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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(1): 144-157, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex disease with multiple phenotypes that may differ in disease pathobiology and treatment response. IL33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reproducibly associated with asthma. IL33 levels are elevated in sputum and bronchial biopsies of patients with asthma. The functional consequences of IL33 asthma SNPs remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether IL33 SNPs associate with asthma-related phenotypes and with IL33 expression in lung or bronchial epithelium. This study investigated the effect of increased IL33 expression on human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) function. METHODS: Association between IL33 SNPs (Chr9: 5,815,786-6,657,983) and asthma phenotypes (Lifelines/DAG [Dutch Asthma GWAS]/GASP [Genetics of Asthma Severity & Phenotypes] cohorts) and between SNPs and expression (lung tissue, bronchial brushes, HBECs) was done using regression modeling. Lentiviral overexpression was used to study IL33 effects on HBECs. RESULTS: We found that 161 SNPs spanning the IL33 region associated with 1 or more asthma phenotypes after correction for multiple testing. We report a main independent signal tagged by rs992969 associating with blood eosinophil levels, asthma, and eosinophilic asthma. A second, independent signal tagged by rs4008366 presented modest association with eosinophilic asthma. Neither signal associated with FEV1, FEV1/forced vital capacity, atopy, and age of asthma onset. The 2 IL33 signals are expression quantitative loci in bronchial brushes and cultured HBECs, but not in lung tissue. IL33 overexpression in vitro resulted in reduced viability and reactive oxygen species-capturing of HBECs, without influencing epithelial cell count, metabolic activity, or barrier function. CONCLUSIONS: We identify IL33 as an epithelial susceptibility gene for eosinophilia and asthma, provide mechanistic insight, and implicate targeting of the IL33 pathway specifically in eosinophilic asthma.

2.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(1): 11-19, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232199

RESUMO

Mineralization of cardiovascular structures including blood vessels and heart valves is a common feature. We postulate that ectopic mineralization is a response-to-injury in which signals delivered to cells trigger a chain of events to restore and repair tissues. Maladaptive response to external or internal signals promote the expression of danger-associated molecular patterns, which, in turn, promote, when expressed chronically, a procalcifying gene program. Growing evidence suggest that danger-associated molecular patterns such as oxyphospholipids and small lipid mediators, generated by enzyme activity, are involved in the transition of vascular smooth muscle cells and valve interstitial cells to an osteoblast-like phenotype. Understanding the regulation and the molecular processes underpinning the mineralization of atherosclerotic plaques and cardiac valves are providing valuable mechanistic insights, which could lead to the development of novel therapies. Herein, we provide a focus account on the role oxyphospholipids and their mediators in the development of mineralization in plaques and calcific aortic valve disease.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21863, 2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318519

RESUMO

Cell entry of SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus causing COVID-19, is facilitated by host cell angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2). We aimed to identify and characterize genes that are co-expressed with ACE2 and TMPRSS2, and to further explore their biological functions and potential as druggable targets. Using the gene expression profiles of 1,038 lung tissue samples, we performed a weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) to identify modules of co-expressed genes. We explored the biology of co-expressed genes using bioinformatics databases, and identified known drug-gene interactions. ACE2 was in a module of 681 co-expressed genes; 10 genes with moderate-high correlation with ACE2 (r > 0.3, FDR < 0.05) had known interactions with existing drug compounds. TMPRSS2 was in a module of 1,086 co-expressed genes; 31 of these genes were enriched in the gene ontology biologic process 'receptor-mediated endocytosis', and 52 TMPRSS2-correlated genes had known interactions with drug compounds. Dozens of genes are co-expressed with ACE2 and TMPRSS2, many of which have plausible links to COVID-19 pathophysiology. Many of the co-expressed genes are potentially targetable with existing drugs, which may accelerate the development of COVID-19 therapeutics.


Assuntos
/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados de Compostos Químicos , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150777

RESUMO

Background: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is caused by genetic variants in the SERPINA1 gene conferring risk of developing emphysema. The clinical expression of AATD-related emphysema mostly occurs in carriers of two deficient alleles. By DNA sequencing of SERPINA1, numerous rare variants have been identified. Clarifying whether two mutations observed in one patient are on the same or distinct alleles had obvious clinical implications. Methods: We studied seven carriers of a rare variant, Leu353Phe_fsTer24, known to lead to undetectable serum levels of AAT. Two of them were also carriers of the S or Z allele. We developed an allele-specific DNA sequencing method to characterize the allelic background of the Leu353Phe_fsTer24 variant. Results: The Leu353Phe_fsTer24 variant was transmitted on the same allele as the M3 variant (E376D) in all patients. This mutation is thus named Q0Ourém on the conventional PI system. We demonstrated that individuals harboring the E264V (S) and E342K (Z) mutations had them on distinct alleles from Q0Ourém, and are thus compound heterozygotes. The seven Q0Ourém carriers had AAT levels ranging from 0.18 g/L to 0.82 g/L. The lowest AAT serum levels were observed in compound heterozygotes (S/Q0Ourém and Z/Q0Ourém) suggesting higher risk of developing emphysema. Conclusion: For the seven patients, Leu353Phe_fsTer24 is transmitted on the M3 background and they are thus carriers of the Q0Ourém allele. Allele-specific DNA sequencing was useful to distinguish one or two deficient alleles in carriers of two mutations. In rare cases, this method is important to understand the clinical significance of genetic variants found in SERPINA1.

5.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 93, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Humans and viruses have co-evolved for millennia resulting in a complex host genetic architecture. Understanding the genetic mechanisms of immune response to viral infection provides insight into disease etiology and therapeutic opportunities. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive study including genome-wide and transcriptome-wide association analyses to identify genetic loci associated with immunoglobulin G antibody response to 28 antigens for 16 viruses using serological data from 7924 European ancestry participants in the UK Biobank cohort. RESULTS: Signals in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region dominated the landscape of viral antibody response, with 40 independent loci and 14 independent classical alleles, 7 of which exhibited pleiotropic effects across viral families. We identified specific amino acid (AA) residues that are associated with seroreactivity, the strongest associations presented in a range of AA positions within DRß1 at positions 11, 13, 71, and 74 for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Varicella zoster virus (VZV), human herpesvirus 7, (HHV7), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV). Genome-wide association analyses discovered 7 novel genetic loci outside the HLA associated with viral antibody response (P < 5.0 × 10-8), including FUT2 (19q13.33) for human polyomavirus BK (BKV), STING1 (5q31.2) for MCV, and CXCR5 (11q23.3) and TBKBP1 (17q21.32) for HHV7. Transcriptome-wide association analyses identified 114 genes associated with response to viral infection, 12 outside of the HLA region, including ECSCR: P = 5.0 × 10-15 (MCV), NTN5: P = 1.1 × 10-9 (BKV), and P2RY13: P = 1.1 × 10-8 EBV nuclear antigen. We also demonstrated pleiotropy between viral response genes and complex diseases, from autoimmune disorders to cancer to neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the importance of the HLA region in host response to viral infection and elucidates novel genetic determinants beyond the HLA that contribute to host-virus interaction.

6.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924180

RESUMO

Clinical trial results have recently demonstrated that inhibiting inflammation by targeting the interleukin-1ß pathway can offer a significant reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality, highlighting a pressing and unmet need to understand the benefits of inflammation-focused lung cancer therapies at the genetic level. While numerous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have explored the genetic etiology of lung cancer, there remains a large gap between the type of information that may be gleaned from an association study and the depth of understanding necessary to explain and drive translational findings. Thus, in this study we jointly model and integrate extensive multiomics data sources, utilizing a total of 40 genome-wide functional annotations that augment previously published results from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) GWAS, to prioritize and characterize single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that increase risk of squamous cell lung cancer through the inflammatory and immune responses. Our work bridges the gap between correlative analysis and translational follow-up research, refining GWAS association measures in an interpretable and systematic manner. In particular, reanalysis of the ILCCO data highlights the impact of highly associated SNPs from nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway genes as well as major histocompatibility complex mediated variation in immune responses. One consequence of prioritizing likely functional SNPs is the pruning of variants that might be selected for follow-up work by over an order of magnitude, from potentially tens of thousands to hundreds. The strategies we introduce provide informative and interpretable approaches for incorporating extensive genome-wide annotation data in analysis of genetic association studies.

7.
Thorax ; 75(11): 934-943, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The anti-inflammatory pneumoprotein club cell secretory protein-16 (CC-16) is associated with the clinical expression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to determine if there is a causal effect of serum CC-16 level on the risk of having COPD and/or its progression using Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis for serum CC-16 in two COPD cohorts (Lung Health Study (LHS), n=3850 and ECLIPSE, n=1702). We then used the CC-16-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as instrumental variables in MR analysis to identify a causal effect of serum CC-16 on 'COPD risk' (ie, case status in the International COPD Genetics Consortium/UK-Biobank dataset; n=35 735 COPD cases, n=222 076 controls) and 'COPD progression' (ie, annual change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s in LHS and ECLIPSE). We also determined the associations between SNPs associated with CC-16 and gene expression using n=1111 lung tissue samples from the Lung Expression Quantitative Trait Locus Study. RESULTS: We identified seven SNPs independently associated (p<5×10-8) with serum CC-16 levels; six of these were novel. MR analysis suggested a protective causal effect of increased serum CC-16 on COPD risk (MR estimate (SE) -0.11 (0.04), p=0.008) and progression (LHS only, MR estimate (SE) 7.40 (3.28), p=0.02). Five of the SNPs were also associated with gene expression in lung tissue (at false discovery rate <0.1) of several genes, including the CC-16-encoding gene SCGB1A1. CONCLUSION: We have identified several novel genetic variants associated with serum CC-16 level in COPD cohorts. These genetic associations suggest a potential causal effect of serum CC-16 on the risk of having COPD and its progression, the biological basis of which warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Uteroglobina/sangue , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Testes de Função Respiratória , Risco
8.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 477, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859967

RESUMO

Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is a frequent heart disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Recent genomic studies have identified a locus near the gene PALMD (palmdelphin) strongly associated with CAVS. Here, we show that genetically-determined expression of PALMD in the aortic valve is inversely associated with CAVS, with a stronger effect in women, in a meta-analysis of two large cohorts totaling 2359 cases and 350,060 controls. We further demonstrate the specificity of this relationship by showing the absence of other significant association between the genetically-determined expression of PALMD in 9 tissues and 852 phenotypes. Using genome-wide association studies meta-analyses of cardiovascular traits, we identify a significant colocalized positive association between genetically-determined expression of PALMD in four non-cardiac tissues (brain anterior cingulate cortex, esophagus muscularis, tibial nerve and subcutaneous adipose tissue) and atrial fibrillation. The present work further establishes PALMD as a promising molecular target for CAVS.

9.
Heart ; 106(18): 1407-1412, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity has been shown to predict calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) outcomes. Our objective was to test the association between plasma Lp-PLA2 activity and genetically elevated Lp-PLA2 mass/activity with CAVS in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lp-PLA2 activity was measured in 890 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, including 476 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for CAVS and 414 control patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. After multivariable adjustment, Lp-PLA2 activity was positively associated with the presence of CAVS (OR=1.21 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.41) per SD increment). We selected four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the PLA2G7 locus associated with either Lp-PLA2 mass or activity (rs7756935, rs1421368, rs1805017 and rs4498351). Genetic association studies were performed in eight cohorts: Quebec-CAVS (1009 cases/1017 controls), UK Biobank (1350 cases/349 043 controls), European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk (504 cases/20 307 controls), Genetic Epidemiology Research on Aging (3469 cases/51 723 controls), Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (682 cases/5963 controls) and three French cohorts (3123 cases/6532 controls), totalling 10 137 CAVS cases and 434 585 controls. A fixed-effect meta-analysis using the inverse-variance weighted method revealed that none of the four SNPs was associated with CAVS (OR=0.99 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.02, p=0.55) for rs7756935, 0.97 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.01, p=0.11) for rs1421368, 1.00 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.01, p=0.29) for rs1805017, and 1.00 (95% CI 0.97 to 1.04, p=0.87) for rs4498351). CONCLUSIONS: Higher Lp-PLA2 activity is significantly associated with the presence of CAVS and might represent a biomarker of CAVS in patients with heart disease. Results of our genetic association study suggest that Lp-PLA2 is however unlikely to represent a causal risk factor or therapeutic target for CAVS.

10.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 1983-1992, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with 15% to 20% occurring in never smokers. To assess genetic determinants for prognosis among never smokers, we conducted a genome-wide investigation in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO). METHODS: Genomic and clinical data from 1,569 never-smoking patients with lung cancer of European ancestry from 10 ILCCO studies were included. HRs and 95% confidence intervals of overall survival were estimated. We assessed whether the associations were mediated through mRNA expression-based 1,553 normal lung tissues from the lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) dataset and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx). For cross-ethnicity generalization, we assessed the associations in a Japanese study (N = 887). RESULTS: One locus at 13q22.2 was associated with lung adenocarcinoma survival at genome-wide level, with carriers of rs12875562-T allele exhibiting poor prognosis [HR = 1.71 (1.41-2.07), P = 3.60 × 10-8], and altered mRNA expression of LMO7DN in lung tissue (GTEx, P = 9.40 × 10-7; Lung eQTL dataset, P = 0.003). Furthermore, 2 of 11 independent loci that reached the suggestive significance level (P < 10-6) were significant eQTL affecting mRNA expression of nearby genes in lung tissues, including CAPZB at 1p36.13 and UBAC1 at 9q34.3. One locus encoding NWD2/KIAA1239 at 4p14 showed associations in both European [HR = 0.50 (0.38-0.66), P = 6.92 × 10-7] and Japanese populations [HR = 0.79 (0.67-0.94), P = 0.007]. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the largest genomic investigation on the lung cancer prognosis of never smokers to date, we observed that lung cancer prognosis is affected by inherited genetic variants. IMPACT: We identified one locus near LMO7DN at genome-wide level and several potential prognostic genes with cis-effect on mRNA expression. Further functional genomics work is required to understand their role in tumor progression.

12.
Eur Respir J ; 56(4)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482783

RESUMO

DNA sequencing of the SERPINA1 gene to detect α1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (AATD) may provide a better appreciation of the individual and cumulative impact of genetic variants on AAT serum levels and COPD phenotypes.AAT serum level and DNA sequencing of the coding regions of SERPINA1 were performed in 1359 participants of the Canadian Cohort Obstructive Lung Disease (CanCOLD) study. Clinical assessment for COPD included questionnaires, pulmonary function testing and computed tomography (CT) imaging. Phenotypes were tested for association with SERPINA1 genotypes collated into four groups: normal (MM), mild (MS and MI), intermediate (heterozygote MZ, non-S/non-Z/non-I, compound IS, and homozygote SS) and severe (ZZ and SZ) deficiency. Smoking strata and MZ-only analyses were also performed.34 genetic variants were identified including 25 missense mutations. Overall, 8.1% of alleles in this Canadian cohort were deficient and 15.5% of 1359 individuals were carriers of at least one deficient allele. Four AATD subjects were identified and had statistically lower diffusion capacity and greater CT-based emphysema. No COPD phenotypes were associated with mild and intermediate AATD in the overall cohort or stratified by smoking status. MZ heterozygotes had similar CT-based emphysema, but lowered diffusion capacity compared with normal and mild deficiency.In this Canadian population-based cohort, comprehensive genetic testing for AATD reveals a variety of deficient alleles affecting 15.5% of subjects. COPD phenotype was demonstrated in severe deficiency and MZ heterozygotes. This study shows the feasibility of implementing a diagnostic test for AATD using DNA sequencing in a large cohort.

15.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 206, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358504

RESUMO

The human lifespan is a heritable trait, which is intricately linked to the development of disorders. Here, we show that genetic associations for the parental lifespan are enriched in open chromatin of blood cells. By using blood expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) derived from 31,684 samples, we identified for the lifespan 125 cis- and 559 trans-regulated expressed genes (eGenes) enriched in adaptive and innate responses. Analysis of blood single-cell expression data showed that eGenes were enriched in dendritic cells (DCs) and the modelling of cell ligand-receptor interactions predicted crosstalk between DCs and a cluster of monocytes with a signature of cytotoxicity. In two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR), we identified 16 blood cis-eGenes causally associated with the lifespan. In MR, the majority of cis-eGene-disorder association pairs had concordant effects with the lifespan. The present work underlined that the lifespan is linked with the immune response and identifies eGenes associated with the lifespan and disorders.

16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2220, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393777

RESUMO

Few germline mutations are known to affect lung cancer risk. We performed analyses of rare variants from 39,146 individuals of European ancestry and investigated gene expression levels in 7,773 samples. We find a large-effect association with an ATM L2307F (rs56009889) mutation in adenocarcinoma for discovery (adjusted Odds Ratio = 8.82, P = 1.18 × 10-15) and replication (adjusted OR = 2.93, P = 2.22 × 10-3) that is more pronounced in females (adjusted OR = 6.81 and 3.19 and for discovery and replication). We observe an excess loss of heterozygosity in lung tumors among ATM L2307F allele carriers. L2307F is more frequent (4%) among Ashkenazi Jewish populations. We also observe an association in discovery (adjusted OR = 2.61, P = 7.98 × 10-22) and replication datasets (adjusted OR = 1.55, P = 0.06) with a loss-of-function mutation, Q4X (rs150665432) of an uncharacterized gene, KIAA0930. Our findings implicate germline genetic variants in ATM with lung cancer susceptibility and suggest KIAA0930 as a novel candidate gene for lung cancer risk.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Judeus/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Razão de Chances , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Linhagem , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(10): e015610, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384012

RESUMO

Background In calcific aortic valve disease on tricuspid aortic valves (TAVs), men have higher aortic valve calcification and less fibrosis than women. However, little is known in bicuspid aortic valves (BAV). We thus aimed to investigate the impact of age, sex, and valve phenotype (TAVs versus BAVs) on fibro-calcific remodeling in calcific aortic valve disease. Methods and Results We included 2 cohorts: 411 patients who underwent multidetector computed tomography (37% women) for aortic valve calcification density assessment and 138 explanted aortic valves (histological cohort; 50% women). The cohorts were divided in younger (<60 years old) or older patients with BAV (≥60 years old), and TAV patients. In each group, women and men were matched. Women presented less aortic valve calcification density than men in each group of the multidetector computed tomography cohort (all P≤0.01). Moreover, in women, younger patients with BAV had the lowest aortic valve calcification density (both P=0.02). In multivariate analysis, aortic valve calcification density correlated with age (ß estimate±standard error: 6.5±1.8; P=0.0004) and male sex (109.2±18.4; P<0.0001), and there was a trend with TAVs (41.5±23.0; P=0.07). Women presented a higher collagen content than men (77.8±10.8 versus 69.9±12.9%; P<0.001) in the entire cohort. In women, younger patients with BAV had denser connective tissue than TAV and older patients with BAV (both P≤0.05), while no difference was observed between men. Conclusions In calcific aortic valve disease, women had less calcification and more fibrotic remodeling than men, regardless of the phenotype of the valve or age of the patient. Moreover, younger women with BAVs had less valve calcification. Thus, mineralization/fibrosis of the aortic valve is likely to have sex/age-specific mechanisms and be influenced by the valve morphology.

20.
JCI Insight ; 5(8)2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324168

RESUMO

The IL1RL1 (ST2) gene locus is robustly associated with asthma; however, the contribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this locus to specific asthma subtypes and the functional mechanisms underlying these associations remain to be defined. We tested for association between IL1RL1 region SNPs and characteristics of asthma as defined by clinical and immunological measures and addressed functional effects of these genetic variants in lung tissue and airway epithelium. Utilizing 4 independent cohorts (Lifelines, Dutch Asthma GWAS [DAG], Genetics of Asthma Severity and Phenotypes [GASP], and Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study [MAAS]) and resequencing data, we identified 3 key signals associated with asthma features. Investigations in lung tissue and primary bronchial epithelial cells identified context-dependent relationships between the signals and IL1RL1 mRNA and soluble protein expression. This was also observed for asthma-associated IL1RL1 nonsynonymous coding TIR domain SNPs. Bronchial epithelial cell cultures from asthma patients, exposed to exacerbation-relevant stimulations, revealed modulatory effects for all 4 signals on IL1RL1 mRNA and/or protein expression, suggesting SNP-environment interactions. The IL1RL1 TIR signaling domain haplotype affected IL-33-driven NF-κB signaling, while not interfering with TLR signaling. In summary, we identify that IL1RL1 genetic signals potentially contribute to severe and eosinophilic phenotypes in asthma, as well as provide initial mechanistic insight, including genetic regulation of IL1RL1 isoform expression and receptor signaling.

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