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1.
ACS Nano ; 13(9): 10520-10534, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393700

RESUMO

Control of impurity concentrations in semiconducting materials is essential to device technology. Because of their intrinsic confinement, the properties of two-dimensional semiconductors such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are more sensitive to defects than traditional bulk materials. The technological adoption of TMDs is dependent on the mitigation of deleterious defects and guided incorporation of functional foreign atoms. The first step toward impurity control is the identification of defects and assessment of their electronic properties. Here, we present a comprehensive study of point defects in monolayer tungsten disulfide (WS2) grown by chemical vapor deposition using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, CO-tip noncontact atomic force microscopy, Kelvin probe force spectroscopy, density functional theory, and tight-binding calculations. We observe four different substitutional defects: chromium (CrW) and molybdenum (MoW) at a tungsten site, oxygen at sulfur sites in both top and bottom layers (OS top/bottom), and two negatively charged defects (CD type I and CD type II). Their electronic fingerprints unambiguously corroborate the defect assignment and reveal the presence or absence of in-gap defect states. CrW forms three deep unoccupied defect states, two of which arise from spin-orbit splitting. The formation of such localized trap states for CrW differs from the MoW case and can be explained by their different d shell energetics and local strain, which we directly measured. Utilizing a tight-binding model the electronic spectra of the isolectronic substitutions OS and CrW are mimicked in the limit of a zero hopping term and infinite on-site energy at a S and W site, respectively. The abundant CDs are negatively charged, which leads to a significant band bending around the defect and a local increase of the contact potential difference. In addition, CD-rich domains larger than 100 nm are observed, causing a work function increase of 1.1 V. While most defects are electronically isolated, we also observed hybrid states formed between CrW dimers. The important role of charge localization, spin-orbit coupling, and strain for the formation of deep defect states observed at substitutional defects in WS2 as reported here will guide future efforts of targeted defect engineering and doping of TMDs.

2.
ACS Nano ; 13(5): 5646-5654, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021592

RESUMO

Plasmonic metasurfaces have spawned the field of flat optics using nanostructured planar metallic or dielectric surfaces that can replace bulky optical elements and enhance the capabilities of traditional far-field optics. Furthermore, the potential of flat optics can go far beyond far-field modulation and can be exploited for functionality in the near-field itself. Here, we design metasurfaces based on aperiodic arrays of plasmonic Au nanostructures for tailoring the optical near-field in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The basic element of the arrays is a rhomboid that is modulated in size, orientation, and position to achieve the desired functionality of the micron-size metasurface structure. Using two-photon-photoluminescence as a tool to probe the near-field profiles in the plane of the metasurfaces, we demonstrate the molding of light into different near-field intensity patterns and active pattern control via the far-field illumination. Finite element method simulations reveal that the near-field modulation occurs via a combination of the plasmonic resonances of the rhomboids and field enhancement in the nanoscale gaps in between the elements. This approach enables optical elements that can switch the near-field distribution across the metasurface via wavelength and polarization of the incident far-field light and provides pathways for light matter interaction in integrated devices.

3.
ACS Nano ; 13(2): 1284-1291, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645100

RESUMO

Two-dimensional materials with engineered composition and structure will provide designer materials beyond conventional semiconductors. However, the potentials of defect engineering remain largely untapped, because it hinges on a precise understanding of electronic structure and excitonic properties, which are not yet predictable by theory alone. Here, we utilize correlative, nanoscale photoemission spectroscopy to visualize how local introduction of defects modifies electronic and excitonic properties of two-dimensional materials at the nanoscale. As a model system, we study chemical vapor deposition grown monolayer WS2, a prototypical, direct gap, two-dimensional semiconductor. By cross-correlating nanoscale angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, core level spectroscopy, and photoluminescence, we unravel how local variations in defect density influence electronic structure, lateral band alignment, and excitonic phenomena in synthetic WS2 monolayers.

4.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4907, 2018 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464256

RESUMO

Individual luminescent nanoparticles enable thermometry with sub-diffraction limited spatial resolution, but potential self-heating effects from high single-particle excitation intensities remain largely uninvestigated because thermal models predict negligible self-heating. Here, we report that the common "ratiometric" thermometry signal of individual NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanoparticles unexpectedly increases with excitation intensity, implying a temperature rise over 50 K if interpreted as thermal. Luminescence lifetime thermometry, which we demonstrate for the first time using individual NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanoparticles, indicates a similar temperature rise. To resolve this apparent contradiction between model and experiment, we systematically vary the nanoparticle's thermal environment: the substrate thermal conductivity, nanoparticle-substrate contact resistance, and nanoparticle size. The apparent self-heating remains unchanged, demonstrating that this effect is an artifact, not a real temperature rise. Using rate equation modeling, we show that this artifact results from increased radiative and non-radiative relaxation from higher-lying Er3+ energy levels. This study has important implications for single-particle thermometry.

5.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3082, 2018 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082844

RESUMO

Multiphoton imaging techniques that convert low-energy excitation to higher energy emission are widely used to improve signal over background, reduce scatter, and limit photodamage. Lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) are among the most efficient multiphoton probes, but even UCNPs with optimized lanthanide dopant levels require laser intensities that may be problematic. Here, we develop protein-sized, alloyed UCNPs (aUCNPs) that can be imaged individually at laser intensities >300-fold lower than needed for comparably sized doped UCNPs. Using single UCNP characterization and kinetic modeling, we find that addition of inert shells changes optimal lanthanide content from Yb3+, Er3+-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals to fully alloyed compositions. At high levels, emitter Er3+ ions can adopt a second role to enhance aUCNP absorption cross-section by desaturating sensitizer Yb3+ or by absorbing photons directly. Core/shell aUCNPs 12 nm in total diameter can be imaged through deep tissue in live mice using a laser intensity of 0.1 W cm-2.

6.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 13(7): 572-577, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915271

RESUMO

Reducing the size of lasers to microscale dimensions enables new technologies1 that are specifically tailored for operation in confined spaces ranging from ultra-high-speed microprocessors2 to live brain tissue3. However, reduced cavity sizes increase optical losses and require greater input powers to reach lasing thresholds. Multiphoton-pumped lasers4-7 that have been miniaturized using nanomaterials such as lanthanide-doped upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs)8 as lasing media require high pump intensities to achieve ultraviolet and visible emission and therefore operate under pulsed excitation schemes. Here, we make use of the recently described energy-looping excitation mechanism in Tm3+-doped UCNPs9 to achieve continuous-wave upconverted lasing action in stand-alone microcavities at excitation fluences as low as 14 kW cm-2. Continuous-wave lasing is uninterrupted, maximizing signal and enabling modulation of optical interactions10. By coupling energy-looping nanoparticles to whispering-gallery modes of polystyrene microspheres, we induce stable lasing for more than 5 h at blue and near-infrared wavelengths simultaneously. These microcavities are excited in the biologically transmissive second near-infrared (NIR-II) window and are small enough to be embedded in organisms, tissues or devices. The ability to produce continuous-wave lasing in microcavities immersed in blood serum highlights practical applications of these microscale lasers for sensing and illumination in complex biological environments.


Assuntos
Lasers , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Túlio/química , Animais , Bovinos , Desenho de Equipamento , Luz , Substâncias Luminescentes/química , Microesferas , Poliestirenos/química , Soro/química
7.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 16938, 2017 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209000

RESUMO

Evaluating and tuning the properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials is a major focus of advancing 2D science and technology. While many claim that the photonic properties of a 2D layer provide evidence that the material is "high quality", this may not be true for electronic performance. In this work, we deconvolute the photonic and electronic response of synthetic monolayer molybdenum disulfide. We demonstrate that enhanced photoluminescence can be robustly engineered via the proper choice of substrate, where growth of MoS2 on r-plane sapphire can yield >100x enhancement in PL and carrier lifetime due to increased molybdenum-oxygen bonding compared to that of traditionally grown MoS2 on c-plane sapphire. These dramatic enhancements in optical properties are similar to those of super-acid treated MoS2, and suggest that the electronic properties of the MoS2 are also superior. However, a direct comparison of the charge transport properties indicates that the enhanced PL due to increased Mo-O bonding leads to p-type compensation doping, and is accompanied by a 2x degradation in transport properties compared to MoS2 grown on c-plane sapphire. This work provides a foundation for understanding the link between photonic and electronic performance of 2D semiconducting layers, and demonstrates that they are not always correlated.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(8): 087401, 2017 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28952768

RESUMO

Optoelectronic excitations in monolayer MoS_{2} manifest from a hierarchy of electrically tunable, Coulombic free-carrier and excitonic many-body phenomena. Investigating the fundamental interactions underpinning these phenomena-critical to both many-body physics exploration and device applications-presents challenges, however, due to a complex balance of competing optoelectronic effects and interdependent properties. Here, optical detection of bound- and free-carrier photoexcitations is used to directly quantify carrier-induced changes of the quasiparticle band gap and exciton binding energies. The results explicitly disentangle the competing effects and highlight longstanding theoretical predictions of large carrier-induced band gap and exciton renormalization in two-dimensional semiconductors.

9.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 1651, 2017 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28490793

RESUMO

One of the major challenges to the widespread adoption of plasmonic and nano-optical devices in real-life applications is the difficulty to mass-fabricate nano-optical antennas in parallel and reproducible fashion, and the capability to precisely place nanoantennas into devices with nanometer-scale precision. In this study, we present a solution to this challenge using the state-of-the-art ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) to fabricate functional optical transformers onto the core of an optical fiber in a single step, mimicking the 'campanile' near-field probes. Imprinted probes were fabricated using a custom-built imprinter tool with co-axial alignment capability with sub <100 nm position accuracy, followed by a metallization step. Scanning electron micrographs confirm high imprint fidelity and precision with a thin residual layer to facilitate efficient optical coupling between the fiber and the imprinted optical transformer. The imprinted optical transformer probe was used in an actual NSOM measurement performing hyperspectral photoluminescence mapping of standard fluorescent beads. The calibration scans confirmed that imprinted probes enable sub-diffraction limited imaging with a spatial resolution consistent with the gap size. This novel nano-fabrication approach promises a low-cost, high-throughput, and reproducible manufacturing of advanced nano-optical devices.

10.
ACS Nano ; 11(2): 2115-2123, 2017 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28117983

RESUMO

Broadband optoelectronics such as artificial light harvesting technologies necessitate efficient and, ideally, tunable coupling of excited states over a wide range of energies. In monolayer MoS2, a prototypical two-dimensional layered semiconductor, the excited state manifold spans the visible electromagnetic spectrum and is comprised of an interconnected network of excitonic and free-carrier excitations. Here, photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy is used to reveal the energetic and spatial dependence of broadband excited state coupling to the ground-state luminescent excitons of monolayer MoS2. Photoexcitation of the direct band gap excitons is found to strengthen with increasing energy, demonstrating that interexcitonic coupling across the Brillouin zone is more efficient than previously reported, and thus bolstering the import and appeal of these materials for broadband optoelectronic applications. Narrow excitation resonances that are superimposed on the broadband photoexcitation spectrum are identified and coincide with the energetic positions of the higher-energy excitons and the electronic band gap as predicted by first-principles calculations. Identification of such features outlines a facile route to measure the optical and electronic band gaps and thus the exciton binding energy in the more sophisticated device architectures that are necessary for untangling the rich many-body phenomena and complex photophysics of these layered semiconductors. In as-grown materials, the excited states exhibit microscopic spatial variations that are characteristic of local carrier density fluctuations, similar to charge puddling phenomena in graphene. Such variations likely arise from substrate inhomogeneity and demonstrate the possibility to use substrate patterning to tune local carrier density and dynamically control excited states for designer optoelectronics.

11.
ACS Nano ; 11(2): 2075-2084, 2017 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28110520

RESUMO

The reabsorption of photoluminescence within a medium, an effect known as the inner filter effect (IFE), has been well studied in solutions, but has garnered less attention in regards to solid-state nanocomposites. Photoluminescence from a quantum dot (QD) can selectively excite larger QDs around it resulting in a net red-shift in the reemitted photon. In CdSe/CdS core/shell QD-polymer nanocomposites, we observe a large spectral red-shift of over a third of the line width of the photoluminescence of the nanocomposites over a distance of 100 µm resulting from the IFE. Unlike fluorescent dyes, which do not show a large IFE red-shift, QDs have a component of inhomogeneous broadening that originates from their size distribution and quantum confinement. By controlling the photoluminescence broadening as well as the sample dispersion and concentration, we show that the magnitude of the IFE within the nanocomposite can be tuned. We further demonstrate that this shift can be exploited in order to spectroscopically monitor the vertical displacement of a nanocomposite in a fluorescence microscope. Large energetic shifts in the measured emission with displacement can be maximized, resulting in a displacement sensor with submicrometer resolution. We further show that the composite can be easily attached to biological samples and is able to measure deformations with high temporal and spatial precision.

12.
Adv Mater ; 29(3)2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27862364

RESUMO

Using two-photon tomography, carrier lifetimes are mapped in polycrystalline CdTe photovoltaic devices. These 3D maps probe subsurface carrier dynamics that are inaccessible with traditional optical techniques. They reveal that CdCl2 treatment of CdTe solar cells suppresses nonradiative recombination and enhances carrier lifetimes throughout the film with substantial improvements particularly near subsurface grain boundaries and the critical buried p-n junction.

13.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12012, 2016 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27377305

RESUMO

Artificial photosynthesis relies on the availability of semiconductors that are chemically stable and can efficiently capture solar energy. Although metal oxide semiconductors have been investigated for their promise to resist oxidative attack, materials in this class can suffer from chemical and photochemical instability. Here we present a methodology for evaluating corrosion mechanisms and apply it to bismuth vanadate, a state-of-the-art photoanode. Analysis of changing morphology and composition under solar water splitting conditions reveals chemical instabilities that are not predicted from thermodynamic considerations of stable solid oxide phases, as represented by the Pourbaix diagram for the system. Computational modelling indicates that photoexcited charge carriers accumulated at the surface destabilize the lattice, and that self-passivation by formation of a chemically stable surface phase is kinetically hindered. Although chemical stability of metal oxides cannot be assumed, insight into corrosion mechanisms aids development of protection strategies and discovery of semiconductors with improved stability.

14.
Nanoscale ; 8(22): 11611-6, 2016 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27216164

RESUMO

We demonstrate far-field optical thermometry using individual NaYF4 nanoparticles doped with 2% Er(3+) and 20% Yb(3+). Isolated 20 × 20 × 40 nm(3) particles were identified using only far-field optical imaging, confirmed by subsequent scanning electron microscopy. The luminescence thermometry response for five such single particles was characterized for temperatures from 300 K to 400 K. A standard Arrhenius model widely used for larger particles can still be accurately applied to these sub-50 nm particles, with good particle-to-particle uniformity (response coefficients exhibited standard deviations below 5%). With its spatial resolution on the order of 50 nm when imaging a single particle, far below the diffraction limit, this technique has potential applications for both fundamental thermal measurements and nanoscale metrology in industrial applications.

15.
Adv Mater ; 27(38): 5693-719, 2015 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26332202

RESUMO

Reduced-dimensionality materials for photonic and optoelectronic applications including energy conversion, solid-state lighting, sensing, and information technology are undergoing rapid development. The search for novel materials based on reduced-dimensionality is driven by new physics. Understanding and optimizing material properties requires characterization at the relevant length scale, which is often below the diffraction limit. Three important material systems are chosen for review here, all of which are under investigation at the Molecular Foundry, to illustrate the current state of the art in nanoscale optical characterization: 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides; 1D semiconducting nanowires; and energy-transfer in assemblies of 0D semiconducting nanocrystals. For each system, the key optical properties, the principal experimental techniques, and important recent results are discussed. Applications and new developments in near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy, and cathodoluminescence in the electron microscope are given detailed attention. Work done at the Molecular Foundry is placed in context within the fields under review. A discussion of emerging opportunities and directions for the future closes the review.

16.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7993, 2015 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26269394

RESUMO

Two-dimensional monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors are ideal building blocks for atomically thin, flexible optoelectronic and catalytic devices. Although challenging for two-dimensional systems, sub-diffraction optical microscopy provides a nanoscale material understanding that is vital for optimizing their optoelectronic properties. Here we use the 'Campanile' nano-optical probe to spectroscopically image exciton recombination within monolayer MoS2 with sub-wavelength resolution (60 nm), at the length scale relevant to many critical optoelectronic processes. Synthetic monolayer MoS2 is found to be composed of two distinct optoelectronic regions: an interior, locally ordered but mesoscopically heterogeneous two-dimensional quantum well and an unexpected ∼300-nm wide, energetically disordered edge region. Further, grain boundaries are imaged with sufficient resolution to quantify local exciton-quenching phenomena, and complimentary nano-Auger microscopy reveals that the optically defective grain boundary and edge regions are sulfur deficient. The nanoscale structure-property relationships established here are critical for the interpretation of edge- and boundary-related phenomena and the development of next-generation two-dimensional optoelectronic devices.

17.
Chemphyschem ; 16(8): 1663-9, 2015 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25807918

RESUMO

Semiconductor nanocrystals consisting of a quantum dot (QD) core and a quantum well (QW) shell, where the QD and QW are separated by a tunneling barrier, offer a unique opportunity to engineer the photophysical properties of individual nanostructures. Using the thicknesses of the corresponding layers, the excitons of the first and second excited states can be separated spatially, localizing one state to the QD and the other to the QW. Thus the wave function overlap of the two states can be minimized, suppressing non-radiative thermalization between the two wells, which in turn leads to radiative relaxation from both states. The molecular analogy to such dual emission would be the inhibition of internal conversion, a special case that violates Kasha's rule. Using nanosecond time-resolved spectroscopy of QDQW CdSe/ZnS onion-like nanocrystals, an intermediate regime of exciton separation and suppressed thermalization is identified where the non-radiative relaxation of the higher-energy state is slowed, but not completely inhibited. In this intermediate thermalization regime, the temporal evolution of the delayed emission spectra resulting from trapped carriers mimic the dynamics of such states in nanocrystals that consist of only a QD core. In stark contrast, when a higher-energy metastable state exists in the QW shell due to strongly suppressed interwell thermalization, the spectral dynamics of the long-lived excitations in the QD and QW, which are spectrally distinct, are amplified and differ from each other as well as from those in the core-only nanocrystals. This difference in spectral dynamics demonstrates the utility of exploiting well-defined exciton localization to study the nature and spatial dependence of the intriguing photophysics of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, and illustrates the power of nanosecond gated luminescence spectroscopy in illuminating complex relaxation dynamics which are entirely masked in steady-state or ultrafast spectroscopy.

18.
Sci Rep ; 3: 2090, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23807624

RESUMO

The plasmonic resonances of nanostructured silver films produce exceptional surface enhancement, enabling reproducible single-molecule Raman scattering measurements. Supporting a broad range of plasmonic resonances, these disordered systems are difficult to investigate with conventional far-field spectroscopy. Here, we use nonlinear excitation spectroscopy and polarization anisotropy of single optical hot spots of supercontinuum generation to track the transformation of these plasmon modes as the mesoscopic structure is tuned from a film of discrete nanoparticles to a semicontinuous layer of aggregated particles. We demonstrate how hot spot formation from diffractively-coupled nanoparticles with broad spectral resonances transitions to that from spatially delocalized surface plasmon excitations, exhibiting multiple excitation resonances as narrow as 13 meV. Photon-localization microscopy reveals that the delocalized plasmons are capable of focusing multiple narrow radiation bands over a broadband range to the same spatial region within 6 nm, underscoring the existence of novel plasmonic nanoresonators embedded in highly disordered systems.

19.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 4(4): 691-7, 2013 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26281888

RESUMO

Temperature-dependent single-particle spectroscopy is used to study interfacial energy transfer in model light-harvesting CdSe/CdS core-shell tetrapod nanocrystals. Using alternating excitation energies, we identify two thermalized exciton states in single nanoparticles that are attributed to a strain-induced interfacial barrier. At cryogenic temperatures, emission from both states exemplifies the effects of intraparticle disorder and enables their simultaneous characterization, revealing that the two states are distinct in regards to emission polarization, spectral diffusion, and blinking.

20.
J Phys Chem B ; 117(16): 4197-203, 2013 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22545591

RESUMO

The interactions between two π-conjugated oligomers templated in molecular scaffolds are revealed as a function of separation and orientation, providing models of intermolecular interactions in bulk organic semiconductor materials. For a variety of dimer geometries (acyclic and macrocyclic) of the same model oligomer, no change in fluorescence spectra, fluorescence dynamics, or low-temperature single-molecule emission characteristics is observed. A small red-shift and slowing of fluorescence in the most closely spaced macrocyclic dimer structure is thought to arise both due to an intramolecular solvatochromic shift as well as from weak intramolecular aggregate formation. No corresponding effect is observed in bulk films of the acyclic model oligomer, implying the absence of intermolecular aggregate or excimer formation due to random relative dipole orientations. The largest effect of intramolecular geometry of the model dimer structures is seen in transient fluorescence depolarization, where an open ring geometry leads to rapid depolarization, compared to the corresponding macrocycle, due to the presence of a range of molecular transition dipole moment orientations. Self-assembled monolayers of the molecules on HOPG investigated by scanning-tunneling microscopy further illustrate the conformational variability of the open dimers in contrast to the fixed conformation of the closed dimers.

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