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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the daily dietary intake and energy contribution of ultra-processed foods among women who are positive and negative for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy. METHODS: This case-control study included 77 HIV-positive and 79 HIV-negative puerperal women between 2015 and 2016. The socioeconomic and maternal demographic data were assessed, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) adapted for pregnant women was applied. The Fisher exact test and the Mann-Whitney test were applied to detect differences between the groups. Linear regression was used to assess the associations between the intake of ultra-processed food and energy, macro- and micronutrients, with values of p < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: The HIV-positive group was older (p < 0.001) and had lower income (p = 0.016) and level of schooling (p < 0.001) than the HIV-negative group. Both groups presented similar average food intake: 4,082.99 Kcal/day and 4,369.24 Kcal/day for the HIV-positive and HIV-negative women respectively (p = 0.258).The HIV-positive group consumed less protein (p = 0.048), carbohydrates (p = 0.028) and calcium (p = 0.001), and more total fats (p = 0.003). Ultra-processed foods accounted for 39.80% and 40.10% of the HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups' caloric intake respectively (p = 0.893). The intake of these foods was associated with a higher consumption of carbohydrates (p < 0.001), trans fat (p = 0.013) and sodium (p < 0.001), as well as lower protein (p < 0.001) and fiber intake (p = 0.022). CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that the energy consumption and ultra-processed food intake were similar in both groups, which reinforces the trend toward a high intake of ultra-processed food in the general population. The intake of ultra-processed food was positively associated with the consumption of carbohydrates, trans fat and sodium, and negatively associated with the consumption of protein and fiber.

2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(7): 2387-2397, jul. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011847

RESUMO

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é verificar a associação entre fatores maternos e antropométricos e o consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados em crianças de 4 a 24 meses de idade. Métodos: Estudo transversal, com 300 crianças internadas em um hospital terciário e suas mães. A entrevista deu-se nas primeiras 72 horas de internação para evitar interferência nas respostas sobre a alimentação da criança. Os fatores maternos investigados foram: idade, escolaridade, renda, paridade, IMC e orientação sobre alimentação complementar. As variáveis referentes às crianças investigadas foram: idade, aleitamento materno, escola infantil, IMC/idade, estatura/idade, peso/idade e introdução de alimentos ultraprocessados. A associação entre os fatores estudados e a introdução de alimentos ultraprocessados foi testada por regressão linear. O nível de significância considerado foi de 0.05. Verificou-se que apenas 21% das crianças ainda não haviam recebido nenhum tipo de alimento ultraprocessado, sendo que 56.5% recebeu algum destes alimentos antes dos seis meses. Na análise multivariada, escolaridade materna, renda familiar, idade materna e paridade foram associadas à oferta de alimentos ultraprocessados. As práticas alimentares de crianças entre 4 e 24 meses estão inadequadas frente às recomendações para a faixa etária.


Abstract Objective To verify the association of maternal and anthropometric factors with consumption of ultra-processed foods in children between 4 to 24 months. Methods cross-sectional study with 300 children hospitalized in a tertiary hospital and their mothers. The interview took place during the first 72 hours of hospitalization to avoid interference in the responses about the child's diet. Maternal factors investigated: age, schooling, income, parity, BMI and guidance on complementary feeding. Variables related to the child investigated: age, breastfeeding, infant school, BMI/age, height/age, weight/age and introduction of ultra-processed food. The association between the factors studied and introduction of ultra-processed food was tested by linear regression. The significance level considered was 0.05. Results . It was verified that only 21% of the children had not yet received any type of ultra-processed food, and 56.5% received any of these foods before 6 months. In the multivariate analysis, maternal schooling, family income, maternal age and parity were associated with ultra-processed food supply. Conclusions The feeding practices of children between 4 and 24 months are inadequate when compared to the recommendations for the age group.

3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(7): 2387-2397, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify the association of maternal and anthropometric factors with consumption of ultra-processed foods in children between 4 to 24 months. METHODS: cross-sectional study with 300 children hospitalized in a tertiary hospital and their mothers. The interview took place during the first 72 hours of hospitalization to avoid interference in the responses about the child's diet. Maternal factors investigated: age, schooling, income, parity, BMI and guidance on complementary feeding. Variables related to the child investigated: age, breastfeeding, infant school, BMI/age, height/age, weight/age and introduction of ultra-processed food. The association between the factors studied and introduction of ultra-processed food was tested by linear regression. The significance level considered was 0.05. RESULTS: . It was verified that only 21% of the children had not yet received any type of ultra-processed food, and 56.5% received any of these foods before 6 months. In the multivariate analysis, maternal schooling, family income, maternal age and parity were associated with ultra-processed food supply. CONCLUSIONS: The feeding practices of children between 4 and 24 months are inadequate when compared to the recommendations for the age group.

4.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 41(4): 220-229, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Different intrauterine environments may influence the maternal prepregnancy body weight (BW) variation up to 6 months postpartum. The objective of the present study was to verify the association of sociodemographic, obstetric, nutritional, and behavioral factors with weight variation in women divided into four groups: hypertensive (HM), diabetic (DM), smokers (SM), and control mothers (CM). METHODS: It was a convenience sample of 124 postpartum women recruited from 3 public hospitals in the city of Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between 2011 and 2016. Multiple linear regressions and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were conducted to identify the factors associated with maternal weight variation. For all GEE, the maternal weight measurements were adjusted for maternal height, parity, educational level, and the type of delivery, and 3 weight measurements (prepregnancy, preceding delivery, and 15 days postpartum) were fixed. RESULTS: A hierarchical model closely associated the maternal diagnosis of hypertension and a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) classified as overweight with maternal weight gain measured up to the 6th month postpartum (the difference between the maternal weight at 6 months postpartum and the prepregnancy weight). These results showed that the BW of the HM group and of overweight women increased ∼ 5.2 kg 6 months postpartum, compared with the other groups. Additionally, women classified as overweight had a greater BW variation of 3.150 kg. CONCLUSION: This evidence supports the need for specific nutritional guidelines for gestational hypertensive disorders, as well as great public attention for overweight women in the fertile age.

5.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(4): 220-229, Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1013609

RESUMO

Abstract Objective Different intrauterine environments may influence the maternal prepregnancy body weight (BW) variation up to 6 months postpartum. The objective of the present study was to verify the association of sociodemographic, obstetric, nutritional, and behavioral factors with weight variation in women divided into four groups: hypertensive (HM), diabetic (DM), smokers (SM), and control mothers (CM). Methods It was a convenience sample of 124 postpartum women recruited from 3 public hospitals in the city of Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between 2011 and 2016.Multiple linear regressions and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were conducted to identify the factors associated with maternal weight variation. For all GEE, the maternal weight measurements were adjusted for maternal height, parity, educational level, and the type of delivery, and 3 weight measurements (prepregnancy, preceding delivery, and 15 days postpartum) were fixed. Results A hierarchical model closely associated the maternal diagnosis of hypertension and a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) classified as overweight with maternal weight gain measured up to the 6th month postpartum (the difference between the maternal weight at 6months postpartum and the prepregnancy weight). These results showed that the BW of the HM group and of overweight women increased ~ 5.2 kg 6 months postpartum, compared with the other groups. Additionally, women classified as overweight had a greater BW variation of 3.150 kg. Conclusion This evidence supports the need for specific nutritional guidelines for gestational hypertensive disorders, as well as great public attention for overweight women in the fertile age.


Resumo Objetivo Diferentes ambientes intrauterinos podem influenciar a variação de peso corporal pré-gestacional materno até 6 meses pós-parto. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a associação de fatores sociodemográficos, obstétricos, nutricionais e comportamentais com a variação de peso em mulheres divididas em quatro grupos: hipertensas (HM), diabéticas (DM), tabagistas (SM) e controles (CM). Métodos Amostra de conveniência de 124 puérperas recrutadas em 3 hospitais públicos da cidade de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, entre 2011 e 2016. Regressões lineares múltiplas e modelos de equações de estimativas generalizadas (GEE) foram realizados para identificar os fatores associados à variação do peso materno. Para todas as GEE, as medidas de peso materno foram ajustadas para a estatura materna, paridade, escolaridade e tipo de parto, e três medidas de peso (prégravidez, anterior ao parto e 15 dias pós-parto) foram fixadas. Resultados Um modelo hierárquico associou o diagnóstico materno de hipertensão e o índice de massa corporal (IMC) pré-gestacional de sobrepeso com ganho de peso materno medido até o 6° mês pós-parto (diferença entre o peso materno aos 6 meses pós-parto e o peso pré-gestacional). Estes resultados mostraram que o grupo HM e mulheres comsobrepeso aumentaram o peso corporal em ~ 5,2 kg 6 meses pós-parto, em comparação com os demais grupos. Além disso, as mulheres classificadas com sobrepeso tiveram uma variação maior de peso corporal, de 3,150 kg. Conclusão Evidenciou-se a necessidade de diretrizes nutricionais específicas para distúrbios hipertensivos gestacionais, bem como de maior atenção dos serviços de saúde públicos para mulheres com excesso de peso em idade fértil.

6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 23(12): 4209-4219, Dec. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-974786

RESUMO

Abstract This article aims to review systematically the evidence on nutritional assessment techniques and parameters used to determine the nutritional status of children and adolescents. The literature review and the selection of publications were performed using the Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, Embase, personal files. 17 studies were identified, 7 addressed the anthropometric indices as the main outcome, 7 analyzed the growth and development of children and adolescents through growth curves, and the remainder surveyed body composition. In general, all met the quality criteria, unless 6 of the articles who did not discuss the limitations. The literature review suggests several techniques and parameters that can be applied to determine the nutritional status of children and adolescents from different countries. Growth graphs are essential to assess the health of children, but depend greatly of the growth tables used. Although BMI can be practical, it does not distinguish body fat from lean mass. The best interpretation of anthropometry will depend of valid reference values for age range of the study population. BIA is a quick feasible method, but the measurement has some various nationalities.


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é revisar sistematicamente as evidências sobre as técnicas de avaliação nutricional e parâmetros utilizados para determinar o estado nutricional em crianças e adolescentes. Revisão da literatura com busca nas bases de dados, Medline, Lilacs, SciELO e Embase, além de arquivos pessoais. Identificamos 17 artigos que relatavam dados de diferentes populações, sete estudos abordaram os índices antropométricos, quatro o crescimento e o desenvolvimento de crianças e adolescentes por meio de curvas de crescimento, e o restante a composição corporal. Todos preencheram os critérios de qualidade, com exceção das limitações. A revisão da literatura sugere diversas técnicas e parâmetros que podem ser aplicados para determinar o estado nutricional de crianças e adolescentes de diferentes países. Gráficos de crescimento são essenciais para avaliar a saúde de crianças, mas depende muito das tabelas de crescimento utilizadas. Embora o IMC seja prático, não distingue a gordura corporal de massa magra. Existem várias técnicas para avaliar proporções, tamanho e composição corporal. A melhor interpretação da antropometria dependerá de valores de referência válidos para a faixa etária da população estudada. BIA é um método factível, mas tem algumas limitações para a realização do exame.

7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 23(12): 4209-4219, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540004

RESUMO

This article aims to review systematically the evidence on nutritional assessment techniques and parameters used to determine the nutritional status of children and adolescents. The literature review and the selection of publications were performed using the Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, Embase, personal files. 17 studies were identified, 7 addressed the anthropometric indices as the main outcome, 7 analyzed the growth and development of children and adolescents through growth curves, and the remainder surveyed body composition. In general, all met the quality criteria, unless 6 of the articles who did not discuss the limitations. The literature review suggests several techniques and parameters that can be applied to determine the nutritional status of children and adolescents from different countries. Growth graphs are essential to assess the health of children, but depend greatly of the growth tables used. Although BMI can be practical, it does not distinguish body fat from lean mass. The best interpretation of anthropometry will depend of valid reference values for age range of the study population. BIA is a quick feasible method, but the measurement has some various nationalities.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Antropometria , Criança , Humanos , Valores de Referência
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 17(1): 410, 2017 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast milk is known to contain many bioactive hormones and peptides, which can influence infant growth and development. In this context, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different clinical pregnancy conditions on hormone concentrations in colostrum and mature breast milk. METHODS: An observational study was performed with mother-newborn pairs divided into five groups according to maternal clinical background: diabetes (12), hypertension (5), smoking (19), intrauterine growth restriction of unknown causes with small-for-gestational-age newborns at delivery (12), and controls (21). Socioeconomic data, anthropometric measurements and breast milk samples were collected between the first 24 and 48 h and 30 days postpartum. Leptin, adiponectin, and insulin levels in breast milk were measured by immunoassays. RESULTS: A significant decrease in leptin (p = 0.050) and insulin (p = 0.012) levels from colostrum to mature breast milk in mothers of small-for-gestational-age infants was observed. Maternal body mass index was correlated with both leptin and insulin, but not with adiponectin. Insulin levels were negatively correlated to infant weight gain from birth to one month (p = 0.050). In addition, catch-up growth was verified for small-for-gestational-age infants throughout the first month of life. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a remarkable decrease in leptin and insulin levels in mature milk of mothers of small-for-gestational-age newborns may be involved in the rapid weight gain of these newborns. The physiological and external mechanisms by which these significant decreases and rapid weight gains occur in this group remain to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Colostro/química , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insulina/análise , Leptina/análise , Leite Humano/química , Adiponectina/análise , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
9.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 10: 96-100, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29153698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of preeclampsia (PE) in adolescents and to evaluate its association with risk factors for, and the occurrence of, adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. RESULTS: Of 3006 deliveries, 533 (17.7%) were from teenage mothers, with twenty-eight (5.3%) presenting PE; 17.8% of these cases were classed as severe. Vitamin and mineral supplementation was associated with the occurrence of PE (p=0.034). Puerperal complications and prematurity were more frequent in the PE group. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of PE among adolescents was similar to the literature data and was associated with high rates of preterm birth and puerperal complications.


Assuntos
Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Fatores de Risco
10.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 39(1): 34-42, 2017 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28403321

RESUMO

Objective:: To identify symptoms of anxiety, depression, and feelings of hopelessness in patients in outpatient treatment for substance dependency and to test for correlations with various aspects of their quality of life. Methods:: A cross-sectional study of a sample of 25 men in recuperation from substance dependency, selected by convenience. We assessed symptoms of depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory), hopelessness (Beck Hopelessness Scale), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument-Abbreviated version [WHOQOL-Bref]), and also analyzed sociodemographic profile, substance abuse, and family history. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages and quantitative variables as means and standard deviations or as medians and interquartile ranges. We also analyzed Spearman correlations to a 5% significance level. Results:: The study revealed prevalence rates of 32% for depression, 24% for anxiety, and 12% for hopelessness, at a moderate/severe level. Correlations between Beck scales and WHOQOL-Bref were significant; but impacts differed in the four areas evaluated. Conclusions:: Overall, we observe global negative impacts on subjects' lives, affecting their psychiatric symptoms and quality of life and their relationships and occupational factors to a similar degree. The results show that the lower the scores on these scales, the better the quality of life in some areas, indicating that there is a negative correlation between psychiatric symptoms and quality of life.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/psicologia , Depressão , Esperança , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/terapia , Comorbidade , Cocaína Crack , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Família , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
BMC Pediatr ; 17(1): 67, 2017 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28279149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some studies suggest a relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and not only intrauterine fetal growth restriction or low birth weight, but also with changes in the postnatal growth and development. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of smoking during pregnancy on infants growth in the first 6 months of life compared with a control group and a group with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction. METHODS: Longitudinal observational study using a convenience sample of newborns divided into three groups: infants of smoking mothers (tobacco), with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and a control group. The sample was selected from two hospitals in Porto Alegre, located in southern Brazil, between 2011 and 2015. Newborns were evaluated at birth, 7 and 15 days, and in the first, third, and sixth month. Anthropometric measures were weight, length and head circumference. The growth indicators used were expressed as z-scores. The analyses were performed using the generalized estimating equation method. RESULTS: The sample included 273 mother/newborn pairs: 86 tobacco group, 34 IUGR group, and 153 control group. In terms of weight at birth, all groups differed significantly (p < 0.001). The birth length of tobacco and control groups were similar, but the IUGR group was lower than both (p < 0.001). We found no differences in growth trajectory between tobacco and control group, but there were differences in the growth of the IUGR group when compared with the other groups. At 6 months of age, all groups had similar anthropometric measurements. CONCLUSION: Intrauterine growth restriction had major impact on the growth trajectory of the infants studied, regardless of other factors, such as smoking and diet.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Mães , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 39(1): 34-42, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-846394

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: To identify symptoms of anxiety, depression, and feelings of hopelessness in patients in outpatient treatment for substance dependency and to test for correlations with various aspects of their quality of life. Methods: A cross-sectional study of a sample of 25 men in recuperation from substance dependency, selected by convenience. We assessed symptoms of depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory), hopelessness (Beck Hopelessness Scale), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument-Abbreviated version [WHOQOL-Bref]), and also analyzed sociodemographic profile, substance abuse, and family history. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages and quantitative variables as means and standard deviations or as medians and interquartile ranges. We also analyzed Spearman correlations to a 5% significance level. Results: The study revealed prevalence rates of 32% for depression, 24% for anxiety, and 12% for hopelessness, at a moderate/severe level. Correlations between Beck scales and WHOQOL-Bref were significant; but impacts differed in the four areas evaluated. Conclusions: Overall, we observe global negative impacts on subjects' lives, affecting their psychiatric symptoms and quality of life and their relationships and occupational factors to a similar degree. The results show that the lower the scores on these scales, the better the quality of life in some areas, indicating that there is a negative correlation between psychiatric symptoms and quality of life.


Resumo Objetivo: Identificar sintomas de ansiedade, depressão e sentimentos de desesperança em pacientes dependentes químicos em tratamento ambulatorial e verificar a existência de correlações com os diferentes âmbitos da qualidade de vida. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 25 homens em recuperação para dependência química, selecionados por conveniência. Foram avaliados sintomas de depressão (Inventário de Depressão de Beck-II), ansiedade (Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck) desesperança (Escala de Desesperança de Beck) e qualidade de vida (World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument-Abbreviated version [WHOQOL-Bref]), bem como perfil sociodemográfico, uso de substâncias e histórico familiar. Variáveis categóricas foram apresentadas como frequências e percentuais, e variáveis quantitativas, como médias e desvios-padrão ou medianas e intervalos interquartis. Foram utilizadas também correlações de Spearman com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: O estudo revelou prevalência de 32% para depressão, 24% para ansiedade e 12% para desesperança, em níveis moderado/grave. As correlações entre os inventários Beck e o WHOQOL-Bref foram significantes; entretanto, os impactos diferiram nos quatro domínios avaliados. Conclusões: De modo geral, observaram-se prejuízos globais na vida dos sujeitos, tanto frente a sintomas psiquiátricos e qualidade de vida quanto sobre relacionamentos e questões ocupacionais, em níveis semelhantes. Os resultados apontam que, quanto menor a pontuação nesses inventários, melhor a qualidade de vida em alguns domínios, indicando haver correlação negativa entre sintomas psiquiátricos e qualidade de vida.

13.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(2): 553-562, Fev. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890248

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo Identificar padrões alimentares de crianças e adolescentes de escolas públicas e verificar a associação destes com a faixa etária, o sexo, o município de residência e a classe econômica. Método Estudo transversal com escolares de cinco a 19 anos, de 10 escolas públicas. Aplicou-se o Formulário de Marcadores do Consumo Alimentar do Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional e a partir deste identificaram-se os padrões alimentares utilizando-se análise de cluster. Na análise estatística, verificou-se a associação dos padrões com faixa etária, sexo, classe econômica e município de residência (teste qui-quadrado de Pearson). Consideraram-se significativos valores de p ≤ 0,05. Resultados A amostra final foi de 631 escolares. Identificaram-se cinco padrões alimentares: "feijão/leite/iogurte" representou o consumo de 23,3% (n = 147); "restrito" representou o de 22,7% (n = 143); "saudável" representou o de 22,0% (n = 139); "industrializado brasileiro" representou o de 17,4% (n = 110) dos escolares; e "misto" representou o de 14,5% (n = 92). Os padrões não se associaram às demais variáveis. Conclusões Identificaram-se cinco padrões alimentares, sendo o saudável associado às crianças e o restrito aos adolescentes.


Abstract Objective To identify dietary patterns of children and adolescents from public schools and their relationship with age, gender, city of residence and socioeconomic class. Methods Cross-sectional study with children and adolescents (aged five to 19 years) from 10 public schools. The Food Consumption Markers Form, recommended by the Brazilian Food and Nutrition Monitoring System, was used to identify dietary patterns through cluster analysis. The Pearson's chi-square test, considering significance at p ≤ 0.05, was used to evaluate the relationship between dietary patterns and age group, gender, socioeconomic class and city of residence. Results The final sample included 631 students. Five dietary patterns were identified: "bean/milk/yogurt" (23.3%; n = 147), "restricted" (22.7%; n = 143), "healthy" (22.0%; n = 139), "Brazilian processed" (17.4%; n = 110) and "mixed" (14.5%; n = 92). The healthy pattern was positively associated to lower age (< 10 years, children) and the restricted pattern to adolescence, with p<0.001. Dietary patterns were not associated with the other variables. Conclusions Five dietary patterns were identified. The healthy pattern was positively associated to lower age and the restricted pattern to adolescence.

14.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 22(2): 553-562, fev. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-839923

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo Identificar padrões alimentares de crianças e adolescentes de escolas públicas e verificar a associação destes com a faixa etária, o sexo, o município de residência e a classe econômica. Método Estudo transversal com escolares de cinco a 19 anos, de 10 escolas públicas. Aplicou-se o Formulário de Marcadores do Consumo Alimentar do Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional e a partir deste identificaram-se os padrões alimentares utilizando-se análise de cluster. Na análise estatística, verificou-se a associação dos padrões com faixa etária, sexo, classe econômica e município de residência (teste qui-quadrado de Pearson). Consideraram-se significativos valores de p ≤ 0,05. Resultados A amostra final foi de 631 escolares. Identificaram-se cinco padrões alimentares: “feijão/leite/iogurte” representou o consumo de 23,3% (n = 147); “restrito” representou o de 22,7% (n = 143); “saudável” representou o de 22,0% (n = 139); “industrializado brasileiro” representou o de 17,4% (n = 110) dos escolares; e “misto” representou o de 14,5% (n = 92). Os padrões não se associaram às demais variáveis. Conclusões Identificaram-se cinco padrões alimentares, sendo o saudável associado às crianças e o restrito aos adolescentes.


Abstract Objective To identify dietary patterns of children and adolescents from public schools and their relationship with age, gender, city of residence and socioeconomic class. Methods Cross-sectional study with children and adolescents (aged five to 19 years) from 10 public schools. The Food Consumption Markers Form, recommended by the Brazilian Food and Nutrition Monitoring System, was used to identify dietary patterns through cluster analysis. The Pearson’s chi-square test, considering significance at p ≤ 0.05, was used to evaluate the relationship between dietary patterns and age group, gender, socioeconomic class and city of residence. Results The final sample included 631 students. Five dietary patterns were identified: “bean/milk/yogurt” (23.3%; n = 147), “restricted” (22.7%; n = 143), “healthy” (22.0%; n = 139), “Brazilian processed” (17.4%; n = 110) and “mixed” (14.5%; n = 92). The healthy pattern was positively associated to lower age (< 10 years, children) and the restricted pattern to adolescence, with p<0.001. Dietary patterns were not associated with the other variables. Conclusions Five dietary patterns were identified. The healthy pattern was positively associated to lower age and the restricted pattern to adolescence.

15.
Matern Child Health J ; 21(6): 1297-1307, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28110387

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and infant anthropometric measurements at age 3 and 6 months. Methods Longitudinal observational study of mother-child pairs stratified into five groups: diabetic women (DM), hypertensive women (HYP), smoking mothers (SMO), mothers of infants small for gestational age (SGA), and controls (CTL). Pairs were recruited from three public hospitals in Porto Alegre, Brazil, from 2011 to 2015, using a convenience sampling strategy. The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was administered on postpartum day 7 to evaluate maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy. The anthropometric measurements of interest (weight, length, and skinfold thickness) were assessed at birth and at age 3 and 6 months. Linear regression was used to analyze the interaction between caffeine intake and skinfold thickness. Results Overall, 272 mother-child pairs were investigated (41 DM, 26 HYP, 68 SMO, 25 SGA, and 112 CTL). There were no differences in anthropometric measurements between infants born to mothers who had and had not consumed caffeine during pregnancy (P > 0.05). Children of mothers in the DM group had the highest adjusted average skinfold thicknesses at 3 months. An interaction between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and the sum of skinfolds at age 3 months was found in the DM and CTL groups (P < 0.05). However, significant differences were not observed at 6 months. Conclusions Maternal caffeine intake influenced infants skinfold thickness measurements at 3 months of age. This parameter was reduced in infants born to mothers with DM and increased in those born to healthy control mothers.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Cafeína/efeitos adversos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Mães , Adulto , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Brasil , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Pregas Cutâneas , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Circunferência da Cintura
16.
Nutr. hosp ; 32(6): 2540-2548, dic. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-146113

RESUMO

Objective: to determine the prevalence of asthma risk associated with anthropometric indicators of excess weight and body fat distribution. Methodology: cross-sectional study including adolescents between 10 and 19 years of age. The anthropometric indicator used to classify excess weight was the body mass index (BMI-Z); those used for abdominal adiposity were waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and the conicity index (CI). Asthma characteristics were evaluated using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The significance level was 5%, and the analyses were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 18.0. Results: adolescent students (n=1362; 788 [57.9%] female) with a mean age of 15.65±1.24 years were evaluated. A high prevalence of asthma, excess weight (BMI-Z) and excess abdominal adiposity (WC and WHtR) was observed in the females. Only CI values for excess abdominal adiposity were higher for males than for females. Adolescents with excess abdominal adiposity, as shown by the WHtR, had a 1.24 times higher risk of having asthma compared with non-obese adolescents. Boys with excess abdominal adiposity, as classified by CI, presented a 1.8 times greater risk of asthma. The risk of severe asthma was 3 times higher among adolescents who were classified as severely obese via the BMI-Z. Conclusion: this study showed that excess body weight and abdominal obesity are associated with an increased risk of asthma and asthma severity in adolescents. Thus, additional BMI measurements are suggested for asthmatics (AU)


Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de riesgo de asma asociado con indicadores antropométricos de exceso de peso y la distribución de la grasa corporal. Metodología: estudio transversal que incluye adolescentes entre 10 y 19 años de edad. El indicador antropométrico utilizado para clasificar el exceso de peso fue el índice de masa corporal (IMC-Z); los utilizados para la adiposidad abdominal fueron la circunferencia de la cintura (CC), la relación cintura-estatura (RCE) y el índice de conicidad (IC). Las características del asma se evaluaron utilizando el cuestionario International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). El nivel de significación fue del 5%, y los análisis se realizaron con el Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) versión 18.0. Resultados: fueron evaluados estudiantes adolescentes (n=1362; 788 [57,9%] mujeres) con una edad media de 15,65±1,24 años. Se observó en las mujeres una alta prevalencia de asma, exceso de peso (IMC-Z) y exceso de adiposidad abdominal (WC y RCE). Solo los valores de IC para el exceso de adiposidad abdominal fueron mayores para los hombres que para las mujeres. Los adolescentes con exceso de adiposidad abdominal, como lo demuestra la RCE, tenían 1,24 veces más riesgo de tener asma en comparación con los adolescentes no obesos. Los niños con exceso de adiposidad abdominal, según la clasificación de IC, presentaron 1,8 veces mayor riesgo de asma. El riesgo de asma grave era 3 veces mayor entre las adolescentes que fueron clasificados como severamente obesos a través del IMC-Z. Conclusión: este estudio mostró que el exceso de peso y la obesidad abdominal se asocian con un mayor riesgo de asma y asma severa en adolescentes. Por lo tanto, se sugieren mediciones de IMC adicionales para los asmáticos(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Antropometria/métodos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/estatística & dados numéricos , Biomarcadores/análise , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Massa Corporal
17.
Rev. AMRIGS ; 59(3): 160-168, jul.-set. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-833705

RESUMO

Introdução: A transmissão vertical representou, em 2012, dentre os expostos ao HIV com menos de treze anos de idade, 99,6% dos casos identifi cados. Para enfrentar este crescimento, programas voltados a enfrentar o aumento da transmissão vertical vêm sendo desenvolvidos no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde. Este artigo objetiva investigar o fl uxo do programa de distribuição de fórmula infantil para crianças de zero a seis meses de vida, nascidas de mães HIV positivas, na cidade de Porto Alegre/RS, para a identifi cação dos fl uxos de acesso ao programa e sua efi cácia. Métodos: O presente estudo é de natureza qualitativa e de caráter exploratório acerca do tema. Resultados: Três das cinco maternidades que fazem parte do Projeto Nascer têm seus dados de dispensação da fórmula infantil contabilizados pela Secretaria Municipal. Constatou-se que o processo está bem implementado e não faltam insumos e fórmula para este grupo da população. Na Atenção Básica, pode-se verifi car que, em geral, a retirada se dá de forma sistemática, não há difi culdades por parte dos profi ssionais em atender a essa demanda no serviço. Conclusão: Necessita-se de mais estudos em relação ao tema, principalmente nas demais regiões do país, bem como nos municípios do interior, para que se possa traçar um perfi l da implementação da distribuição em todo o Brasil. Tornam-se indispensáveis, por outro lado, estudos que possam evidenciar os demais aspectos que impactam na vida das crianças e suas famílias (AU)


Introduction: In 2012, vertical transmission accounted, among those exposed to HIV under thirteen years of age, for 99.6% of the identifi ed cases. To meet this growth, programs aimed at facing the increase of vertical transmission have been developed within the National Health System. This paper aims to investigate the fl ow of the infant formula distribution program for children from birth to 6 months of life, born to HIV-positive mothers in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, to identify access fl ows to the program and its effectiveness. Methods: This is a qualitative study of exploratory nature. Results: Three of the fi ve hospitals that are part of Project Nascer have their data of infant formula dispensation accounted for by the municipal department. The process was found to be well implemented and inputs and formula abound for this population group. In Primary Care, it can be seen that, in general, delivery takes place systematically, there is no diffi culty for professionals to meet this demand in the service. Conclusion: Further studies on the subject should be conducted, especially in other regions of Brazil, as well as in countryside municipalities, so that a profi le of the distribution implementation across the country can be traced. However, studies highlighting other aspects that impact the lives of children and their families are crucial (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Alimentos Infantis/provisão & distribução , Fórmulas Infantis , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Brasil , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/provisão & distribução , Assistência Alimentar/legislação & jurisprudência , Bem-Estar do Lactente/legislação & jurisprudência , Bem-Estar do Lactente/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional , Atenção Primária à Saúde
18.
Rev. AMRIGS ; 59(3): 160-168, jul.-set. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-835422

RESUMO

Introdução: A transmissão vertical representou, em 2012, dentre os expostos ao HIV com menos de treze anos de idade, 99,6% dos casos identificados. Para enfrentar este crescimento, programas voltados a enfrentar o aumento da transmissão vertical vêm sendo desenvolvidos no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde. Este artigo objetiva investigar o fluxo do programa de distribuição de fórmula infantil para crianças de zero a seis meses de vida, nascidas de mães HIV positivas, na cidade de Porto Alegre/RS, para a identificação dos fluxos de acesso ao programa e sua eficácia. Métodos: O presente estudo é de natureza qualitativa e de caráter exploratório acerca do tema. Resultados: Três das cinco maternidades que fazem parte do Projeto Nascer têm seus dados de dispensação da fórmula infantil contabilizados pela Secretaria Municipal. Constatou-se que o processo está bem implementado e não faltam insumos e fórmula para este grupo da população. Na Atenção Básica, pode-se verificar que, em geral, a retirada se dá de forma sistemática, não há dificuldades por parte dos profissionais em atender a essa demanda no serviço. Conclusão: Necessita-se de mais estudos em relação ao tema, principalmente nas demais regiões do país, bem como nos municípios do interior, para que se possa traçar um perfil da implementação da distribuição em todo o Brasil. Tornam-se indispensáveis, por outro lado, estudos que possam evidenciar os demais aspectos que impactam na vida das crianças e suas famílias.


Introduction: In 2012, vertical transmission accounted, among those exposed to HIV under thirteen years of age, for 99.6% of the identified cases. To meet this growth, programs aimed at facing the increase of vertical transmission have been developed within the National Health System. This paper aims to investigate the flow of the infant formula distribution program for children from birth to 6 months of life, born to HIV-positive mothers in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, to identify access flows to the program and its effectiveness. Methods: This is a qualitative study of exploratory nature. Results: Three of the fi ve hospitals that are part of Project Nascer have their data of infant formula dispensation accounted for by the municipal department. The process was found to be well implemented and inputs and formula abound for this population group. In Primary Care, it can be seen that, in general, delivery takes place systematically, there is no difficulty for professionals to meet this demand in the service. Conclusion: Further studies on the subject should be conducted, especially in other regions of Brazil, as well as in countryside municipalities, so that a profi le of the distribution implementation across the country can be traced. However, studies highlighting other aspects that impact the lives of children and their families are crucial.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Lactente , Substitutos do Leite Humano , HIV , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa
19.
Rev. bras. saúde matern. infant ; 15(3): 279-287, jul.-set. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-761664

RESUMO

Estudar a retenção de peso em mulheres nos primeiros três meses pós-parto e sua correlação com ganho de peso gestacional (GPG) e consumo alimentar.Métodos:estudo de coorte com 61 mulheres. Aplicou-se: Questionário de Frequência Alimentar (QFA), Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física (IPAQ) e questionário referente à amamentação e dados antropométricos. Realizaram-se avaliações entre 24 e 48 horas pós-parto, 7, 15, 30 e 90 dias. A retenção de peso deu-se pela subtração entre peso aos três meses pós-parto e peso pré-gestacional. Os testes estatísticos usados foram: correlações de Pearson e Spearman, teste t de Student, de comparação múltipla com ajuste de Bonferroni e regressão linear.Resultados:a média de idade foi 28±7,0 anos, com medianas: de consumo alimentar diário na gestação de 3.670,3 kcal, GPG de 12,0 kg e retenção de peso nos primeiros três meses de 3,2 Kg. Observou-se associação significativa entre retenção de peso nos primeiros três meses pós-parto e o GPG (p<0,001) e a paridade (p<0,05). Para cada quilo ganho durante a gestação 0,8 kg foi retido nos primeiros três meses.Conclusões:a retenção de peso três meses pós-parto mostrou-se maior quanto maior o GPG durante a gestação e a paridade...


To study weight retention in women in the first three months post-partum and its correlation with gestational weight gain (GWG) and diet.Methods:a cohort study of 61 women was conducted. The Food Intake Frequency Questionnaire (FIFQ), International PhysicalActivity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and a questionnaire on breastfeeding and anthropometric data were applied. Evaluations were conducted between 24 and 48 hours post-partum, and after 7, 15, 30 and 90 days. Weight retention was calculated by subtractingpre-gestational weight from weight three months post-partum. The statistical tests used were the Pearson and Spearman correlations, Student’s t test, multiple comparisons with Bonferroni’s adjustment, and linear regression.Results:the mean age was 28±7.0 years, with median daily food intake duringpregnancy of3,670.3 kcal, GWG of 12.0 kg and weight retention in the first three months of 3.2 Kg. A significant association was found between weight retention in the first three months post-partum and GWG (p<0.001) andparity (p<0.05). For each kilo gained during pregnancy, 0.8 kg was retained in the first three months.Conclusions:Conclusions: weight retention three months post-partum was found to be greater the greater the GWG and the number of previous births...


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Estudos de Coortes , Consumo de Alimentos , Período Pós-Parto , Ganho de Peso , Antropometria , Aleitamento Materno
20.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 64(2): 146-153, Apr-Jun/2015. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-753126

RESUMO

Objetivo Identificar o estado nutricional e hábitos alimentares de pacientes masculinos em recuperação de dependência química em acompanhamento ambulatorial de uma unidade de adição. Métodos Estudo transversal com 25 pacientes adultos em tratamento ambulatorial para dependência química. Foram aferidos parâmetros antropométricos (peso, estatura, circunferência da cintura e índice de massa corporal) e de composição corporal (bioimpedância elétrica), e foram investigados hábitos alimentares (Questionário de Frequência Alimentar – QFA). As variáveis categóricas são apresentadas como frequências e percentuais e as variáveis contínuas, como média e desvio-padrão ou como mediana e intervalo interquartil. Resultados Observou-se índice de massa corporal médio de 27,73 ± 4,15 kg/m2, com prevalência de sobrepeso de 80% e obesidade de 8%. A média da circunferência da cintura foi de 96,60 ± 9,84 cm e a de percentual de gordura corporal, de 23,24 ± 6,44. A maior parte da amostra estudada [20 (80%)] refere realizar quatro ou mais refeições por dia e 72% referiram aumento do consumo alimentar no período de abstinência. A preferência por alimentos específicos no período de abstinência foi relatada por 12 (48%) pacientes. Em relação ao consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados, destaca-se o consumo diário de pão francês (68%), pães brancos de forma (16%), sucos artificiais (48%), refrigerantes (32%), queijo amarelo (36%), embutidos com alto teor de gordura (36%) e balas e chicletes (32%). Conclusão Os resultados mostram prevalência elevada de sobrepeso e obesidade, além de medida de circunferência da cintura alterada, relato de aumento da ingestão alimentar e consumo diário e semanal elevado de alimentos ultraprocessados. .


Objective To identify the nutritional status and dietary habits of male patients recovering from chemical dependency in an ambulatory treatment of an addition unit. Methods Crosssectional study with 25 male patients in ambulatorial treatment for chemical dependency. Anthropometric parameters (weight, height, waist circumference and body mass index) and body composition (bioelectrical impedance) were measured and dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire) were investigated. Categorical variables are shown as frequencies and percentages and continuous variables as mean and standard deviation or as median and interquartile range. Results It was found a body mass index mean of 27.73 ± 4.15 kg/m2, with a prevalence of overweight in 88% of the sample. The waist circumference mean was 96.60 ± 9.84 cm and a percentual body fat mass of 23.24 ± 6.44. The sample majority [20 (80%)] refers do four or more meals a day and 72% reported an increased food intake during the period of abstinence. The preference for specific foods during the abstinence period was reported by 12 (48%) patients. Regarding the consumption of ultra-processed foods, there is a highlight daily consumption of French bread (68%), white pan bread (16%), artificial juices (48%), soft drinks (32%), high-fat cheese (36%), high-fat processed meat (36%), candy and gum (32%). Conclusion The study reveals a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, as well as altered waist circumference, increased food intake and daily and weekly consumption of ultra-processed foods. .

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