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1.
Heart Rhythm ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants in the KCNQ1-encoded Kv7.1 potassium channel cause type 1 long QT syndrome (LQT1). Despite the revamped 2015 American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) variant interpretation guidelines, the burden of KCNQ1 variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in patients with LQTS remains ∼30%. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a phenotype-enhanced (PE) variant classification approach could reduce the VUS burden in LQTS genetic testing. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed on 79 KCNQ1 missense variants in 356 patients from Mayo Clinic and an independent cohort of 42 variants in 225 patients from Amsterdam UMC. Each variant was classified initially using the ACMG guidelines and then re-adjudicated using a PE-ACMG framework that incorporated the LQTS clinical diagnostic Schwartz score plus four "LQT1-Defining Features": broad-based/slow upstroke T-waves, syncope/seizure during exertion, swimming-associated events, and a maladaptive LQT1 treadmill stress test. RESULTS: According to ACMG guidelines, Mayo Clinic variants were classified as follows: 17/79 (22%) P, 34/79 (43%) LP, and 28/79 (35%) VUS. Similarly, for Amsterdam UMC, the variant distribution was 9/42 (22%) P, 14/42 (33%) LP, and 19/42 (45%) VUS. Following PE-ACMG re-adjudication, the total VUS burden decreased significantly from 28 (35%) to 13 (16%, p=0.0007) for Mayo Clinic and from 19 (45%) to 12 (29%, p=0.02) for Amsterdam UMC. CONCLUSIONS: Phenotype-guided variant adjudication decreased significantly the VUS burden of LQT1 case-derived KCNQ1 missense variants in two independent cohorts. This study demonstrates the value of incorporating LQT1-specific phenotype/clinical data to aid in interpretation of KCNQ1 missense variants identified during genetic testing for LQTS.

2.
Heart Rhythm ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 3 long QT syndrome (LQT3) is caused by pathogenic, gain-of-function variants in SCN5A leading to a prolonged action potential, ventricular ectopy, and torsades de pointes. Treatment options include pharmacotherapy, cardiac denervation, and/or device therapy. Rarely, patients with malignant LQT3 require cardiac transplantation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of chronic continuous intravenous (IV) lidocaine as a therapeutic option for select patients with LQT3 refractory to standard therapy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients evaluated and treated at Mayo Clinic and identified 4 of 161 patients with LQT3 (2.5%) who were refractory to standard therapies and therefore treated with IV lidocaine. RESULTS: There were 4 patients (2 female [50%]). The median age at first IV lidocaine infusion was 2 months (interquartile range 1.5-4.8 months), and the median cumulative duration on IV lidocaine was 11.5 months (interquartile range 8.7-17.8 months). The main indication for IV lidocaine in all patients was persistent ventricular arrhythmias. Before IV lidocaine, all patients received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, and while on intermittent IV lidocaine, all patients underwent bilateral cardiac sympathetic denervation. Additionally, 2 (50%) patients had cardiac ablation for premature ventricular complexes. In all patients, lidocaine infusion resulted in a significant reduction of LQT3-triggered cardiac events. The main side effects of IV lidocaine observed were dizziness (n = 2, 50%) and seizures (n = 2, 50%). During follow-up, 3 of 4 (75%) patients underwent orthotopic cardiac transplantation. The remaining patient continues to receive IV lidocaine bolus for rescue as needed. CONCLUSION: For patients with LQT3 who are refractory to standard treatment, chronic IV lidocaine infusion can be used as a potential "bridge to transplant."

3.
Int J Cardiol ; 340: 42-47, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no established screening approach for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We recently developed an artificial intelligence (AI) model for the detection of HCM based on the 12­lead electrocardiogram (AI-ECG) in adults. Here, we aimed to validate this approach of ECG-based HCM detection in pediatric patients (age ≤ 18 years). METHODS: We identified a cohort of 300 children and adolescents with HCM (mean age 12.5 ± 4.6 years, male 68%) who had an ECG and echocardiogram at our institution. Patients were age- and sex-matched to 18,439 non-HCM controls. Diagnostic performance of the AI-ECG model for the detection of HCM was estimated using the previously identified optimal diagnostic threshold of 11% (the probability output derived by the model above which an ECG is considered to belong to an HCM patient). RESULTS: Mean AI-ECG probabilities of HCM were 92% and 5% in the case and control groups, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the AI-ECG model for HCM detection was 0.98 (95% CI 0.98-0.99) with corresponding sensitivity 92% and specificity 95%. The positive and negative predictive values were 22% and 99%, respectively. The model performed similarly in males and females and in genotype-positive and genotype-negative HCM patients. Performance tended to be superior with increasing age. In the age subgroup <5 years, the test's AUC was 0.93. In comparison, the AUC was 0.99 in the age subgroup 15-18 years. CONCLUSIONS: A deep-learning, AI model can detect pediatric HCM with high accuracy from the standard 12­lead ECG.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Adolescente , Adulto , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento
4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(6): 594-604, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Within the last 5 years, cardiac society guidelines have begun to acknowledge shared decision making (SDM) for the athlete with sudden cardiac death-predisposing genetic heart diseases (GHDs), such as long QT syndrome (LQTS), and the possibility for that athlete's return to play. Previously, international guidelines embraced a de facto disqualification for all such athletes including athletes with solely a positive genetic test in Europe. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the prevalence and outcomes of athletes with sudden cardiac death-predisposing GHDs, particularly LQTS, after their return to play. METHODS: A retrospective review of the electronic medical record was performed on all athletes with GHD, with a primary analysis for those with LQTS, who were evaluated, risk stratified, and treated in Mayo Clinic's Windland Smith Rice Genetic Heart Rhythm Clinic by a single genetic cardiologist between July 1, 2000, and July 31, 2020. RESULTS: There were 672 athletes with GHD overall including 494 athletes with LQTS (231 female athletes [46.8%]; mean age at diagnosis 14.8 ± 10.5 years; mean follow-up 4.2 ± 4.8 years) who were given return-to-play approval. Overall, 79 of 494 athletes with LQTS (16.0%) were symptomatic before diagnosis, and 58 (11.7%) had an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. In 2,056 combined years of follow-up, there was no GHD-sports associated mortality. Instead, 29 patients (5.9%) had ≥1 nonlethal, LQTS-associated breakthrough cardiac event. Of those, 15 (3.0%) were athletes at the time of the breakthrough cardiac event, with 3 (0.6%) experiencing a sports-related breakthrough cardiac event, and 12 (2.4%) a non-sports-related event. Overall, the event rate was 1.16 nonlethal events per 100 athlete-years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This 20-year single center experience challenges the status quo of disqualification for all athletes with LQTS and provides additional observational evidence, albeit from a single center, in support of the more contemporary SDM approaches to this complex issue.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(14): e021088, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238014

RESUMO

Background We aimed to provide personalized risk estimates for cardiac events (CEs) and life-threatening events in women with either type 1 or type 2 long QT. Methods and Results The prognostic model was derived from the Rochester Long QT Syndrome Registry, comprising 767 women with type 1 long QT (n=404) and type 2 long QT (n=363) from age 15 through 60 years. The risk prediction model included the following variables: genotype/mutation location, QTc-specific thresholds, history of syncope, and ß-blocker therapy. A model was developed with the end point of CEs (syncope, aborted cardiac arrest, or long QT syndrome-related sudden cardiac death), and was applied with the end point of life-threatening events (aborted cardiac arrest, sudden cardiac death, or appropriate defibrillator shocks). External validation was performed with data from the Mayo Clinic Genetic Heart Rhythm Clinic (N=467; type 1 long QT [n=286] and type 2 long QT [n=181]). The cumulative follow-up duration among the 767 enrolled women was 22 243 patient-years, during which 323 patients (42%) experienced ≥1 CE. Based on genotype-phenotype data, we identified 3 risk groups with 10-year projected rates of CEs ranging from 15%, 29%, to 51%. The corresponding 10-year projected rates of life-threatening events were 2%, 5%, and 14%. C statistics for the prediction model for the 2 respective end points were 0.68 (95% CI 0.65-0.71) and 0.71 (95% CI 0.66-0.76). Corresponding C statistics for the model in the external validation Mayo Clinic cohort were 0.65 (95% CI 0.60-0.70) and 0.77 (95% CI 0.70-0.84). Conclusions This is the first risk prediction model that provides absolute risk estimates for CEs and life-threatening events in women with type 1 or type 2 long QT based on personalized genotype-phenotype data. The projected risk estimates can be used to guide female-specific management in long QT syndrome.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Síndrome do QT Longo/congênito , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Síndrome do QT Longo/epidemiologia , Síndrome do QT Longo/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(17): 2159-2170, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by multiple pathological features including myocyte hypertrophy, myocyte disarray, and interstitial fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to correlate myocardial histopathology with clinical characteristics of patients with obstructive HCM and post-operative outcomes following septal myectomy. METHODS: The authors reviewed the pathological findings of the myocardial specimens from 1,836 patients with obstructive HCM who underwent septal myectomy from 2000 to 2016. Myocyte hypertrophy, myocyte disarray, interstitial fibrosis, and endocardial thickening were graded and analyzed. RESULTS: The median age at operation was 54.2 years (43.5 to 64.3 years), and 1,067 (58.1%) were men. A weak negative correlation between myocyte disarray and age at surgery was identified (ρ = -0.22; p < 0.001). Myocyte hypertrophy (p < 0.001), myocyte disarray (p < 0.001), and interstitial fibrosis (p < 0.001) were positively associated with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. Interstitial fibrosis (p < 0.001) and endocardial thickening (p < 0.001) were associated with atrial fibrillation pre-operatively. In the Cox survival model, older age (p < 0.001), lower degree of myocyte hypertrophy (severe vs. mild hazard ratio: 0.41; 95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.86; p = 0.040), and lower degree of endocardial thickening (moderate vs. mild hazard ratio: 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.58 to 0.97; p = 0.019) were independently associated with worse post-myectomy survival. Among 256 patients who had genotype analysis, patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants (n = 62) had a greater degree of myocyte disarray (42% vs. 15% vs. 20%; p = 0.022). Notably, 13 patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic genetic variants of HCM had no myocyte disarray. CONCLUSIONS: Histopathology was associated with clinical manifestations including the age of disease onset and arrhythmias. Myocyte hypertrophy and endocardial thickening were negatively associated with post-myectomy mortality.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Adulto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Fibrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Septos Cardíacos/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(5): 532-538, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566059

RESUMO

Importance: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is characterized by prolongation of the QT interval and is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, although QT interval prolongation is the hallmark feature of LQTS, approximately 40% of patients with genetically confirmed LQTS have a normal corrected QT (QTc) at rest. Distinguishing patients with LQTS from those with a normal QTc is important to correctly diagnose disease, implement simple LQTS preventive measures, and initiate prophylactic therapy if necessary. Objective: To determine whether artificial intelligence (AI) using deep neural networks is better than the QTc alone in distinguishing patients with concealed LQTS from those with a normal QTc using a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Design, Setting, and Participants: A diagnostic case-control study was performed using all available 12-lead ECGs from 2059 patients presenting to a specialized genetic heart rhythm clinic. Patients were included if they had a definitive clinical and/or genetic diagnosis of type 1, 2, or 3 LQTS (LQT1, 2, or 3) or were seen because of an initial suspicion for LQTS but were discharged without this diagnosis. A multilayer convolutional neural network was used to classify patients based on a 10-second, 12-lead ECG, AI-enhanced ECG (AI-ECG). The convolutional neural network was trained using 60% of the patients, validated in 10% of the patients, and tested on the remaining patients (30%). The study was conducted from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: The goal of the study was to test the ability of the convolutional neural network to distinguish patients with LQTS from those who were evaluated for LQTS but discharged without this diagnosis, especially among patients with genetically confirmed LQTS but a normal QTc value at rest (referred to as genotype positive/phenotype negative LQTS, normal QT interval LQTS, or concealed LQTS). Results: Of the 2059 patients included, 1180 were men (57%); mean (SD) age at first ECG was 21.6 (15.6) years. All 12-lead ECGs from 967 patients with LQTS and 1092 who were evaluated for LQTS but discharged without this diagnosis were included for AI-ECG analysis. Based on the ECG-derived QTc alone, patients were classified with an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.824 (95% CI, 0.79-0.858); using AI-ECG, the AUC was 0.900 (95% CI, 0.876-0.925). Furthermore, in the subset of patients who had a normal resting QTc (<450 milliseconds), the QTc alone distinguished those with LQTS from those without LQTS with an AUC of 0.741 (95% CI, 0.689-0.794), whereas the AI-ECG increased this discrimination to an AUC of 0.863 (95% CI, 0.824-0.903). In addition, the AI-ECG was able to distinguish the 3 main genotypic subgroups (LQT1, LQT2, and LQT3) with an AUC of 0.921 (95% CI, 0.890-0.951) for LQT1 compared with LQT2 and 3, 0.944 (95% CI, 0.918-0.970) for LQT2 compared with LQT1 and 3, and 0.863 (95% CI, 0.792-0.934) for LQT3 compared with LQT1 and 2. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, the AI-ECG was found to distinguish patients with electrocardiographically concealed LQTS from those discharged without a diagnosis of LQTS and provide a nearly 80% accurate pregenetic test anticipation of LQTS genotype status. This model may aid in the detection of LQTS in patients presenting to an arrhythmia clinic and, with validation, may be the stepping stone to similar tools to be developed for use in the general population.

9.
Circulation ; 143(13): 1274-1286, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation, whether secondary to drugs, genetics including congenital long QT syndrome, and/or systemic diseases including SARS-CoV-2-mediated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can predispose to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Currently, QTc assessment and monitoring relies largely on 12-lead electrocardiography. As such, we sought to train and validate an artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled 12-lead ECG algorithm to determine the QTc, and then prospectively test this algorithm on tracings acquired from a mobile ECG (mECG) device in a population enriched for repolarization abnormalities. METHODS: Using >1.6 million 12-lead ECGs from 538 200 patients, a deep neural network (DNN) was derived (patients for training, n = 250 767; patients for testing, n = 107 920) and validated (n = 179 513 patients) to predict the QTc using cardiologist-overread QTc values as the "gold standard". The ability of this DNN to detect clinically-relevant QTc prolongation (eg, QTc ≥500 ms) was then tested prospectively on 686 patients with genetic heart disease (50% with long QT syndrome) with QTc values obtained from both a 12-lead ECG and a prototype mECG device equivalent to the commercially-available AliveCor KardiaMobile 6L. RESULTS: In the validation sample, strong agreement was observed between human over-read and DNN-predicted QTc values (-1.76±23.14 ms). Similarly, within the prospective, genetic heart disease-enriched dataset, the difference between DNN-predicted QTc values derived from mECG tracings and those annotated from 12-lead ECGs by a QT expert (-0.45±24.73 ms) and a commercial core ECG laboratory [10.52±25.64 ms] was nominal. When applied to mECG tracings, the DNN's ability to detect a QTc value ≥500 ms yielded an area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.97, 80.0%, and 94.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using smartphone-enabled electrodes, an AI DNN can predict accurately the QTc of a standard 12-lead ECG. QTc estimation from an AI-enabled mECG device may provide a cost-effective means of screening for both acquired and congenital long QT syndrome in a variety of clinical settings where standard 12-lead electrocardiography is not accessible or cost-effective.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/virologia , Eletrocardiografia/instrumentação , Feminino , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Síndrome do QT Longo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Smartphone
10.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 32(3): 782-789, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unfortunately, some patients with long QT syndrome (LQTS) experience breakthrough cardiac events (BCEs) despite maximal therapy. Small studies have shown that refractory LQTS cases may benefit from intentional permanent atrial pacing (IPAP). As such, we sought to determine the genotype-specific utilization and efficacy of IPAP in a single-center LQTS registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this retrospective study, electronic medical records from 1065 patients diagnosed with LQTS were used to identify individuals that received IPAP. Pre- and post-IPAP heart rate, heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) values, annual BCE rate, and IPAP-related complications were compared between genotypes. BCEs were defined as LQTS-associated syncope/seizures, sustained ventricular arrhythmia (VA)-terminating ICD therapies, and sudden cardiac arrest/death. Overall, 52 out of 1065 LQTS patients received adjunctive IPAP therapy (77% female; median age 18.5 [interquartile range, 1-35.5] years; 73% with prior VA). Over an average IPAP follow-up of 121 ± 82 months, the average heart rate increased from 65.8 ± 20.4 bpm to 78.9 ± 17.1 bpm; (p < .01) and the average QTc decreased from 533.4 ± 66.6 to 488.3 ± 52.4 ms; (p < .01). The mean BCE rate dropped from 0.88 to 0.19 per patient-year (p = .01), driven by a marked decrease in the LQT2 cohort (1.01 BCE/year to 0.02 BCE/year; p = .003). No serious IPAP-related complications were observed. CONCLUSION: In high-risk LQTS patients, namely those with recalcitrant LQT2, IPAP appears to be a safe and efficacious adjunct therapy. The beneficial effects of IPAP may stem from attenuating the QTc and circumventing a pause-dependent trigger. Whether IPAP might obviate the need for an ICD in some instances warrants further study.


Assuntos
Síndrome do QT Longo , Adolescente , Arritmias Cardíacas , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Síndrome do QT Longo/genética , Síndrome do QT Longo/terapia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síncope
11.
Circulation ; 143(14): 1411-1425, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 1 long QT syndrome (LQT1) is caused by loss-of-function variants in the KCNQ1-encoded Kv7.1 potassium channel α-subunit that is essential for cardiac repolarization, providing the slow delayed rectifier current. No current therapies target the molecular cause of LQT1. METHODS: A dual-component suppression-and-replacement (SupRep) KCNQ1 gene therapy was created by cloning a KCNQ1 short hairpin RNA and a short hairpin RNA-immune KCNQ1 cDNA modified with synonymous variants in the short hairpin RNA target site, into a single construct. The ability of KCNQ1-SupRep gene therapy to suppress and replace LQT1-causative variants in KCNQ1 was evaluated by means of heterologous expression in TSA201 cells. For a human in vitro cardiac model, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) were generated from 4 patients with LQT1 (KCNQ1-Y171X, -V254M, -I567S, and -A344A/spl) and an unrelated healthy control. CRISPR-Cas9 corrected isogenic control iPSC-CMs were made for 2 LQT1 lines (correction of KCNQ1-V254M and KCNQ1-A344A/spl). FluoVolt voltage dye was used to measure the cardiac action potential duration (APD) in iPSC-CMs treated with KCNQ1-SupRep. RESULTS: In TSA201 cells, KCNQ1-SupRep achieved mutation-independent suppression of wild-type KCNQ1 and 3 LQT1-causative variants (KCNQ1-Y171X, -V254M, and -I567S) with simultaneous replacement of short hairpin RNA-immune KCNQ1 as measured by allele-specific quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Using FluoVolt voltage dye to measure the cardiac APD in the 4 LQT1 patient-derived iPSC-CMs, treatment with KCNQ1-SupRep resulted in shortening of the pathologically prolonged APD at both 90% and 50% repolarization, resulting in APD values similar to those of the 2 isogenic controls. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first proof-of-principle gene therapy for complete correction of long QT syndrome. As a dual-component gene therapy vector, KCNQ1-SupRep successfully suppressed and replaced KCNQ1 to normal wild-type levels. In TSA201 cells, cotransfection of LQT1-causative variants and KCNQ1-SupRep caused mutation-independent suppression and replacement of KCNQ1. In LQT1 iPSC-CMs, KCNQ1-SupRep gene therapy shortened the APD, thereby eliminating the pathognomonic feature of LQT1.

12.
Genet Med ; 23(1): 47-58, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893267

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Stringent variant interpretation guidelines can lead to high rates of variants of uncertain significance (VUS) for genetically heterogeneous disease like long QT syndrome (LQTS) and Brugada syndrome (BrS). Quantitative and disease-specific customization of American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) guidelines can address this false negative rate. METHODS: We compared rare variant frequencies from 1847 LQTS (KCNQ1/KCNH2/SCN5A) and 3335 BrS (SCN5A) cases from the International LQTS/BrS Genetics Consortia to population-specific gnomAD data and developed disease-specific criteria for ACMG/AMP evidence classes-rarity (PM2/BS1 rules) and case enrichment of individual (PS4) and domain-specific (PM1) variants. RESULTS: Rare SCN5A variant prevalence differed between European (20.8%) and Japanese (8.9%) BrS patients (p = 5.7 × 10-18) and diagnosis with spontaneous (28.7%) versus induced (15.8%) Brugada type 1 electrocardiogram (ECG) (p = 1.3 × 10-13). Ion channel transmembrane regions and specific N-terminus (KCNH2) and C-terminus (KCNQ1/KCNH2) domains were characterized by high enrichment of case variants and >95% probability of pathogenicity. Applying the customized rules, 17.4% of European BrS and 74.8% of European LQTS cases had (likely) pathogenic variants, compared with estimated diagnostic yields (case excess over gnomAD) of 19.2%/82.1%, reducing VUS prevalence to close to background rare variant frequency. CONCLUSION: Large case-control data sets enable quantitative implementation of ACMG/AMP guidelines and increased sensitivity for inherited arrhythmia genetic testing.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Brugada , Síndrome do QT Longo , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Síndrome de Brugada/genética , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Síndrome do QT Longo/epidemiologia , Síndrome do QT Longo/genética , Mutação , Controle da População
13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(24): 2834-2843, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability to identify those patients at the highest phenotypic risk for long QT syndrome (LQTS)-associated life-threatening cardiac events remains suboptimal. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to validate the association between electromechanical window (EMW) negativity, as derived from echocardiography, and symptomatic versus asymptomatic status in patients with LQTS. METHODS: We analyzed a cohort of 651 patients with LQTS (age 26 ± 17 years; 60% females; 158 symptomatic; 51% LQTS type 1; 33% LQTS type 2; 11% LQTS type 3; 5% multiple mutations) and 50 healthy controls. EMW was calculated as the difference between the interval from QRS onset to aortic valve closure midline, as derived for continuous-wave Doppler, and the electrocardiogram-derived QT interval for the same beat. RESULTS: A negative EMW was found among nearly all patients with LQTS compared to controls, with more profound EMW negativity in patients with symptomatic LQTS compared to those with asymptomatic LQTS (-52 ± 38 ms vs. -18 ± 29 ms; p < 0.0001). Logistic regression identified EMW, heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc), female sex, and LQTS genotype as univariate predictors of symptomatic status. After multivariate analysis, EMW remained an independent predictor of symptomatic status (odds ratio for each 10-ms decrease in EMW: 1.37; 95% confidence interval: 1.27 to 1.48; p < 0.0001). EMW outperformed QTc in predicting symptomatic patients (area under the curve: 0.78 vs. 0.70; p = 0.01). After training and implementation, EMW correlation from echocardiographic sonographers showed excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.93; 95% confidence interval: 0.89 to 0.96). CONCLUSIONS: In this validation study, patients with a history of LQTS-associated life-threatening cardiac events had a more profoundly negative EMW. EMW outperformed heart rate-corrected QT interval as a predictor of symptomatic status. EMW is now a clinically validated risk factor. In December 2019, our institution's echocardiography clinical practice committee approved use of EMW for patients with LQTS, making it a routinely reported echocardiographic finding.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/genética , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(6): e002911, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is characterized by the type 1 Brugada ECG pattern. Pathogenic rare variants in SCN5A (mutations) are identified in 20% of BrS families in whom incomplete penetrance and genotype-negative phenotype-positive individuals are observed. E1784K-SCN5A is the most common SCN5A mutation identified. We determined the association of a BrS genetic risk score (BrS-GRS) and SCN5A mutation type on BrS phenotype in BrS families with SCN5A mutations. METHODS: Subjects with a spontaneous type 1 pattern or positive/negative drug challenge from cohorts harboring SCN5A mutations were recruited from 16 centers (n=312). Single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with BrS at genome-wide significance were studied in both cohorts: rs11708996, rs10428132, and rs9388451. An additive linear genetic model for the BrS-GRS was assumed (6 single nucleotide polymorphism risk alleles). RESULTS: In the total population (n=312), BrS-GRS ≥4 risk alleles yielded an odds ratio of 4.15 for BrS phenotype ([95% CI, 1.45-11.85]; P=0.0078). Among SCN5A-positive individuals (n=258), BrS-GRS ≥4 risk alleles yielded an odds ratio of 2.35 ([95% CI, 0.89-6.22]; P=0.0846). In SCN5A-negative relatives (n=54), BrS-GRS ≥4 alleles yielded an odds ratio of 22.29 ([95% CI, 1.84-269.30]; P=0.0146). Among E1784K-SCN5A positive family members (n=79), hosting ≥4 risk alleles gave an odds ratio=5.12 ([95% CI, 1.93-13.62]; P=0.0011). CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variation is associated with variable expressivity of BrS phenotype in SCN5A families, explaining in part incomplete penetrance and genotype-negative phenotype-positive individuals. SCN5A mutation genotype and a BrS-GRS associate with BrS phenotype, but the strength of association varies according to presence of a SCN5A mutation and severity of loss of function.

15.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(12): e008830, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Videoscopic left cardiac sympathetic denervation (LCSD) is an effective antifibrillatory, minimally invasive therapy for patients with potentially life-threatening arrhythmia syndromes like long QT syndrome (LQTS). Although initially used primarily for treatment intensification following documented LQTS-associated breakthrough cardiac events while on beta-blockers, LCSD as 1-time monotherapy for certain patients with LQTS requires further evaluation. We are presenting our early experience with LCSD monotherapy for carefully selected patients with LQTS. METHODS: Among the 1400 patients evaluated and treated for LQTS, a retrospective review was performed on the 204 patients with LQTS who underwent LCSD at our institution since 2005 to identify the patients where the LCSD served as stand-alone, monotherapy. Clinical data on symptomatic status before diagnosis, clinical, and genetic diagnosis, and breakthrough cardiac events after diagnosis were analyzed to determine efficacy of LCSD monotherapy. RESULT: Overall, 64 of 204 patients (31%) were treated with LCSD alone (37 [58%] female, mean QTc 466±30 ms, 16 [25%] patients were symptomatic before diagnosis with a mean age at diagnosis 17.3±11.8 years, 5 had [8%] ≥1 breakthrough cardiac event after diagnosis, and mean age at LCSD was 21.1±11.4 years). The primary motivation for LCSD monotherapy was an unacceptable quality of life stemming from beta-blocker related side effects (ie, beta-blocker intolerance) in 56/64 patients (88%). The underlying LQTS genotype was LQT1 in 36 (56%) and LQT2 in 20 (31%). There were no significant LCSD-related surgical complications. With a mean follow-up of 2.7±2.4 years so far, only 3 patients have experienced a nonlethal, post-LCSD breakthrough cardiac event in 180 patient-years. CONCLUSIONS: LCSD may be a safe and effective stand-alone therapy for select patients who do not tolerate beta-blockers. However, LCSD is not curative and patient selection will be critical when potentially considering LCSD as monotherapy.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca , Coração/inervação , Síndrome do QT Longo/cirurgia , Síndrome de Romano-Ward/cirurgia , Simpatectomia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/cirurgia , Cirurgia Vídeoassistida , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/congênito , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Síndrome do QT Longo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Romano-Ward/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Romano-Ward/genética , Síndrome de Romano-Ward/fisiopatologia , Simpatectomia/efeitos adversos , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Cirurgia Vídeoassistida/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
17.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(12): 1561-1570, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213816

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the relationship between long QT syndrome (LQTS) subtype (LTQ1, LTQ2, LTQ3) and postnatal cardiac events (CEs). BACKGROUND: LQTS presenting with 2:1 atrioventricular block or torsades de pointes in the fetus and/or neonate has been associated with risk for major CEs, but overall outcomes and predictors remain unknown. METHODS: A retrospective study involving 25 international centers evaluated the course of fetuses/newborns diagnosed with congenital LQTS and either 2:1 atrioventricular block or torsades de pointes. The primary outcomes were age at first CE after dismissal from the newborn hospitalization and death and/or cardiac transplantation during follow-up. CE was defined as aborted cardiac arrest, appropriate shock from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, or sudden cardiac death. RESULTS: A total of 84 fetuses and/or neonates were identified with LQTS (12 as LQT1, 35 as LQT2, 37 as LQT3). Median gestational age at delivery was 37 weeks (interquartile range: 35 to 39 weeks) and age at hospital discharge was 3 weeks (interquartile range: 2 to 5 weeks). Fetal demise occurred in 2 and pre-discharge death in 1. Over a median of 5.2 years, there were 1 LQT1, 3 LQT2, and 23 LQT3 CEs (13 aborted cardiac arrests, 5 sudden cardiac deaths, and 9 appropriate shocks). One patient with LQT1 and 11 patients with LQT3 died or received cardiac transplant during follow-up. The only multivariate predictor of post-discharge CEs was LQT3 status (LQT3 vs. LQT2: hazard ratio: 8.4; 95% confidence interval: 2.6 to 38.9; p < 0.001), and LQT3, relative to LQT2, genotype predicted death and/or cardiac transplant (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this large multicenter study, fetuses and/or neonates with LQT3 but not those with LQT1 or LQT2 presenting with severe arrhythmias were at high risk of not only frequent, but lethal CEs.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente , Síndrome do QT Longo , Eletrocardiografia , Feto , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome do QT Longo/complicações , Síndrome do QT Longo/genética , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(5): 453-459, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Missense variants in the MYH7-encoded MYH7 (beta myosin heavy chain 7) represent a leading cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). MYH7-specific American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) variant classification guidelines were released recently but have yet to be assessed independently. We set out to assess the performance of the MYH7-specific ACMG guidelines and determine if the addition of phenotype-enhanced criteria (PE-ACMG) using the HCM Genotype Predictor Score can further reduce the burden of variants of uncertain significance (VUS). METHODS: Re-assessment was performed on 70 MYH7-variants in 121 unique patients from Mayo Clinic, and an independent cohort of 54 variants in 70 patients from Royal Prince Alfred Hospital (Australia). Qualifying variants were re-adjudicated using both standard ACMG and MYH7-ACMG guidelines, and HCM Genotype Predictor Score was used to provide a validated measure of strength of clinical phenotype to be incorporated into the MYH7-ACMG framework. RESULTS: Among Mayo Clinic identified variants, 11/70 (16%) were classified as pathogenic (P), 10/70 (14%) as likely pathogenic, and 49/70 (70%) as a VUS. A similar distribution was seen in the Australian patients (12/54 [22%] P, 12/54 [22%] likely pathogenic, and 30/54 [56%] VUS; P=not significant). Application of the MYH7-ACMG resulted in a nonsignificant reduction of the VUS burden in both cohorts from 49/70 to 39/70 (56%; P=0.1; Mayo Clinic) and from 30/54 to 20/54 (37%; P=0.1; Australia). Using the combined PE-MYH7-ACMG framework, the VUS decreased significantly from 49 to 27 (P<0.001, Mayo Clinic) and from 30 to 16 (P<0.001; Australia). CONCLUSIONS: Use of the MYH7-specific guidelines alone failed to significantly decrease VUS burden in 2 independent cohorts. However, a significant reduction in VUS burden was observed after the addition of phenotypic criteria. Using a patient's strength of sarcomeric HCM phenotype for variant adjudication can increase significantly the clinical utility of genetic testing for patients with HCM.

19.
Circulation ; 142(10): 932-947, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variants in calsequestrin-2 (CASQ2) cause an autosomal recessive form of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), although isolated reports have identified arrhythmic phenotypes among heterozygotes. Improved insight into the inheritance patterns, arrhythmic risks, and molecular mechanisms of CASQ2-CPVT was sought through an international multicenter collaboration. METHODS: Genotype-phenotype segregation in CASQ2-CPVT families was assessed, and the impact of genotype on arrhythmic risk was evaluated using Cox regression models. Putative dominant CASQ2 missense variants and the established recessive CASQ2-p.R33Q variant were evaluated using oligomerization assays and their locations mapped to a recent CASQ2 filament structure. RESULTS: A total of 112 individuals, including 36 CPVT probands (24 homozygotes/compound heterozygotes and 12 heterozygotes) and 76 family members possessing at least 1 presumed pathogenic CASQ2 variant, were identified. Among CASQ2 homozygotes and compound heterozygotes, clinical penetrance was 97.1% and 26 of 34 (76.5%) individuals had experienced a potentially fatal arrhythmic event with a median age of onset of 7 years (95% CI, 6-11). Fifty-one of 66 CASQ2 heterozygous family members had undergone clinical evaluation, and 17 of 51 (33.3%) met diagnostic criteria for CPVT. Relative to CASQ2 heterozygotes, CASQ2 homozygote/compound heterozygote genotype status in probands was associated with a 3.2-fold (95% CI, 1.3-8.0; P=0.013) increased hazard of a composite of cardiac syncope, aborted cardiac arrest, and sudden cardiac death, but a 38.8-fold (95% CI, 5.6-269.1; P<0.001) increased hazard in genotype-positive family members. In vitro turbidity assays revealed that p.R33Q and all 6 candidate dominant CASQ2 missense variants evaluated exhibited filamentation defects, but only p.R33Q convincingly failed to dimerize. Structural analysis revealed that 3 of these 6 putative dominant negative missense variants localized to an electronegative pocket considered critical for back-to-back binding of dimers. CONCLUSIONS: This international multicenter study of CASQ2-CPVT redefines its heritability and confirms that pathogenic heterozygous CASQ2 variants may manifest with a CPVT phenotype, indicating a need to clinically screen these individuals. A dominant mode of inheritance appears intrinsic to certain missense variants because of their location and function within the CASQ2 filament structure.


Assuntos
Calsequestrina/genética , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Taquicardia Ventricular/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
20.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(4): e002922, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-QT syndrome (LQTS) is characterized by a prolonged heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc). Genome-wide association studies identified common genetic variants that collectively explain ≈8% to 10% of QTc variation in the general population. METHODS: Overall, 423 patients with LQT1, LQT2, or LQT3 were genotyped for 61 QTc-associated genetic variants used in a prototype QTc-polygenic risk score (QTc-PRS). A weighted QTc-PRS (range, 0-154.8 ms) was calculated for each patient, and the FHS (Framingham Heart Study) population-based reference cohort (n=853). RESULTS: The average QTc-PRS in LQTS was 88.0±7.2 and explained only ≈2.0% of the QTc variability. The QTc-PRS in LQTS probands (n=137; 89.3±6.8) was significantly greater than both FHS controls (87.2±7.4, difference-in-means±SE: 2.1±0.7, P<0.002) and LQTS genotype-positive family members (87.5±7.4, difference-in-mean, 1.8±.7, P<0.009). There was no difference in QTc-PRS between symptomatic (n=156, 88.6±7.3) and asymptomatic patients (n=267; 87.7±7.2, difference-in-mean, 0.9±0.7, P=0.15). LQTS patients with a QTc≥480 ms (n=120) had a significantly higher QTc-PRS (89.3±6.7) than patients with a QTc<480 ms (n=303, 87.6±7.4, difference-in-mean, 1.7±0.8, P<0.05). There was no difference in QTc-PRS or QTc between genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The QTc-PRS explained <2% of the QTc variability in our LQT1, LQT2, and LQT3 cohort, contributing 5× less to their QTc value than in the general population. This prototype QTc-PRS does not distinguish/predict the clinical outcomes of individuals with LQTS.

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