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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696517

RESUMO

We have recently completed the largest GWAS on lung cancer including 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls of European descent. The goal of this study has been to integrate the complete GWAS results with a large-scale expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping study in human lung tissues (n=1,038) to identify candidate causal genes for lung cancer. We performed transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) for lung cancer overall, by histology (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, small cell lung cancer) and smoking subgroups (never- and ever-smokers). We performed replication analysis using lung data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. DNA damage assays were performed in human lung fibroblasts for selected TWAS genes. As expected, the main TWAS signal for all histological subtypes and ever-smokers was on chromosome 15q25. The gene most strongly associated with lung cancer at this locus using the TWAS approach was IREB2 (PTWAS =1.09E-99), where lower predicted expression increased lung cancer risk. A new lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility locus was revealed on 9p13.3 and associated with higher predicted expression of AQP3 (PTWAS =3.72E-6). Among the 45 previously described lung cancer GWAS loci, we mapped candidate target gene for 17 of them. The association AQP3-adenocarcinoma on 9p13.3 was replicated using GTEx (PTWAS =6.55E-5). Consistent with the effect of risk alleles on gene expression levels, IREB2 knockdown and AQP3 overproduction promote endogenous DNA damage. These findings indicate genes whose expression in lung tissue directly influence lung cancer risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710517

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex lung disease characterised by scarring of the lung that is believed to result from an atypical response to injury of the epithelium. Genome-wide association studies have reported signals of association implicating multiple pathways including host defence, telomere maintenance, signalling and cell-cell adhesion. OBJECTIVES: To improve our understanding of factors that increase IPF susceptibility by identifying previously unreported genetic associations. METHODS AND MEASUREMENTS: We conducted genome-wide analyses across three independent studies and meta-analysed these results to generate the largest genome-wide association study of IPF to date (2,668 IPF cases and 8,591 controls). We performed replication in two independent studies (1,456 IPF cases and 11,874 controls) and functional analyses (including statistical fine-mapping, investigations into gene expression and testing for enrichment of IPF susceptibility signals in regulatory regions) to determine putatively causal genes. Polygenic risk scores were used to assess the collective effect of variants not reported as associated with IPF. MAIN RESULTS: We identified and replicated three new genome-wide significant (P<5×10-8) signals of association with IPF susceptibility (associated with altered gene expression of KIF15, MAD1L1 and DEPTOR) and confirmed associations at 11 previously reported loci. Polygenic risk score analyses showed that the combined effect of many thousands of as-yet unreported IPF susceptibility variants contribute to IPF susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS: The observation that decreased DEPTOR expression associates with increased susceptibility to IPF, supports recent studies demonstrating the importance of mTOR signalling in lung fibrosis. New signals of association implicating KIF15 and MAD1L1 suggest a possible role of mitotic spindle-assembly genes in IPF susceptibility. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

3.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224228, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639818

RESUMO

Reconstructed human adipose tissues represent novel tools available to perform in vitro pharmaco-toxicological studies. We used adipose-derived human stromal/stem cells to reconstruct, using tissue engineering techniques, such an adipose tridimensional model. To determine to what extent the in vitro model is representative of its native counterpart, adipogenic differentiation, triglycerides accumulation and phospholipids profiles were analysed. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software revealed pathways enriched with differentially-expressed genes between native and reconstructed human adipose tissues. Interestingly, genes related to fatty acid metabolism were downregulated in vitro, which could be explained in part by the insufficient amount of essential fatty acids provided by the fetal calf serum used for the culture. Indeed, the lipid profile of the reconstructed human adipose tissues indicated a particular lack of linoleic acid, which could interfere with physiological cell processes such as membrane trafficking, signaling and inflammatory responses. Supplementation in the culture medium was able to influence the lipid profile of the reconstructed human adipose tissues. This study demonstrates the possibility to directly modulate the phospholipid profile of reconstructed human adipose tissues. This reinforces its use as a relevant physiological or pathological model for further pharmacological and metabolic studies of human adipose tissue functions.

4.
J Lipid Res ; 60(10): 1776-1786, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409741

RESUMO

Lung cancer causes more deaths than any other cancer. Sphingolipids encompass metabolically interconnected species whose balance has pivotal effects on proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. In this study, we paralleled quantification of sphingolipid species with quantitative (q)PCR analyses of metabolic enzymes in order to identify dysregulated routes of sphingolipid metabolism in different subtypes of lung cancers. Lung samples were submitted to histopathological reexamination in order to confirm cancer type/subtype, which included adenocarcinoma histological subtypes and squamous cell and neuroendocrine carcinomas. Compared with benign lesions and tumor-free parenchyma, all cancers featured decreased sphingosine-1-phosphate and SMs. qPCR analyses evidenced differential mechanisms leading to these alterations between cancer types, with neuroendocrine carcinomas upregulating SGPL1, but CERT1 being downregulated in adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. 2-Hydroxyhexosylceramides (2-hydroxyHexCers) were specifically increased in adenocarcinomas. While UDP-glycosyltransferase 8 (UGT8) transcript levels were increased in all cancer subtypes, fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) levels were higher in adenocarcinomas than in squamous and neuroendocrine carcinomas. As a whole, we report differing mechanisms through which all forms of lung cancer achieve low SM and lysosphingolipids. Our results also demonstrate that FA2H upregulation is required for the accumulation of 2-hydroxyHexCers in lung cancers featuring high levels of UGT8.

5.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(10): 832-833, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326316
7.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(7): 620-627, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141105

RESUMO

Importance: Genetic variants at the LPA locus are associated with both calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Whether these variants are associated with CAVS in patients with CAD vs those without CAD is unknown. Objective: To study the associations of LPA variants with CAVS in a cohort of patients undergoing heart surgery and LPA with CAVS in patients with CAD vs those without CAD and to determine whether first-degree relatives of patients with CAVS and high lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) levels showed evidence of aortic valve microcalcification. Design, Setting, and Participants: This genetic association study included patients undergoing cardiac surgery from the Genome-Wide Association Study on Calcific Aortic Valve Stenosis in Quebec (QUEBEC-CAVS) study and patients with CAD, patients without CAD, and control participants from 6 genetic association studies: the UK Biobank, the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk, and Genetic Epidemiology Research on Aging (GERA) studies and 3 French cohorts. In addition, a family study included first-degree relatives of patients with CAVS. Data were collected from January 1993 to September 2018, and analysis was completed from September 2017 to September 2018. Exposures: Case-control studies. Main Outcomes and Measures: Presence of CAVS according to a weighted genetic risk score based on 3 common Lp(a)-raising variants and aortic valve microcalcification, defined as the mean tissue to background ratio of 1.25 or more, measured by fluorine 18-labeled sodium fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Results: This study included 1009 individuals undergoing cardiac surgery and 1017 control participants in the QUEBEC-CAVS cohort; 3258 individuals with CAVS and CAD, 41 100 controls with CAD, 2069 individuals with CAVS without CAD, and 380 075 control participants without CAD in the UK Biobank, EPIC-Norfolk, and GERA studies and 3 French cohorts combined; and 33 first-degree relatives of 17 patients with CAVS and high Lp(a) levels (≥60 mg/dL) and 23 control participants with normal Lp(a) levels (<60 mg/dL). In the QUEBEC-CAVS study, each SD increase of the genetic risk score was associated with a higher risk of CAVS (odds ratio [OR], 1.35 [95% CI, 1.10-1.66]; P = .003). Each SD increase of the genetic risk score was associated with a higher risk of CAVS in patients with CAD (OR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.20-1.42]; P < .001) and without CAD (OR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.14-1.55]; P < .001). The percentage of individuals with a tissue to background ratio of 1.25 or more or CAVS was higher in first-degree relatives of patients with CAVS and high Lp(a) (16 of 33 [49%]) than control participants (3 of 23 [13%]; P = .006). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a genetically elevated Lp(a) level was associated with CAVS independently of the presence of CAD. These findings support further research on the potential usefulness of Lp(a) cascade screening in CAVS.

9.
Nat Rev Genet ; 20(8): 467-484, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068683

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) involve testing genetic variants across the genomes of many individuals to identify genotype-phenotype associations. GWAS have revolutionized the field of complex disease genetics over the past decade, providing numerous compelling associations for human complex traits and diseases. Despite clear successes in identifying novel disease susceptibility genes and biological pathways and in translating these findings into clinical care, GWAS have not been without controversy. Prominent criticisms include concerns that GWAS will eventually implicate the entire genome in disease predisposition and that most association signals reflect variants and genes with no direct biological relevance to disease. In this Review, we comprehensively assess the benefits and limitations of GWAS in human populations and discuss the relevance of performing more GWAS.

10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(5): 427-436, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inherited mutations in SERPINA1 coding for the alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) protein is the only well established cause of hereditary emphysema. We aimed to identify the genetic ecause of early-onset emphysema in a five-generation French-Canadian family free of A1AT deficiency. METHODS: Between Dec 1, 2014, and April 1, 2017, we investigated 63 individuals from a single pedigree, including 55 with DNA available. Whole-exome sequencing was done in a convenience sample of 14 individuals (nine with unambiguous expression of the typical form of emphysema observed in this family). We filtered rare non-synonymous variants that were predicted to be damaging to identify a single mutation in a biologically relevant gene shared among all affected individuals. We assessed segregation with the disease in additional family members who were not evaluated by whole-exome sequencing. The effect of the candidate variant on protein function was evaluated in vitro. mRNA and protein expression of the candidate gene was assessed in lung samples from unrelated individuals (n=80) with and without emphysema who underwent surgery for lung cancer at our institution. FINDINGS: A rare in-silico-predicted damaging variant (Ala455Thr) was identified in the protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 6 (PTPN6) gene, also known as SHP-1, an important negative regulator of immune processes. 20 (95%) of 21 family members with computed tomography-confirmed emphysema were heterozygotes for the Ala455Thr mutation. No Thr455 homozygotes were identified. Emphysema or reduced diffusion capacity was observed in all heterozygotes with a history of smoking. Incomplete penetrance of the mutation and variable degrees of emphysema were observed in never smokers. The Ala455Thr mutation in SHP-1 caused a reduction in phosphatase activity in vitro, confirming the loss-of-function effect of the mutation. mRNA and protein expression of PTPN6 were upregulated in smokers, but were not associated with emphysema or severity of airflow limitation. INTERPRETATION: An inherited variant in the gene PTPN6 is responsible for early-onset emphysema in this family. To our knowledge, this is the second form of hereditary emphysema since the discovery of A1AT deficiency in the 1960s, representing a breakthrough in understanding the genetics and pathogenesis of emphysema. FUNDING: Fonds sur les maladies respiratoires J.-D. Bégin-P.-H. Lavoie de l'Université Laval, Fondation de l'Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec, CIHR/GSK research Chair on COPD at Université Laval, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

11.
JCI Insight ; 4(8)2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996144

RESUMO

Multiple reports of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression have established its presence in human epicardial adipose tissue (eAT). Its functional relevance to eAT, however, remains largely unknown. In a recent study, we reported that adrenergic stimulation of eAT was associated with downregulation of secreted proteins involved in oxidative stress-related and immune-related pathways. Here, we explored the UCP1-associated features of human eAT using next-generation deep sequencing. Paired biopsies of eAT, mediastinal adipose tissue (mAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (sAT) obtained from cardiac surgery patients, with specific criteria of high and low expression of UCP1 in eAT, were subjected to RNA sequencing. Although eAT exhibited a depot-specific upregulation in the immune-related pathways relative to mAT and sAT, high UCP1 expression in eAT was specifically associated with differential gene expression that functionally corresponded with downregulation in the production of reactive oxygen species and immune responses, including T cell homeostasis. Our data indicate that UCP1 and adaptive immunity share a reciprocal relationship at the whole-transcriptome level, thereby supporting a plausible role for UCP1 in maintaining tissue homeostasis in human eAT.

12.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 58, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airflow obstruction is a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is defined as either the ratio between forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) < 70% or < lower limit of normal (LLN). This study aimed to assess the overlap between genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on airflow obstruction using these two definitions in the same population stratified by smoking. METHODS: GWASes were performed in the LifeLines Cohort Study for both airflow obstruction definitions in never-smokers (NS = 5071) and ever-smokers (ES = 4855). The FEV1/FVC < 70% models were adjusted for sex, age, and height; FEV1/FVC < LLN models were not adjusted. Ever-smokers models were additionally adjusted for pack-years and current-smoking. The overlap in significantly associated SNPs between the two definitions and never/ever-smokers was assessed using several p-value thresholds. To quantify the agreement, the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the p-values and ORs. Replication was performed in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen study (NS = 432, ES = 823). The overlapping SNPs with p < 10- 4 were validated in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen and Rotterdam Study cohorts (NS = 1966, ES = 3134) and analysed for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in lung tissue (n = 1087). RESULTS: In the LifeLines cohort, 96% and 93% of the never- and ever-smokers were classified concordantly based on the two definitions. 26 and 29% of the investigated SNPs were overlapping at p < 0.05 in never- and ever-smokers, respectively. At p < 10- 4 the overlap was 4% and 6% respectively, which could be change findings as shown by simulation studies. The effect estimates of the SNPs of the two definitions correlated strongly, but the p-values showed more variation and correlated only moderately. Similar observations were made in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen study. Two overlapping SNPs in never-smokers (NFYC and FABP7) had the same direction of effect in the validation cohorts and the NFYC SNP was an eQTL for NFYC-AS1. NFYC is a transcription factor that binds to several known COPD genes, and FABP7 may be involved in abnormal pulmonary development. CONCLUSIONS: The definition of airflow obstruction and the population under study may be important determinants of which SNPs are associated with airflow obstruction. The genes FABP7 and NFYC(-AS1) could play a role in airflow obstruction in never-smokers specifically.


Assuntos
Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína 7 de Ligação a Ácidos Graxos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fumar/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Homologia de Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
14.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804561

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 × 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/genética
15.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 34(2): 105-111, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608251

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Novel medical treatments are urgently needed to stem the escalating socioeconomic burden of calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). Herein, we describe the discovery of PALMD as a disease-causing gene for CAVS and discuss its implications for the understanding of disease pathogenesis and the development of new treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: Large-scale genomic approaches are finally starting to yield genetic loci robustly associated with CAVS. PALMD was discovered using a transcriptome-wide association study, whereby the results of a genome-wide association study were integrated with the first expression quantitative trait loci mapping study in human aortic valve tissues. The direction of effect indicated that the CAVS risk alleles at the PALMD locus conferred susceptibility by decreasing the mRNA expression levels of PALMD in valve tissues. Further analyses, along with our limited knowledge on the biology of this gene, suggested that PALMD is a noncoronary aortic disease gene specific for CAVS that is likely to mediate its effect through pathways involved in cardiac development and/or remodeling. SUMMARY: Treatment modalities that increase the expression and/or function of PALMD in valve tissues must be evaluated. PALMD provides key insights into the genetics and pathogenesis of CAVS, will orient clinically relevant laboratory-based research and sets a turning point for gene discovery in CAVS.

16.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(1): 20-34, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few genetic studies that focus on moderate-to-severe asthma exist. We aimed to identity novel genetic variants associated with moderate-to-severe asthma, see whether previously identified genetic variants for all types of asthma contribute to moderate-to-severe asthma, and provide novel mechanistic insights using expression analyses in patients with asthma. METHODS: In this genome-wide association study, we used a two-stage case-control design. In stage 1, we genotyped patient-level data from two UK cohorts (the Genetics of Asthma Severity and Phenotypes [GASP] initiative and the Unbiased BIOmarkers in PREDiction of respiratory disease outcomes [U-BIOPRED] project) and used data from the UK Biobank to collect patient-level genomic data for cases and controls of European ancestry in a 1:5 ratio. Cases were defined as having moderate-to-severe asthma if they were taking appropriate medication or had been diagnosed by a doctor. Controls were defined as not having asthma, rhinitis, eczema, allergy, emphysema, or chronic bronchitis as diagnosed by a doctor. For stage 2, an independent cohort of cases and controls (1:5) was selected from the UK Biobank only, with no overlap with stage 1 samples. In stage 1 we undertook a genome-wide association study of moderate-to-severe asthma, and in stage 2 we followed up independent variants that reached the significance threshold of p less than 1 × 10-6 in stage 1. We set genome-wide significance at p less than 5 × 10-8. For novel signals, we investigated their effect on all types of asthma (mild, moderate, and severe). For all signals meeting genome-wide significance, we investigated their effect on gene expression in patients with asthma and controls. FINDINGS: We included 5135 cases and 25 675 controls for stage 1, and 5414 cases and 21 471 controls for stage 2. We identified 24 genome-wide significant signals of association with moderate-to-severe asthma, including several signals in innate or adaptive immune-response genes. Three novel signals were identified: rs10905284 in GATA3 (coded allele A, odds ratio [OR] 0·90, 95% CI 0·88-0·93; p=1·76 × 10-10), rs11603634 in the MUC5AC region (coded allele G, OR 1·09, 1·06-1·12; p=2·32 × 10-8), and rs560026225 near KIAA1109 (coded allele GATT, OR 1·12, 1·08-1·16; p=3·06 × 10-9). The MUC5AC signal was not associated with asthma when analyses included mild asthma. The rs11603634 G allele was associated with increased expression of MUC5AC mRNA in bronchial epithelial brush samples via proxy SNP rs11602802; (p=2·50 × 10-5) and MUC5AC mRNA was increased in bronchial epithelial samples from patients with severe asthma (in two independent analyses, p=0·039 and p=0·022). INTERPRETATION: We found substantial shared genetic architecture between mild and moderate-to-severe asthma. We also report for the first time genetic variants associated with the risk of developing moderate-to-severe asthma that regulate mucin production. Finally, we identify candidate causal genes in these loci and provide increased insight into this difficult to treat population. FUNDING: Asthma UK, AirPROM, U-BIOPRED, UK Medical Research Council, and Rosetrees Trust.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mucina-5AC , Proteínas , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207513, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prognostic biomarkers are needed in clinical setting to predict outcome after resection for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. The goal of this study is to validate tumor-based single-gene expression biomarkers with demonstrated prognostic value in order to move them along the clinical translation pipeline. METHODS: Prognostic genes were selected from the literature and the best candidates measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in tumors of 233 patients with stage I adenocarcinoma. Significant prognostic genes were then validated in an independent set of 210 patients matching the first set in terms of histology, stage, and clinical data. RESULTS: Eleven genes with demonstrated prognostic value were selected from the literature. Complementary analyses in public databases and our own microarray dataset led to the investigation of six genes associated with good (BTG2, SELENBP1 and NFIB) or poor outcome (RRM1, EZH2 and FOXM1). In the first set of patients, EZH2 and RRM1 were significantly associated with better survival on top of age, sex and pathological stage (EZH2 p = 3.2e-02, RRM1 p = 5.9e-04). The prognostic values of EZH2 and RRM1 were not replicated in the second set of patients. A trend was observed for both genes in the joint analyses (n = 443) with higher expression associated with worse outcome. CONCLUSION: Adenocarcinoma-specific mRNA expression levels of EZH2 and RRM1 are associated with poor post-surgical survival in the first set of patients, but not replicated in a clinically and pathologically matched independent validation set. This study highlights challenges associated with clinical translation of prognostic biomarkers.

18.
Eur Heart J ; 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395215

RESUMO

Aims: Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is characterized by a fibrocalcific process. Studies have shown an association between CAVS and the activation of platelets. It is believed that shear stress associated with CAVS promotes the activation of platelets. However, whether platelets actively participate to the mineralization of the aortic valve (AV) and the progression of CAVS is presently unknown. To identify the role of platelets into the pathobiology of CAVS. Methods and results: Explanted control non-mineralized and mineralized AVs were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the presence of activated platelets. In-depth functional assays were carried out with isolated human valve interstitial cells (VICs) and platelets as well as in LDLR-/- apoB100/100 IGFII (IGFII) mice. Scanning electron microscope and immunogold markings for glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) revealed the presence of platelet aggregates with fibrin in endothelium-denuded areas of CAVS. In isolated VICs, collagen-activated platelets induced an osteogenic programme. Platelet-derived adenosine diphosphate induced the release of autotaxin (ATX) by VICs. The binding of ATX to GPIIb/IIIa of platelets generated lysophosphatidic acid (LysoPA) with pro-osteogenic properties. In IGFII mice with CAVS, platelet aggregates were found at the surface of AVs. Administration of activated platelets to IGFII mice accelerated the development of CAVS by 2.1-fold, whereas a treatment with Ki16425, an antagonist of LysoPA receptors, prevented platelet-induced mineralization of the AV and the progression of CAVS. Conclusions: These findings suggest a novel role for platelets in the progression of CAVS.

19.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(21): 2172-2181, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate whether a multimarker approach might identify patients with higher mortality and hospitalization rates after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis (AS). BACKGROUND: The society valve guidelines include accepted triggers for AVR in patients with severe asymptomatic AS, but circulating biomarkers do not have a clear role. METHOD: From a prospective registry of patients undergoing cardiac surgery between 2000 and 2012, 665 treated with surgical AVR (441 isolated) were evaluated. Seven biomarkers were measured on blood samples obtained before AVR. Biomarker levels were adjusted to account for the influence of age, sex, body mass index, and renal function; the median was used to determine an elevated value. Endpoints included all-cause mortality and all-cause and cardiovascular hospitalizations. Mean follow-up was 10.7 years and 299 (45%) died. RESULTS: Patients with 0 to 1, 2 to 3, 4 to 6, and 7 biomarkers elevated had 5-year mortality of 10%, 12%, 24%, and 33%, respectively, and 10-year mortality of 24%, 35%, 58%, and 71%, respectively (log-rank p < 0.001). The association between an increasing number of elevated biomarkers and increased all-cause mortality was observed among those with minimal symptoms (New York Heart Association functional class I or II) and those with a low N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (p < 0.01 for both). Compared with those with 0 to 1 biomarkers elevated, patients with 4 to 6 or 7 biomarkers elevated had an increased hazard of mortality after adjustment for clinical risk scores (p < 0.01) and a 2- to 3-fold higher rate of all-cause and cardiovascular rehospitalization after AVR. Similar findings were obtained when evaluating cardiovascular mortality. Among patients with no or minimal symptoms, 42% had ≥4 biomarkers elevated. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with severe AS treated with surgical AVR, an increasing number of elevated biomarkers of cardiovascular stress was associated with higher all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and a higher rate of repeat hospitalization. A multimarker approach may be useful in the surveillance of asymptomatic patients with severe AS to optimize surgical timing.

20.
Eur Respir J ; 52(4)2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190272

RESUMO

Inadequate DNA repair is implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the mechanisms that underlie inadequate DNA repair in COPD are poorly understood. We applied an integrative genomic approach to identify DNA repair genes and pathways associated with COPD severity.We measured the transcriptomic changes of 419 genes involved in DNA repair and DNA damage tolerance that occur with severe COPD in three independent cohorts (n=1129). Differentially expressed genes were confirmed with RNA sequencing and used for patient clustering. Clinical and genome-wide transcriptomic differences were assessed following cluster identification. We complemented this analysis by performing gene set enrichment analysis, Z-score and weighted gene correlation network analysis to identify transcriptomic patterns of DNA repair pathways associated with clinical measurements of COPD severity.We found 15 genes involved in DNA repair and DNA damage tolerance to be differentially expressed in severe COPD. K-means clustering of COPD cases based on this 15-gene signature identified three patient clusters with significant differences in clinical characteristics and global transcriptomic profiles. Increasing COPD severity was associated with downregulation of the nucleotide excision repair pathway.Systematic analysis of the lung tissue transcriptome of individuals with severe COPD identified DNA repair responses associated with disease severity that may underlie COPD pathogenesis.

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