Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 382
Filtrar
1.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(2): 207-218, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize the long-term scar remodeling process after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the underlying scar-related arrhythmogenic substrate using serial late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR). BACKGROUND: Little is known about the time course needed for completion of the scar healing process after an AMI, which can be assessed by noninvasive cardiac imaging techniques such as LGE-CMR. METHODS: Fifty-six patients with revascularized ST-segment elevation AMI (STEMI) were consecutively included. LGE-CMR (3-T) was obtained at 7 days, 6 months, and 4 years after STEMI. The myocardium was segmented into 10 layers from the endocardium to epicardium, characterizing the core, border zone (BZ), and BZ channels (BZCs) using a dedicated post-processing software. RESULTS: Mean age of the patients was 57 ± 11 years; 77% were men. Left ventricular ejection fraction improved at 6 months from 47% to 51% (p < 0.001) and remained stable at 4 years (53%; p = 0.21). Total scar mass decreased from 20.3 ± 14.6 g to 15.3 ± 13.3 g (6 months) and to 12.7 ± 11.7 g (4 years) (p < 0.001). Thirty of 56 (53%) patients showed a mean of 1.5 ± 1.3 BZCs/patient at 7 days, decreasing to 1.2 ± 1.3 (6 months) and 0.8 ± 1.0 (4 years) (p < 0.01). Only 42% of the initial BZCs remained present after 4 years. There were no arrhythmic events after a mean follow-up of 62.5 ± 7.4 months. CONCLUSIONS: CMR data post-processing permitted a dynamic assessment of quantitative and qualitative post-AMI scar characteristics. Scar size and number of BZCs steadily decreased 4 years after AMI. BZC distribution was significantly modified during this time. These dynamic parameters could be reliably assessed with CMR; their evaluation might be of prognostic value.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833003

RESUMO

To investigate the role of classical (CLM, CD14++CD16-), intermediate (INTM, CD14++CD16+), and non-classical (Non-CLM, CD14+CD16++) monocytes in scar formation after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), evaluated with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). One hundred two patients with a first STEMI had serial blood analyses after 1, 3, and 7 days. A CMR was performed at 7 days and 6 months, depicting scar core (CO), border zone (BZ), and the presence of BZ channels. CLM and INTM levels progressively decreased, correlated with the scar mass, CO, and BZ at 7 days and 6 months (p < 0.05), and inversely with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, p < 0.01). Non-CLM levels gradually increased, correlated with BZ mass and the presence of BZ channels at 7 days and 6 months (p < 0.001).CLM and INTM are associated with infarct size and inversely with LVEF, whereas Non-CLM are associated with BZ mass and the presence of potentially arrhythmogenic substrate.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1698, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the existence of efficacious vaccines, the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases remains high and the potential health benefits of paediatric, adolescent and adult vaccination are not being achieved due to suboptimal vaccine coverage rates. Based on emerging evidence that pharmacy-based vaccine interventions are feasible and effective, the European Interdisciplinary Council for Ageing (EICA) brought together stakeholders from the medical and pharmacy professions, the pharmaceutical industry, patient/ageing organisations and health authorities to consider the potential for pharmacy-based interventions to increase vaccine uptake. We report here the proceedings of this 3-day meeting held in March 2018 in San Servolo island, Venice, Italy, focussing firstly on examples from countries that have introduced pharmacy-based vaccination programmes, and secondly, listing the barriers and solutions proposed by the discussion groups. CONCLUSIONS: A range of barriers to vaccine uptake have been identified, affecting all target groups, and in various countries and healthcare settings. Ease of accessibility is a potentially modifiable determinant in vaccine uptake, and thus, improving the diversity of settings where vaccines can be provided to adults, for example by enabling community pharmacists to vaccinate, may increase the number of available opportunities for vaccination.

4.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 15(10): 2405-2415, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158041

RESUMO

The Ninth Interactive Infectious Disease workshop TIPICO was held on November 22-23, 2018, in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. This 2-day academic experience addressed current and topical issues in the field of infectious diseases and vaccination. Summary findings of the meeting include: cervical cancer elimination will be possible in the future, thanks to the implementation of global vaccination action plans in combination with appropriate screening interventions. The introduction of appropriate immunization programs is key to maintain the success of current effective vaccines such as those against meningococcal disease or rotavirus infection. Additionally, reduced dose schedules might improve the efficiency of some vaccines (i.e., PCV13). New vaccines to improve current preventive alternatives are under development (e.g., against tuberculosis or influenza virus), while others to protect against infectious diseases with no current available vaccines (e.g., enterovirus, parechovirus and flaviviruses) need to be developed. Vaccinomics will be fundamental in this process, while infectomics will allow the application of precision medicine. Further research is also required to understand the impact of heterologous vaccine effects. Finally, vaccination requires education at all levels (individuals, community, healthcare professionals) to ensure its success by helping to overcome major barriers such as vaccine hesitancy and false contraindications.

5.
Europace ; 21(7): 1079-1087, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904923

RESUMO

AIMS: Ablation of frequent premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) improves left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. This study aims to evaluate the long-term hard outcomes and potential prognostic variables in this population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective multicentre study including 101 consecutive patients [56 ± 12 years old, 62 (61%) men] with LV systolic dysfunction and frequent PVCs who underwent PVC ablation before November 2015. The last evaluation performed was considered the long-term follow-up (LTFUP) evaluation. Mean follow-up was 34 ± 16 months (range 24-84 months). Ablation was successful in 95 (94%) patients. There was a significant reduction in the PVC burden from 21 ± 12% at baseline to 3.8 ± 6% at LTFUP, P < 0.001. Left ventricular ejection fraction improved from 32 ± 8% at baseline to 39 ± 12% at LTFUP (P < 0.001) and New York Heart Association class from 2.2 ± 0.6% to 1.3 ± 0.6% (P < 0.001). Brain natriuretic peptide levels decreased from 136 (78-321) to 68 (32-144) pg/mL (P = 0.007). Most of this improvement occurs during the first 6 months after ablation. Persistent abolition of at least 18 points of the baseline PVC burden was independently and inversely associated with the composite endpoint of cardiac mortality, cardiac transplantation, or hospitalization for heart failure during follow-up [hazard ratio 0.18 (0.05-0.66), P = 0.01]. CONCLUSION: In patients with LV systolic dysfunction, ablation of frequent PVCs induces a significant improvement in functional, structural, and neurohormonal status, which persists at LTFUP. A sustained reduction in the baseline PVC burden is associated with a lower risk of cardiac mortality, cardiac transplantation, or hospitalization for heart failure during follow-up.

6.
Heart ; 105(5): 378-383, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242139

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the influence of myocardial scar after premature ventricular complexes (PVC) ablation in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. METHODS: 70 consecutive patients (58±11 years, 58 (83%) men, 23% (18-32) mean PVC burden) with LV dysfunction and frequent PVCs submitted for ablation were included. A late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) was performed prior to the ablation and a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the scar was done. RESULTS: Left ventricular ejection fraction progressively improved from 34.3%±9% at baseline to 44.4%±12% at 12 months (p<0.01) and 48 (69%) patients were echocardiographic responders. New York Heart Association class improved from 1.96±0.9 points at baseline to 1.36±0.6 at 12 months (p<0.001). Brain natriuretic peptide decreased from 120 (60-284) to 46 (23-81) pg/mL (p=0.04). Twenty-nine (41%) patients showed scar in the preprocedural LGE-CMR with a mean scar mass of 10.4 (5-20) g. Mean scar mass was significantly smaller in responders than in non-responders (0 (0-4.7) g vs 2 (0-14) g, respectively, p=0.017). PVC burden reduction (OR 1.09 (1.01-1.16), p=0.02) and scar mass (OR 0.9 (0.81-0.99), p=0.04) were independent predictors of response, but the former showed a higher accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Presence of myocardial scar modulates, but does not preclude, the probability of response to PVC ablation in patients with LV dysfunction.

7.
Europace ; 21(1): 147-153, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016418

RESUMO

Aims: Left ventricular (LV) outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias (OTVA) are associated with hypertension (HT), older age, and LV dysfunction, suggesting that LV overload plays a role in the aetiopathogenesis. We hypothesized that anatomical modifications of the LV outflow tract (LVOT) could predict left vs. right OTVA site of origin (SOO). Methods and results: Fifty-six (32 men, 53 ± 18 years old) consecutive patients referred for OTVA ablation were included. Cardiac multidetector computed tomography was performed before ablation and then imported to the CARTO system to aid the mapping and ablation procedure. Anatomical characteristics of the aortic root as well as aortopulmonary valvular planar angulation (APVPA) were analysed. The LV was the OTVA SOO (LVOT-VA) in 32 (57%) patients. These patients were more frequently male (78% vs. 22%, P = 0.001), older (57 ± 18 vs. 47 ± 18 years, P = 0.055), and more likely to have HT (59% vs. 21%, P = 0.004), compared to right OTVA patients. Aortopulmonary valvular planar angulation was higher in LVOT-VA patients (68 ± 5° vs. 55 ± 6°, respectively; P < 0.001). Absolute size of all aortic root diameters was associated with LVOT origin. However, after indexing by body surface area, only sinotubular junction diameter maintained a significant association (P = 0.049). Multivariable analysis showed that APVPA was an independent predictor of LVOT origin. Aortopulmonary valvular planar angulation ≥62° reached 94% sensitivity and 83% specificity (area under the curve 0.95) for predicting LVOT origin. Conclusions: The measurement of APVPA as a marker of chronic LV overload is useful for the prediction of left vs. right ventricular OTVA origin.

8.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 8(8): 708-716, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29119801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum soluble AXL (sAXL) and its ligand, Growth Arrest-Specific 6 protein (GAS6), intervene in tissue repair processes. AXL is increased in end-stage heart failure, but the role of GAS6 and sAXL in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To study the association of sAXL and GAS6 acutely and six months following STEMI with heart failure and left ventricular remodelling. METHODS: GAS6 and sAXL were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at one day, seven days and six months in 227 STEMI patients and 20 controls. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance was performed during admission and at six months to measure infarct size and left ventricular function. RESULTS: GAS6, but not sAXL, levels during admission were significantly lower in STEMI than in controls. AXL increased progressively over time (p<0.01), while GAS6 increased only from day 7. GAS6 or sAXL did not correlate with brain natriuretic peptide or infarct size. However, patients with heart failure (Killip >1) had higher values of sAXL at day 1 (48.9±11.9 vs. 44.0±10.7 ng/ml; p<0.05) and at six months (63.3±15.4 vs. 55.9±13.7 ng/ml; p<0.05). GAS6 levels were not different among subjects with heart failure or left ventricular remodelling. By multivariate analysis including infarct size, Killip class and sAXL at seven days, only the last two were independent predictors of left ventricular remodelling (odds ratio 2.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.08-4.63) and odds ratio 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.08) respectively). CONCLUSION: sAXL levels increased following STEMI. Patients with heart failure and left ventricular remodelling have higher sAXL levels acutely and at six month follow-up. These findings suggest a potential role of the GAS6-AXL system in the pathophysiology of left ventricular remodelling following STEMI.

9.
Prog. obstet. ginecol. (Ed. impr.) ; 61(6): 540-544, nov.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-181387

RESUMO

Based on a multidisciplinary approach, the present statement proposes improvements and solutions for the primary prevention (vaccination against human papillomavirus) and secondary prevention (screening, early diagnosis) of cervical cancer in Spain


Desde una aproximación multidisciplinar, se describe la situación muy mejorable de la prevención primaria (vacunación frente a papiloma virus) y secundaria (cribado, diagnóstico precoz asistencial) del cáncer de cuello de útero en España y se aportan propuestas de solución y mejora


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207812, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475876

RESUMO

Equivocal lesions (ASC-US) are common abnormalities in cervical cancer screening exams. HPV testing helps to stratify the risk of progression to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or more (HSIL+). Population-based medical electronic data can be used to evaluate screening recommendations. The study uses routine electronic data from primary health centers to estimate the impact of HPV testing in a 3- and a 5-year risk of HSIL+ after an ASC-US. The study includes data derived from medical electronic information from 85,775 women who first attended a cervical cancer screening visit at the National Health System facilities of Catalonia, Spain, during 2010-11 and followed up to 2015. Included women were aged between 25-65 years old, having at least one follow-up visit, and a cervical cytology of ASC-US (N = 1,647). Women with a first result of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) (N = 945) or those with negative cytology (N = 83,183) were included for comparison. Those with a baseline HSIL+ were excluded. Incident HSIL+ was evaluated by means of Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate regression models. HPV test results were available for 63.4% of women with a baseline ASC-US. Among all ASC-US, 70 incident HSIL+ were identified at 5 years. ASC-US HPV positive women had a high risk of HSIL+ compared to women with negative cytology (adjusted HR = 32.7; 95% CI: 23.6-45.2) and a similar risk to women with baseline LSIL (HR = 29.3; 95% CI: 22.4-38.2), whereas ASC-US HPV negative women had no differential risk to that observed in baseline negative cytology. Women with ASC-US and no HPV test had an average HSIL+ risk (HR = 14.8; 95% CI: 9.7-22.5). Population-based e-medical records derived from primary health care centers allowed monitoring of screening recommendations, providing robust estimates for the study outcomes. This analysis confirms that HPV testing improved risk stratification of ASC-US lesions. The information can be used to improve diagnosis and management of screen detected lesions.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Papillomaviridae/fisiologia , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/epidemiologia , Lesões Intraepiteliais Escamosas Cervicais/virologia , Triagem/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia
11.
JACC Heart Fail ; 6(11): 928-936, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316938

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the incidence, determinants, and prognostic impact of cardiogenic shock (CS) in takotsubo syndrome (TTS). BACKGROUND: TTS can be associated with severe hemodynamic instability. The prognostic implication of CS has not been well characterized in large studies of TTS. METHODS: We analyzed patients with a definitive TTS diagnosis (modified Mayo criteria) who were recruited for the National RETAKO (Registry on Takotsubo Syndrome) trial from 2003 to 2016. Cox and competing risk regression models were used to identify factors associated with mortality and recurrences. RESULTS: A total of 711 patients were included, 81 (11.4%) of whom developed CS. Male sex, QTc interval prolongation, lower left ventricular ejection fraction at admission, physical triggers, and presence of "a significant" left intraventricular pressure gradient, were associated with CS (C index = 0.85). In-hospital complication rates, including mortality, were significantly higher in patients with CS. Over a median follow-up of 284 days (interquartile range: 94 to 929 days), CS was the strongest independent predictor of long-term, all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 5.38; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.60 to 8.38); cardiovascular (CV) death (sub-HR: 4.29; 95% CI: 2.40 to 21.2), and non-CV death (sub-HR: 3.34; 95% CI: 1.70 to 6.53), whereas no significant difference in the recurrence rate was observed between groups (sub-HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.10 to 5.95). Among patients with CS, those who received beta-blockers at hospital discharge experienced lower 1-year mortality compared with those who did not receive a beta-blocker (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.44 to 0.79; pinteraction = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: CS is not uncommon and is associated with worse short- and long-term prognosis in TTS. CS complicating TTS may constitute a marker of underlying disease severity and could identify a masked heart failure phenotype with increased vulnerability to catecholamine-mediated myocardial stunning.


Assuntos
Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/complicações , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Choque Cardiogênico/diagnóstico , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/mortalidade
12.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 71(4): 243-249, abr. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-171751

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos. Una red para la atención del infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (IAMCEST) activada por no cardiólogos reduce los retrasos en la atención, pero pueden aumentar los falsos positivos. El objetivo es evaluar la prevalencia, los predictores y el impacto de los diagnósticos falsos positivos dentro de la red catalana para la atención del IAMCEST (Codi Infart). Métodos. Se incluyó a los pacientes atendidos por el Codi Infart entre enero de 2010 y diciembre de 2011. Se consideró activación apropiada si se cumplían los criterios clínicos y electrocardiográficos de IAMCEST. Las activaciones apropiadas se clasificaron como falso positivo según 2 definiciones no excluyentes: a) «angiográfica» si no se identificó una arteria causal, y b) «clínica» si el diagnóstico al alta no era IAMCEST. Resultados. Se incluyó un total de 5.701 activaciones. La activación resultó apropiada en el 87,8% de las veces. Los falsos positivos angiográficos fueron el 14,6% y los clínicos, el 11,6%. El sexo femenino, el bloqueo de rama izquierda y el antecedente de infarto de miocardio se asociaron con el falso positivo. Utilizando la definición clínica, se observó una tasa de falsos positivos mayor en los hospitales sin sala de hemodinámica y los pacientes con complicaciones durante el primer contacto. La mortalidad hospitalaria y a los 30 días fue similar entre los falsos y los verdaderos positivos. Conclusiones. La evolución clínica es similar entre los pacientes con falsos positivos y aquellos con verdaderos positivos. La identificación de predictores de falsos positivos justifica una evaluación cuidadosa para optimizar el uso de las redes de IAMCEST (AU)


Introduction and objectives. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) network activation by a noncardiologist reduces delay times but may increase the rate of false-positive STEMI diagnoses. We aimed to determine the prevalence, predictors, and clinical impact of false-positive activations within the Catalonian STEMI network (Codi Infart). Methods. From January 2010 through December 2011, all consecutive patients treated within the Codi Infart network were included. Code activations were classified as appropriate if they satisfied both electrocardiogram and clinical STEMI criteria. Appropriate activations were classified as false positives using 2 nonexclusive definitions: a) “angiographic” if a culprit coronary artery was not identified, and b) “clinical” if the discharge diagnosis was other than STEMI. Results. In total, 5701 activations were included. Appropriate activation was performed in 87.8% of the episodes. The rate of angiographic false positives was 14.6%, while the rate of clinical false positives was 11.6%. Irrespective of the definition, female sex, left bundle branch block, and previous myocardial infarction were independent predictors of false-positive STEMI diagnoses. Using the clinical definition, hospitals without percutaneous coronary intervention and patients with complications during the first medical contact also had a false-positive STEMI diagnoses rate higher than the mean. In-hospital and 30-day mortality rates were similar for false-positive and true-positive STEMI patients after adjustment for possible confounders. Conclusions. False-positive STEMI diagnoses were frequent. Outcomes were similar for patients with a true-positive or false-positive STEMI diagnosis treated within a STEMI network. The presence of any modifiable predictors of a false-positive STEMI diagnosis warrants careful assessment to optimize the use of STEMI networks (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Angiografia Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Eletrocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Cateterismo Cardíaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/estatística & dados numéricos , Reações Falso-Positivas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Procedimentos Clínicos/organização & administração , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos
13.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 276, 2018 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29530002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mainly because of the diversity of clinical presentations, diagnostic delays in lymphoma can be excessive. The time spent in primary care before referral to the specialist may be relatively short compared with the interval between hospital appointment and diagnosis. Although studies have examined the diagnostic intervals and referral patterns of patients with lymphoma, the time to diagnosis of outpatient compared to inpatient settings and the costs incurred are unknown. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study at two academic hospitals to evaluate the time to diagnosis and associated costs of hospital-based outpatient diagnostic clinics or conventional hospitalization in four representative lymphoma subtypes. The frequency, clinical and prognostic features of each lymphoma subtype and the activities of the two settings were analyzed. The costs incurred during the evaluation were compared by microcosting analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1779 patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2016 with classical Hodgkin, large B-cell, follicular, and mature nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas were identified. Clinically aggressive subtypes including large B-cell and peripheral T-cell lymphomas were more commonly diagnosed in inpatients than in outpatients (39.1 vs 31.2% and 18.9 vs 13.5%, respectively). For each lymphoma subtype, inpatients were older and more likely than outpatients to have systemic symptoms, worse performance status, more advanced Ann Arbor stages, and high-risk prognostic scores. The admission time for diagnosis (i.e. from admission to excisional biopsy) of inpatients was significantly shorter than the time to diagnosis of outpatients (12.3 [3.3] vs 16.2 [2.7] days; P < .001). Microcosting revealed a mean cost of €4039.56 (513.02) per inpatient and of €1408.48 (197.32) per outpatient, or a difference of €2631.08 per patient. CONCLUSIONS: Although diagnosis of lymphoma was quicker with hospitalization, the outpatient approach seems to be cost-effective and not detrimental. Despite the considerable savings with the latter approach, there may be hospitalization-associated factors which may not be properly managed in an outpatient unit (e.g. aggressive lymphomas with severe symptoms) and the cost analysis did not account for this potentially added value. While outcomes were not analyzed in this study, the impact on patient outcome of an outpatient vs inpatient diagnostic setting may represent a challenging future research.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/economia , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Linfoma/economia , Idoso , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/economia , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Linfoma/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
14.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 14(7): 1800-1806, 2018 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29553886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The nonavalent HPV (9vHPV) vaccine is indicated for active immunisation of individuals from the age of 9 years against cervical, vulvar, vaginal and anal premalignant lesions and cancers causally related to vaccine HPV high risk types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58, and to the HPV low risk types 6 and 11, causing genital warts. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the lifetime risk (up to the age of 75 years) for developing cervical cancer after vaccinating a HPV naïve girl (e.g. 9 to 12 years old) with the 9vHPV vaccine in the hypothetical absence of cervical cancer screening. METHODS: We built Monte Carlo simulation models using historical pre-screening age-specific cancer incidence data and current mortality data from Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden and the UK. Estimates of genotype contribution fractions and vaccine efficacy were used to estimate the residual lifetime risk after vaccination assuming lifelong protection. RESULTS: We estimated that, in the hypothetical absence of cervical screening and assuming lifelong protection, 9vHPV vaccination reduced the lifetime cervical cancer and mortality risks 7-fold with a residual lifetime cancer risks ranging from 1/572 (UK) to 1/238 (Denmark) and mortality risks ranging from 1/1488 (UK) to 1/851 (Denmark). After decades of repetitive cervical screenings, the lifetime cervical cancer and mortality risks was reduced between 2- and 4-fold depending on the country. CONCLUSION: Our simulations demonstrate how evidence can be generated to support decision-making by individual healthcare seekers regarding cervical cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Condiloma Acuminado/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Condiloma Acuminado/epidemiologia , Condiloma Acuminado/virologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método de Monte Carlo , Noruega/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Vacinação , Vacinas Sintéticas/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
15.
Heart Rhythm ; 15(6): 814-821, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29427821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with transmural myocardial infarction (MI) who undergo endocardial-only substrate ablation are at increased risk for ventricular tachycardia recurrence. Late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) can be used to assess infarct transmurality (IT). However, the degree of IT associated with an epicardial arrhythmogenic substrate (AS) has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of IT observed by LGE-CMR and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) that predicts the presence of epicardial AS. METHODS: The study included 38 post-MI patients. Ten patients with a subendocardial infarction underwent endocardial-only mapping, and 28 with a classic transmural MI (C-TMI), defined as hyperenhancement ≥75% of myocardial wall thickness (WT), underwent endo-epicardial mapping. LGE-CMR/MDCT data were registered to high-density endocardial or epicardial maps to be analyzed for the presence of AS. RESULTS: Of the 28 post-MI patients with C-TMI, 18 had epicardial AS (64%) and 10 (36%) did not. An epicardial scar area ≥14 cm2 on LGE-CMR identified patients with epicardial AS (sensitivity 1, specificity 1). Mean WT in the epicardial scar area in these patients was lower than in patients without epicardial AS (3.14 ± 1.16 mm vs 5.54 ± 1.78 mm; P = .008). A mean WT cutoff value ≤3.59 mm identified patients with epicardial AS (sensitivity 0.91, specificity 0.93). CONCLUSION: An epicardial scar area ≥14 cm2 on LGE-CMR and mean CT-WT ≤3.59 mm predict epicardial AS in post-MI patients.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Epicárdico/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia
16.
Lung ; 196(2): 239-248, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29230534

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate comorbidity, complexity and poor outcomes in patients with sarcoidosis and to compare those scores with a control group. METHODS: 218 consecutive patients were diagnosed with sarcoidosis according to the ATS/ERS/WASOG criteria; extrathoracic involvement was evaluated using the 2014 WASOG organ assessment instrument. Sarcoidosis patients were compared with an age- and gender-matched control group of primary care outpatients without sarcoidosis. Comorbidities were assessed retrospectively using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI); complexity was evaluated according to the classification into Clinical Risk Groups (CRG) and severity levels. RESULTS: The cohort included 142 women and 76 men; the mean age was 47.1 years at diagnosis of sarcoidosis and 55.9 years at the last visit. Patients with a CCI > 1 had a higher frequency of calcium/vitamin D abnormalities (p < 0.001), kidney involvement (p = 0.005) and a higher mortality rate (p < 0.001) compared with patients with a CCI ≤ 1. Patients with a CRG ≥ 6 had a higher frequency of extrathoracic involvement (p = 0.039), calcium/vitamin D abnormalities (p = 0.019) and treatment with glucocorticoids (p = 0.032) compared with patients with a CRG < 6. 11% patients died after a mean follow-up of 102.3 months. Country of birth, kidney involvement and extrathoracic disease were significantly associated with death. Patients with sarcoidosis had a higher frequency of liver (p < 0.001), pulmonary (p = 0.002) and autoimmune disease (p = 0.011) and cancer (p = 0.007) compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: We found higher rates of comorbidity and complexity in patients with sarcoidosis compared with a control group. Liver, pulmonary, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases were the main comorbidities found in patients with sarcoidosis.


Assuntos
Sarcoidose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico , Sarcoidose/mortalidade , Sarcoidose/terapia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 11(4): 561-572, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28780194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze whether scar characterization could improve the risk stratification for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). BACKGROUND: Among patients with a cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) indication, appropriate defibrillator (CRT-D) therapy rates are low. METHODS: Primary prevention patients with a class I indication for CRT were prospectively enrolled and assigned to CRT-D or CRT pacemaker according to physician's criteria. Pre-procedure contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance was obtained and analyzed to identify scar presence or absence, quantify the amount of core and border zone (BZ), and depict BZ distribution. The presence, mass, and characteristics of BZ channels in the scar were recorded. The primary endpoint was appropriate defibrillator therapy or SCD. RESULTS: 217 patients (39.6% ischemic) were included. During a median follow-up of 35.5 months (12 to 62 months), the primary endpoint occurred in 25 patients (11.5%) and did not occur in patients without myocardial scar. Among patients with scar (n = 125, 57.6%), those with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapies or SCD exhibited greater scar mass (38.7 ± 34.2 g vs. 17.9 ± 17.2 g; p < 0.001), scar heterogeneity (BZ mass/scar mass ratio) (49.5 ± 13.0 vs. 40.1 ± 21.7; p = 0.044), and BZ channel mass (3.6 ± 3.0 g vs. 1.8 ± 3.4 g; p = 0.018). BZ mass (hazard ratio: 1.06 [95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.08]; p < 0.001) and BZ channel mass (hazard ratio: 1.21 [95% confidence interval: 1.10 to 1.32]; p < 0.001) were the strongest predictors of the primary endpoint. An algorithm based on scar mass and the absence of BZ channels identified 148 patients (68.2%) without ICD therapy/SCD during follow-up with a 100% negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: The presence, extension, heterogeneity, and qualitative distribution of BZ tissue of myocardial scar independently predict appropriate ICD therapies and SCD in CRT patients.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/prevenção & controle , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cicatriz/diagnóstico por imagem , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Miocárdio/patologia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Idoso , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/mortalidade , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Cardiomiopatias/mortalidade , Cicatriz/complicações , Cicatriz/mortalidade , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 71(4): 243-249, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28711360

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) network activation by a noncardiologist reduces delay times but may increase the rate of false-positive STEMI diagnoses. We aimed to determine the prevalence, predictors, and clinical impact of false-positive activations within the Catalonian STEMI network (Codi Infart). METHODS: From January 2010 through December 2011, all consecutive patients treated within the Codi Infart network were included. Code activations were classified as appropriate if they satisfied both electrocardiogram and clinical STEMI criteria. Appropriate activations were classified as false positives using 2 nonexclusive definitions: a) "angiographic" if a culprit coronary artery was not identified, and b) "clinical" if the discharge diagnosis was other than STEMI. RESULTS: In total, 5701 activations were included. Appropriate activation was performed in 87.8% of the episodes. The rate of angiographic false positives was 14.6%, while the rate of clinical false positives was 11.6%. Irrespective of the definition, female sex, left bundle branch block, and previous myocardial infarction were independent predictors of false-positive STEMI diagnoses. Using the clinical definition, hospitals without percutaneous coronary intervention and patients with complications during the first medical contact also had a false-positive STEMI diagnoses rate higher than the mean. In-hospital and 30-day mortality rates were similar for false-positive and true-positive STEMI patients after adjustment for possible confounders. CONCLUSIONS: False-positive STEMI diagnoses were frequent. Outcomes were similar for patients with a true-positive or false-positive STEMI diagnosis treated within a STEMI network. The presence of any modifiable predictors of a false-positive STEMI diagnosis warrants careful assessment to optimize the use of STEMI networks.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Codificação Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Angiografia Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Espanha
19.
Papillomavirus Res ; 4: 45-53, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29179869

RESUMO

The Human Papillomavirus Prevention and Control Board brought together experts to discuss optimizing HPV vaccination and screening programs. Board members reviewed the safety profile of licensed HPV vaccines based on clinical and post-marketing data, reaching a consensus that current safety data is reassuring. Successful vaccination programs used well-coordinated communication campaigns, integrating (social) media to spread awareness. Communication of evidence supporting vaccine effectiveness had beneficial effects on the perception of the vaccine. However, anti-vaccination campaigns have threatened existing programs in many countries. Measurement and monitoring of HPV vaccine confidence over time could help understand the nature and scale of waning confidence, define issues and intervene appropriately using context-specific evidence-based strategies. Finally, a broad group of stakeholders, such as teachers, health care providers and the media should also be provided with accurate information and training to help support prevention efforts through enhanced understanding of the risks and benefits of vaccination. Similarly, while cervical cancer screening through population-based programs is highly effective, barriers to screening exist: awareness in countries with population-based screening programs, access for vulnerable populations, and access and affordability in low- and middle-income countries. Integration of primary and secondary prevention has the potential to accelerate the decrease in cervical cancer incidence.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Programas de Rastreamento , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinação/psicologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA