. However, the mechanisms underlying these alterations are still unknown. Therefore, we tested whether anabolic androgenic steroids could impair resting baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac sympathovagal control. In addition, we evaluate pulse wave velocity to ascertain the arterial stiffness of large vessels. METHODS: Fourteen male anabolic androgenic steroid users and 12 nonusers were studied. Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate were recorded. Baroreflex sensitivity was estimated by the sequence method, and cardiac autonomic control by analysis of the R-R interval. Pulse wave velocity was measured using a noninvasive automatic device. RESULTS: Mean spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, baroreflex sensitivity to activation of the baroreceptors, and baroreflex sensitivity to deactivation of the baroreceptors were significantly lower in users than in nonusers. In the spectral analysis of heart rate variability, high frequency activity was lower, while low frequency activity was higher in users than in nonusers. Moreover, the sympathovagal balance was higher in users. Users showed higher pulse wave velocity than nonusers showing arterial stiffness of large vessels. Single linear regression analysis showed significant correlations between mean blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity and pulse wave velocity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence for lower baroreflex sensitivity and sympathovagal imbalance in anabolic androgenic steroid users. Moreover, anabolic androgenic steroid users showed arterial stiffness. Together, these alterations might be the mechanisms triggering the increased blood pressure in this population.

15.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 11(4): 389-397, Oct,-Dec. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-891043

RESUMO

ABSTRACT. Aging, hypertension (HTN), and other cardiovascular risk factors contribute to structural and functional changes of the arterial wall. Objective: To evaluate whether arterial stiffness (AS) is related to cerebral blood flow changes and its association with cognitive function in patients with hypertension. Methods: 211 patients (69 normotensive and 142 hypertensive) were included. Patients with hypertension were divided into 2 stages: HTN stage-1 and HTN stage-2. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and a battery of neuropsychological (NPE) tests were used to determine cognitive function. Pulse wave velocity was measured using the Complior®. Carotid properties were assessed by radiofrequency ultrasound. Central arterial pressure and augmentation index were obtained using applanation tonometry. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity was measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Results: Both arterial stiffness parameters and cerebral vasoreactivity worsened in line with HTN severity. There was a negative correlation between breath holding index (BHI) and arterial stiffness parameters. Cognitive performance worsened in line with HTN severity, with statistical difference occurring mainly between the HTN-2 and normotension groups on both the MMSE and MoCA. The same tendency was observed on the NPE tests. Conclusion: Hypertension severity was associated with higher AS, worse BHI, and lower cognitive performance.


RESUMO. A idade, hipertensão arterial (HA), e outros fatores de risco cardiovascular contribuem para as alterações estruturais e funcionais da parede arterial. Objetivo: Avaliar o quanto a rigidez arterial está relacionada com as alterações do fluxo sanguíneo cerebral e sua associação com a função cognitiva em pacientes com hipertensão. Métodos: Foram incluídos 211 pacientes (69 normotensos e 142 hipertensos). Os pacientes com hipertensão foram divididos em dois estágios: HA-1 e HA-2. O mini exame do estado mental (MEEM), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) e uma bateria de testes neuropsicológicos foram usados para avaliar a função cognitiva. A velocidade da onda de pulso foi medida usando o Complior®. As propriedades da artéria carótida foram avaliadas usando o ultrassom de radiofrequência. A pressão arterial central e o índice de incremento foram obtidos usando a tonometria de aplanação. A velocidade de fluxo sanguíneo da arterial cerebral média foi medida pelo ultrassom com Doppler Transcraniano. Resultados: Tanto os parâmetros da rigidez arterial quanto a vasorreatividade cerebral foram piores com a gravidade da hipertensão. Houve uma correlação negativa entre o índice de apnéia e os parâmetros da rigidez arterial. O desempenho cognitivo foi pior com a gravidade de hipertensão arterial com diferença estatística ocorrendo principalmente entre os grupos HA-2 e normotensão tanto no MEEM quanto no MoCA. A mesma tendência foi observada em relação aos testes neuropsicológicos. Conclusão: A gravidade de hipertensão arterial foi associada com maior rigidez arterial, pior índice de apneia, e menor desempenho cognitivo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Cognição , Rigidez Vascular , Hipertensão
16.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 9: 87, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29090024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with structural and functional vascular abnormalities, which may lead to increased arterial stiffness, more frequent cardiovascular events and higher mortality. However, the role played by clustering of risk factors and the combining pattern of MetS risk factors and their association with the arterial stiffness have yet to be fully understood. Age, hypertension and diabetes mellitus seem to be strongly associated with increased pulse wave velocity (PWV). This study aimed at determining the clustering and combining pattern of MetS risk factors and their association with the arterial stiffness in non-diabetic and non-hypertensive patients. METHODS: Recently diagnosed and untreated patients with MetS (n = 64, 49 ± 8 year, 32 ± 4 kg/m2) were selected, according to ATP III criteria and compared to a control group (Control, n = 17, 49 ± 6 year, 27 ± 2 kg/m2). Arterial stiffness was evaluated by PWV in the carotid-femoral segment. Patients were categorized and analyzed according MetS risk factors clustering (3, 4 and 5 factors) and its combinations. RESULTS: Patients with MetS had increased PWV when compared to Control (7.8 ± 1.1 vs. 7.0 ± 0.5 m/s, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the variables that remained as predictors of PWV were age (ß = 0.450, p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (ß = 0.211, p = 0.023) and triglycerides (ß = 0.212, p = 0.037). The increased number of risk factors reflected in a progressive increase in PWV. When adjusted to systolic blood pressure, PWV was greater in the group with 5 risk factors when compared to the group with 3 risk factors and Control (8.5 ± 0.4 vs. 7.5 ± 0.2, p = 0.011 and 7.2 ± 0.3 m/s, p = 0.012). Similarly, the 4 risk factors group had higher PWV than the Control (7.9 ± 0.2 vs. 7.2 ± 0.3, p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: The number of risk factors seems to increase arterial stiffness. Notably, besides age and increased systolic blood pressure, alterations in the triglycerides worsened the stiffness of large vessels, emphasizing the importance in addressing this risk factor in MetS patients.

17.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 19(9): 840-847, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28868764

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) causes autonomic alteration and vascular dysfunction. The authors investigated whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is the main cause of vascular dysfunction via elevated sympathetic tone in nondiabetic patients with MetS. Pulse wave velocity, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and forearm vascular resistance was measured in patients with MetS divided according to fasting glucose levels: (1) MetS+IFG (blood glucose ≥100 mg/dL) and (2) MetS-IFG (<100 mg/dL) compared with healthy controls. Patients with MetS+IFG had higher pulse wave velocity than patients with MetS-IFG and controls (median 8.0 [interquartile range, 7.2-8.6], 7.3 [interquartile range, 6.9-7.9], and 6.9 [interquartile range, 6.6-7.2] m/s, P=.001). Patients with MetS+IFG had higher MSNA than patients with MetS-IFG and controls, and patients with MetS-IFG had higher MSNA than controls (31±1, 26±1, and 19±1 bursts per minute; P<.001). Patients with MetS+IFG were similar to patients with MetS-IFG but had higher forearm vascular resistance than controls (P=.008). IFG was the only predictor variable of MSNA. MSNA was associated with pulse wave velocity (R=.39, P=.002) and forearm vascular resistance (R=.30, P=.034). In patients with MetS, increased plasma glucose levels leads to an adrenergic burden that can explain vascular dysfunction.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Intolerância à Glucose/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Onda de Pulso/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
18.
Chest ; 152(6): 1230-1238, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28823814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE) is a life-threatening condition. OSA may be a modifiable risk factor for ACPE recurrence. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of OSA on the incidence of cardiovascular events following ACPE recovery. METHODS: Consecutive patients with confirmed ACPE from 3 centers underwent a sleep study following clinical stabilization. OSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15 events/h. The mean follow-up was 1 year, and the primary outcome was ACPE recurrence. RESULTS: A total of 104 patients were included in the final analysis; 61% of the patients had OSA. A higher rate of ACPE recurrence (25 vs 6 episodes; P = .01) and a higher incidence of myocardial infarction (15 vs 0 episodes; P = .0004) were observed in patients with OSA than in those without OSA. All 17 deaths occurred in the OSA group (P = .0001). In a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, OSA was independently associated with ACPE recurrence (hazard ratio [HR], 3.3 [95% CI, 1.2-8.8]; P = .01), incidence of myocardial infarction (HR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.1-9.5]; P = .02), cardiovascular death (HR, 5.4 [95% CI, 1.4-48.4]; P = .004), and total death (HR, 6.5 [95% CI, 1.2-64.0]; P = .005). When the analysis was limited only to patients with OSA, levels of AHI and hypoxemic burden and rates of sleep-onset ACPE were significantly higher in those who presented with ACPE recurrence or who died than in those who did not experience these events. CONCLUSIONS: OSA is independently associated with higher rates of ACPE recurrence and both fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Medição de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Polissonografia , Prognóstico , Edema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
19.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 19(9): 910-918, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28429850

RESUMO

Whether sex influences the association of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with markers of cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension is unknown. In this study, 95 hypertensive participants underwent carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiogram, and polysomnography after a 30-day standardized treatment with hydrochlorothiazide plus enalapril or losartan. OSA was present in 52 patients. Compared with non-OSA patients, pulse wave velocity values were higher in the OSA group (men: 11.1±2.2 vs 12.7±2.4 m/s, P=.04; women: 11.8±2.4 vs 13.2±2.2 m/s, P=.03). The proportion of diastolic dysfunction was significant in men and women with OSA. Compared with non-OSA patients, nondipping systolic blood pressure in OSA was higher in men (14.3% vs 46.4%) and in women (41.4% vs 65.2%). OSA was independently associated with pulse wave velocity (ß=1.050; P=.025) and nondipping systolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 3.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-8.55; P=.035) in the regression analysis. In conclusion, OSA is independently associated with arterial stiffness and nondipping blood pressure in patients with hypertension regardless of sex.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Diuréticos/normas , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Enalapril/administração & dosagem , Enalapril/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroclorotiazida/administração & dosagem , Hidroclorotiazida/normas , Hidroclorotiazida/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Losartan/administração & dosagem , Losartan/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia/métodos , Análise de Onda de Pulso/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 6(1)2017 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28077386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most evidence of target-organ damage in hypertension (HTN) is related to the kidneys and heart. Cerebrovascular and cognitive impairment are less well studied. Therefore, this study analyzed changes in cognitive function in patients with different stages of hypertension compared to nonhypertensive controls. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a cross-sectional study, 221 (71 normotensive and 150 hypertensive) patients were compared. Patients with hypertension were divided into 2 stages according to blood pressure (BP) levels or medication use (HTN-1: BP, 140-159/90-99 or use of 1 or 2 antihypertensive drugs; HTN-2: BP, ≥160/100 or use of ≥3 drugs). Three groups were comparatively analyzed: normotension, HTN stage 1, and HTN stage 2. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and a validated comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests that assessed 6 main cognitive domains were used to determine cognitive function. Compared to the normotension and HTN stage-1, the severe HTN group had worse cognitive performance based on Mini-Mental State Examination (26.8±2.1 vs 27.4±2.1 vs 28.0±2.0; P=0.004) or Montreal Cognitive Assessment (23.4±3.7 vs 24.9±2.8 vs 25.5±3.2; P<0.001). On the neuropsychological tests, patients with hypertension had worse performance in language, processing speed, visuospatial abilities, and memory. Age, hypertension stage, and educational level were the best predictors of cognitive impairment in patients with hypertension in different cognitive domains. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive impairment was more frequent in patients with hypertension, and this was related to hypertension severity.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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