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1.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; : 9922819896583, 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875407

RESUMO

We evaluate maternal perspectives of frenotomy for ankyloglossia in newborns. We searched highly frequented forums like babycenter.com for comments related to frenotomy posted from 2012 to 2017. We applied modified grounded theory, reviewed posts for thematic synthesis, and calculated frequencies for each theme. High decisional conflict, low discussion of surgical complications, and an overall moderate positive experience were noted. Mothers posted about breastfeeding issues (n = 227, 74.7%) and overall experience (n = 229, 75.3%). Posts related to breastfeeding include discomfort ("I can no longer physically take the pain"; n = 93, 30.6%). Parents posted frequently about a satisfactory outcome ("It was so worth it to improve our nursing relationship"; n = 133, 43.8%), but dissatisfactory outcome ("I'm still having problems latching and am pumping. It's brutal"; n = 31) was present in 10.2%. These results aid in understanding parental thoughts of frenotomy. Physicians can use these self-reported maternal perspectives on frenotomy to guide counseling and improve shared decision making for parents.

2.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Parental role in decision-making has implications for quality of care. We describe roles of parent participation in decision-making for tonsillectomy. METHODS: Parents reported preferred role in decision-making before consultations for tonsillectomy and the role they experienced after their consult. Parents completed questionnaires, including items evaluating clinician/parent communication. Clinicians rated perception of parents' preferred role in decision-making. Congruence between parent and clinician responses was evaluated via kappa analysis. Logistic regression identified associations between decision-making roles and socioemotional and communication factors. RESULTS: Consults between 63 parents and 8 otolaryngologists were analyzed.There was inadequate agreement between clinician and parent ratings of preferred roles (37%, p = 0.6, 95% CI [-0.09, 0.001]). Parents perceived greater involvement when clinicians discussed reasons to have (OR = 4.3, p = 0.03) or not have (OR = 4.1, p = 0.005) surgery. Parents perceived less involvement when clinicians used jargon (OR = 0.1, p = 0.03), and when parents trusted clinicians (OR = 0.4, p = 0.049), or experienced greater decisional conflict (OR = 0.9, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Parents and clinicians perceived parental preference for decision-making involvement differently during consultations for tonsillectomy. Clinician information-sharing, jargon use, and parent trust in clinician predicted extent of perceived engagement. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Findings may enhance understanding of strategies to effectively communicate and engage parents in shared decision-making for pediatric surgical care.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600386

RESUMO

Importance: Despite various barriers identified to early pediatric access to cochlear implantation, barriers to timely access to pediatric hearing aids are not well characterized. Objective: To identify socioeconomic, demographic, and clinical factors that may be associated with pediatric access to hearing aids. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included 90 patients aged 1 to 15 years who were referred for auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing and evaluation for hearing aids at a single tertiary care academic medical center from March 2004 to July 2018. Children who did not receive both ABR testing and hearing aids at the same center were excluded from analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Associations of insurance type (private vs public), race/ethnicity (white vs other), primary language (English vs other), cause of hearing loss (complex vs not complex), zip code, hearing aid manufacturer, and severity of hearing loss (in decibels) with the duration of intervals from newborn hearing screening to ABR testing, from ABR testing to ordering of hearing aids, and from ABR testing to dispensing of hearing aids. Results: Of the 90 patients, mean (SD) age was 5.6 (3.7) years, 56% were female, and 77 (86%) were non-Hispanic. Results of χ2 tests indicated significant assocations existed between public insurance and race/ethnicity and between public insurance and primary language other than English. Variables associated with the interval from newborn hearing screening to ABR testing included insurance type (mean difference, 7.4 months; 95% CI, 2.6-12.2 months) and race/ethnicity (mean difference, 6.9 months; 95% CI, 2.7-11.1 months). Increased delays between birth and a child's first ABR test were associated with public insurance (mean difference, 6.0 months; 95% CI, 1.8-10.2 months) and race/ethnicity other than white (mean difference, 6.0 months; 95% CI, 2.3-9.7 months). The mean time from birth to initial ABR testing was a mean of 6 months longer for patients from non-English-speaking families than for those from English-speaking families (mean [SD] interval, 14.9 [16.3] months vs 9.0 [8.5] months), although the difference was not statistically significant. Severity of hearing loss was associated with a decrease in the interval from ABR testing to ordering of hearing aids after accounting for other potential barriers (odds ratio, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9). Zip code and complexity of the child's medical condition did not appear to be associated with timely access to pediatric hearing aids. Conclusions and Relevance: This study's findings suggest that insurance type, race/ethnicity, and primary language may be barriers associated with pediatric access to hearing aids, with the greatest difference observed in time to initial ABR testing. Clinical severity of hearing loss appeared to be associated with a significant decrease in time from ABR testing to ordering of hearing aids. Greater efforts to assist parents with ABR testing and coordination of follow-up may help improve access for other at-risk children.

5.
Laryngoscope ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Postoperative hemorrhage is a serious complication of tonsillectomy, with secondary bleeding rates affecting up to 0.8% to 3% of patients. Although these bleeds are anecdotally perceived as occurring more frequently at night, the occurrence of hemorrhage relative to the time of day has not been investigated. We measured the frequency of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage onset relative to the time of day. METHODS: We reviewed electronic medical records of all patients who experienced postprocedural hemorrhage (International Classification of Disease, Ninth Edition [ICD-9] 998.11, ICD-10 J95.830 at two hospitals within a tertiary academic health system in a 10-year period). Patient demographics, time of bleed onset, emergency room [ED] arrival time, and management (operating room vs. observation) were abstracted. Patients without a recorded bleeding time were excluded. Time of bleed onset was categorized as morning (6:01 am-12 pm), afternoon (12:01 pm-6 pm), evening (6:01 pm-12 am), or overnight (12:01 am-6 am). Chi-square goodness of fit test was used to assess the distribution of hemorrhage timing (P ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: A total of 7,396 patients underwent tonsillectomy May 2008 through May 2018, among whom 121 (2%) post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage patients were identified. Among the 104 patients with ED arrival times, 29 (28%) arrived in the morning; 15 (14%) arrived in the afternoon; 40 (38%) arrived in the evening; and 20 (19%) arrived overnight (P = 0.003). Sixty patients (mean age 17.1 years, standard deviation 16.6) had a recorded timing of bleed onset. Bleed onset occurred most commonly overnight (24, 40%), followed by evening (21, 35%), afternoon (11, 18%), and morning (4, 7%) (P = 0.0007). CONCLUSION: In this cohort, post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage occurred most frequently between midnight and 6 am. Our findings confirm anecdotal experience and provide data in setting caregiver expectations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 2019.

6.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 125: 87-91, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pediatric otolaryngology bears the highest frequency of elective surgical cases in children, but little is known regarding the health literacy of these children's parents. In a questionnaire-based pilot study, we assessed parental health literacy in our pediatric otolaryngology clinic and evaluated its relation to personal demographics. We also evaluated postoperative and diagnosis-based leaflets for readability using validated measures. METHODS: Parents completed the Short Assessment of Health Literacy-English (SAHL-E) and were defined as low (0-14) or high (>14) literacy based on mean scores. RESULTS: Fifty parents participated (mean SAHL-E score, 17.6), and all scored >14, indicating proficient health literacy. No differences existed in mean or median scores based on demographics. Continued education after high school was associated with higher scores (P = 0.003) and was the only significant variable in multivariable linear regression. All leaflets were at or below the recommended reading level for public health information. CONCLUSIONS: Parents generally had high health literacy.

7.
Otolaryngol Clin North Am ; 52(1): 23-33, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390737

RESUMO

Patient engagement, which involves incorporating the patient and family as partners in their care, is a growing focus in otolaryngology and surgery. Attention to patient and family centeredness, shared decision making, and patient experience together improves the overall tenor of patient engagement. Patient engagement promotes safety through improving quality of electronic health record data, error detection, and treatment decisions and adherence. In this article, we review specific areas of importance for patient engagement in otolaryngology as well as areas needing more research and development.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Otolaringologia , Participação do Paciente , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração
8.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 160(2): 326-331, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: (1) Describe outcomes of bronchoscopy with foreign body removal among children on the basis of a large standardized multi-institutional data set. (2) Identify factors associated with 30-day adverse events. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of a US national database. SETTING: Public data set from the ACS NSQIP-P (American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric) from 2012 to 2015. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Children <18 years old who underwent bronchoscopy with removal of foreign body were identified. Patient demographics, comorbidities, hospitalization factors, surgical characteristics, and 30-day postoperative adverse events, including complication and readmission, were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression identified predictive factors for postoperative complications and prolonged length of stay. RESULTS: A total of 275 children underwent bronchoscopic foreign body removal (n = 165 male, 60%; n = 75 nonwhite and/or Hispanic, 27%; mean age, 3.5 years [range, 0.63-17.9; median, 2.0]). Adverse events occurred among 10 children (4%). Seven had pulmonary-related complications, and 1 patient died. Three patients were readmitted; there were no reoperations. On multivariate analysis, preoperative pulmonary disease or need for pulmonary support (odds ratio [OR], 6.42; P = .04) predicted postoperative complications. Preoperative pulmonary compromise (OR, 8.10; P < .01), American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 or 4 (OR, 4.13; P < .01), and prolonged operative time (OR, 3.05; P = .01) were associated with prolonged hospital stay. CONCLUSION: Bronchoscopy for retrieval of foreign body among children has an overall low incidence of 30-day adverse events. Children with preoperative pulmonary compromise have a significantly higher risk of postoperative complications. These findings may be applied to optimize perioperative care and counsel parents and families.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/cirurgia , Broncoscopia/métodos , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Tempo de Internação , Fatores Etários , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Análise de Variância , Broncoscopia/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Corpos Estranhos/complicações , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
9.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 145(1): 45-52, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452510

RESUMO

Importance: Tonsillectomy is common in children, but little is known about parental preferences and values concerning this surgical procedure. Twitter offers an opportunity to evaluate parental understanding and experience of tonsillectomy care. Objective: To identify parental perspectives about tonsillectomy in children that may not be apparent in a routine clinical encounter. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this qualitative study, social media platform Twitter was searched for posts (tweets) published between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2017, by US-based parents about their child's tonsillectomy. Modified grounded theory was applied to develop a coding taxonomy to classify the tweets. Tweets were assessed for thematic synthesis and classification, and descriptive statistics were obtained for each theme. Main Outcomes and Measures: Themes of parental experiences and perspectives about their child's tonsillectomy. Results: Of the 5801 total tweets retrieved, 782 (13.5%) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Tweets were categorized under 2 overarching themes: procedural concerns (549 tweets [70.2%]) and attitudes or experiences (498 [63.7%]). Common tweets under procedural concerns mentioned surgical indication for tonsillectomy (55 tweets [7.0%]); eg, "strep-I think it's tonsil removing time…") and recovery (227 tweets [29.0%]), including child's attitude (89 tweets [11.4%]; eg, "so hard to get my daughter to eat") and parental experience (87 tweets [11.1%]; eg, "tonsillectomy recovery sucks for the parent as much as the kid!"). Common tweets regarding attitudes or experiences included the tenor of overall care (225 tweets [28.6%]; eg, "Tonsillectomy is a bear") and fears or apprehensions (209 tweets [26.6%]). Conclusions and Relevance: These social media findings may be used to guide clinicians in educating and counseling parents as well as further engaging parents and children in shared decision making for tonsillectomy.

10.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 113: 252-259, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review research on status and outcomes of health literacy in pediatric otolaryngology and identify opportunities for quality improvement. METHODS: We performed a scoping review, adhering to methodologic standards. A combination of MeSH terms and keywords related to health literacy in otolaryngology was used to conduct a search. Relevant studies were identified using PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases. Studies were selected for inclusion by two authors if they addressed the domains of pediatric otolaryngology as well as health literacy. Data were abstracted from each study on the number of participants, the setting, the study design, the outcome measure, the intervention used, and the overall theme. Authors identified prominent overarching themes and grouped studies accordingly. Results were then tabulated for further review and to discern implications for future practice and research. RESULTS: Of 1046 articles identified, 20 articles were included. Studies fell into three major themes: readability of patient materials, patient recall after informed consent, and optimal patient education. Prominent findings included the following: 1. Much of the printed and electronic educational material in otolaryngology is above the recommended reading level for public health information; 2. Parents do not easily recall information provided verbally or in written form; and 3. Adding visual and multimodal components improves the success of parental education. CONCLUSION: Health literacy in pediatric otolaryngology may influence comprehension of educational materials and adequacy of informed consent. Future research may address whether patient health literacy affects clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/métodos , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Otolaringologia/educação , Pais/educação , Adulto , Criança , Compreensão , Humanos , Rememoração Mental , Leitura
11.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) ; 57(12): 1453-1464, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014706

RESUMO

Patient race/ethnicity affects health care utilization, provider trust, and treatment choice. It is uncertain how these influences affect pediatric care. We performed a systematic review (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane, and Embase) for articles examining race/ethnicity and parental treatment decision-making, adhering to PRISMA methodology. A total of 9200 studies were identified, and 17 met inclusion criteria. Studies focused on treatment decisions concerning end-of-life care, human papillomavirus vaccination, urological surgery, medication regimens, and dental care. Findings were not uniform between studies; however, pooled results showed (1) racial/ethnic minorities tended to prefer more aggressive end-of-life care; (2) familial tradition of neonatal circumcision influenced the decision to circumcise; and (3) non-Hispanic Whites were less likely to pursue human papillomavirus vaccination but more likely to complete the vaccine series if initiated. The paucity of studies precluded overarching findings regarding the influence of race/ethnicity on parental treatment decisions. Further investigation may improve family-centered communication, parent engagement, and shared decision-making.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisões , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais/psicologia , Circuncisão Masculina/psicologia , Circuncisão Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Assistência Odontológica/psicologia , Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Assistência Terminal/psicologia , Assistência Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 159(1): 3-10, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968525

RESUMO

Patient safety/quality improvement (PS/QI) is the cornerstone of 21st-century health care. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery is excited to provide a dedicated PS/QI primer. The overarching goal for this PS/QI series is to provide a comprehensive and practical resource that assists readers, authors, and peer reviewers in understanding PS/QI research, its unique methodology, and the associated reporting standards for trustworthy performance measures. The target audience includes resident and fellows, faculty from the private sector and academia, and allied health professionals. This inaugural primer reviews PS/QI background as it relates to otolaryngology practice. It explores the history, goals, and development of performance measurement. In addition, it highlights opportunities for integrating PS/QI into otolaryngology practice. Payers will drive patients to quality care based on outcomes. Otolaryngologists have a responsibility to embrace a culture of PS/QI. In doing so, we will define optimal, quality otolaryngology care through objective data and metrics.


Assuntos
Otolaringologia/normas , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Humanos , Reembolso de Incentivo
13.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 34(8): 837-844, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perioperative risk factors for 30-day complications of the Kasai procedure in a large, cross-institutional, modern dataset. STUDY DESIGN: The 2012-2015 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatric database was used to identify patients undergoing the Kasai procedure. Patients' characteristics were compared by perioperative blood transfusions and 30-day outcomes, including complications, reoperations, and readmissions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors predictive of outcomes. Propensity matching was performed for perioperative blood transfusions to evaluate its effect on outcomes. RESULTS: 190 children were included with average age of 62 days. Major cardiac risk factors were seen in 6.3%. Perioperative blood transfusions occurred in 32.1%. The 30-day post-operative complication rate was 15.8%, reoperation 6.8%, and readmission 15.3%. After multivariate analysis, perioperative blood transfusions (OR 3.94; p < 0.01) and major cardiac risk factors (OR 7.82; p < 0.01) were found to increase the risk of a complication. Perioperative blood transfusion (OR 4.71; p = 0.01) was associated with an increased risk of reoperation. Readmission risk was increased by prematurity (OR 3.88; p = 0.04) and 30-day complication event (OR 4.09; p = 0.01). After propensity matching, perioperative blood transfusion was associated with an increase in complications (p < 0.01) and length of stay (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Major cardiac risk factors and perioperative blood transfusions increase the risk of post-operative complications in children undergoing the Kasai procedure. Further research is warranted in the perioperative use of blood transfusions in this population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.


Assuntos
Atresia Biliar/cirurgia , Portoenterostomia Hepática/efeitos adversos , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Nascimento Prematuro , Reoperação , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Pediatr Surg ; 53(11): 2266-2272, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The role of process measures used to predict quality in pediatric colorectal surgery enhanced recovery protocols has not been described. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of abstracting and monitoring process measures over protocol improvement iteration. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the Pediatric Colorectal Enhanced Recovery After Surgery pathway at our institution were grouped by stage of implementation. We used a quality improvement database to compare multistage enhanced recovery process measures and 30-day patient outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 58 surgical patients with 28(48%) cases enrolled in the pathway. There was increased use of regional anesthesia techniques in pathway patients (83% versus 20%, p < 0.001). All preoperative process measures clinically improved between early and full implementation. Improvements included a dramatic increase in formal preoperative education (56% versus 0%, p = 0.004) and administration of preoperative medication (p = 0.025). Overall, 12 (21%) patients experienced postoperative complications, which were similarly distributed between implementation groups. Readmissions were highest during the early implementation phase (40%, p = 0.029). Children in the late implementation group experienced fewer complications, which clinically correlated with process measure adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Process measures complement outcome measures in assessing quality and effectiveness of a pediatric colorectal recovery protocol. Adherence to processes may reduce complications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Treatment study, Level III.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Colorretal , Melhoria de Qualidade , Criança , Cirurgia Colorretal/normas , Cirurgia Colorretal/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias
15.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 159(2): 371-378, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685083

RESUMO

Objective To evaluate follow-up and timing of sleep-disordered breathing diagnosis and treatment in urban children referred from primary care. Study Design Retrospective longitudinal cohort analysis. Setting Tertiary health system. Subjects and Methods Pediatric outpatients with sleep-disordered breathing, referred from primary care for subspecialty appointment or polysomnography in 2014, followed for 2 years. Timing of polysomnography or subspecialty appointments, loss to follow-up, and sleep-disordered breathing severity were main outcomes. Chi-square and t-test identified differences in children referred for polysomnography, surgery, and loss to follow-up. Logistic regression identified predictors of loss to follow-up. Days to polysomnography or surgery were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, with Cox regression comparing estimates by polysomnography receipt and disease severity. Results Of 216 children, 188 (87%) had public insurance. Half (109 [50%]) were lost to follow-up after primary care referral. More children were lost to follow-up when referred for polysomnography (50 [76%]) compared with subspecialty evaluation (35 [32%]; P < .001). Children referred to both polysomnography and subspecialty were more likely to be lost to follow-up (odds ratio = 2.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.29-5.78; P = .009). For children who obtained polysomnography, an asymmetric distribution of obstructive sleep apnea severity was not observed ( P = .152). Median time to polysomnography and surgery was 75 and 226 days, respectively. Obstructive sleep apnea severity did not influence time to surgery ( P = .410). Conclusion In this urban population, half of the children referred for sleep-disordered breathing evaluation are lost to follow-up from primary care. Obstructive sleep apnea severity did not predict follow-up or timeliness of treatment. These findings suggest social determinants may pose barriers to care in addition to the clinical burden of sleep-disordered breathing.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/cirurgia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Polissonografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , População Urbana
16.
Patient Educ Couns ; 101(8): 1368-1377, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550295

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop a comprehensive, descriptive framework to measure shared decision making (SDM) in clinical encounters. METHODS: We combined a top-down (theoretical) approach with a bottom-up approach based on audio-recorded dialogue to identify all communication processes related to decision making. We coded 55 pediatric otolaryngology visits using the framework and report interrater reliability. RESULTS: We identified 14 clinician behaviors and 5 patient behaviors that have not been previously described, and developed a new SDM framework that is descriptive (what does happen) rather than normative (what should happen). Through the bottom-up approach we identified three broad domains not present in other SDM frameworks: socioemotional support, understandability of clinician dialogue, and recommendation-giving. We also specify the ways in which decision-making roles are assumed implicitly rather than discussed explicitly. Interrater reliability was >75% for 92% of the coded behaviors. CONCLUSION/PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: This SDM framework allows for a more expansive understanding and analysis of how decision making takes place in clinical encounters, including new domains and behaviors not present in existing measures. We hope that this new framework will bring attention to a broader conception of SDM and allow researchers to further explore the new domains and behaviors identified.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/cirurgia , Tonsilectomia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maryland
17.
Can J Anaesth ; 65(5): 569-577, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29270915

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathways have been used for two decades to improve perioperative recovery in adults. Nevertheless, little is known about their effectiveness in children. The purpose of this review was to consider pediatric ERAS pathways, review the literature concerned with their potential benefit, and compare them with adult ERAS pathways. SOURCE: A PubMed literature search was performed for articles that included the terms enhanced recovery and/or fast track in the pediatric perioperative period. Pediatric patients included those from the neonatal period through teenagers and/or youths. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The literature search revealed a paucity of articles about pediatric ERAS. This lack of academic investigation is likely due in part to the delayed acceptance of ERAS in the pediatric surgical arena. Several pediatric studies examined individual components of adult-based ERAS pathways, but the overall study of a comprehensive multidisciplinary ERAS protocol in pediatric patients is lacking. CONCLUSION: Although adult ERAS pathways have been successful at reducing patient morbidity, the translation, creation, and utility of instituting pediatric ERAS pathways have yet to be realized.


Assuntos
Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Analgesia , Anestesia , Criança , Hidratação , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Assistência Perioperatória/educação , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
18.
Laryngoscope ; 128(2): 496-501, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28842989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tympanostomy tube (TT) placement is common in children; however, family-centeredness and utility of online information used for decision making and understanding is unknown. We evaluate the quality of leading Internet resources describing TT placement. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive design. METHODS: We performed a Google (Menlo Park, CA) search for terms related to TTs. We defined quality using scaled readability measures (Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid Grade-Level), understandability and actionability (Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool), shared decision-making centrality (Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services informed consent guidelines), and clinical practice guideline (CPG) compatibility. Three reviewers coded each measure. Fleiss κ interrater reliability analysis was performed. RESULTS: Ten most frequently encountered websites were analyzed. One of 10 met national health literacy standards (mean 10th-grade level reading, median 9th, range 6-15th). All sites were understandable (mean understandability 81.9%, range 73%-92%). Most had low actionability scores (7 of 10, median 47%, mean 44.6%, range 0-80). Shared decision-making centrality was high (mean 5, range 4-6), but most did not list alternative treatment options. Although CPG compatibility was high (mean 3.4, range 1-4), many websites contained inconsistent recommendations about tube duration, follow-up, and water precautions. There was inter-rater agreement for understandability scoring (κ = 0.20; P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Internet resources about TT placement vary in quality pertaining to health literacy, principles of shared decision making, and consistency with practice guidelines. With growing emphasis on patient-/family-centered engagement in healthcare decision making, standardization of content and improved usability of educational materials for common surgical procedures in children such as tympanostomy tube placement should be a public health priority. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA. Laryngoscope, 128:496-501, 2018.


Assuntos
Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/normas , Ventilação da Orelha Média , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/normas , Ferramenta de Busca , Materiais de Ensino/normas , Criança , Compreensão , Alfabetização em Saúde , Humanos , Internet , Leitura
19.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 157(5): 867-873, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28535362

RESUMO

Objective To compare number of infections and health care utilization in children insured by TRICARE with recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) managed surgically with tympanostomy tube (TT) placement compared with those managed medically. Study Design Retrospective matched cohort study. Setting TRICARE claims database from 2006 to 2010. Subjects and Methods We matched TRICARE beneficiaries ≤5 years of age diagnosed with RAOM who underwent TT placement with those managed medically using 1:1 coarsened-exact matching on age, sex, race, sponsor rank, and region. We used multivariable negative binomial regression to compare number of infections and health care utilization at 1 and 2 years. Outcomes were adjusted for rate of infection before treatment for RAOM, season of either TT placement or establishment of candidacy for TT placement, and comorbidities. Results Among 6659 pairs identified at 1-year follow-up, the TT group had fewer infections (1.96 vs 2.18, P < .001) and oral antibiotic prescriptions (1.52 vs 1.67, P < .001) but more visits to primary care physicians (4.36 vs 4.06, P < .0001) and otolaryngologists (1.21 vs 0.44, P < .0001) compared with the medically managed group. At 2-year follow-up, the benefits of TT placement were no longer seen. Conclusion TT placement for RAOM is associated with fewer infections and oral antibiotic prescriptions in the first year after surgery but more doctor visits. Benefits of TT placement do not appear to extend through the second year. Future research should investigate costs associated with TT placement vs medical management, as well as real-time health care utilization with impact on patient symptoms and quality of life.


Assuntos
Ventilação da Orelha Média/métodos , Otite Média/cirurgia , Doença Aguda , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Masculino , Medicina Militar , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
20.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 7(8): 827-836, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28544520

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study describes safety outcomes of pediatric endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) to identify risk factors for 30-day postoperative adverse events using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (NSQIP-P) database. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study involving patients in the 2012-2015 NSQIP-P database who underwent ESS. Predictors included demographics, comorbidities and surgical acuity. Outcomes included 30-day complications, reoperations, and readmissions. RESULTS: Among 2,061 ESS cases identified, 1,829 (88.7%) were elective and 232 (11.3%) were urgent/emergent. There were 92 (4.5%) readmissions, 54 (2.6%) unplanned reoperations, and 61 (3.0%) complications. On multivariate analysis, readmission was associated with urgent/emergent procedures (OR 2.31, CI 1.36-3.93, p<0.01) and history of bleeding disorder (OR 2.24, CI 1.12-4.44, p = 0.02), reoperation was associated with urgent/emergent procedures (OR 5.78, CI 3.24-10.34, p<0.01), and complications were associated with urgent/emergent procedures (OR 3.81, CI 2.13-6.82, p<0.01) and history of bleeding disorder (OR 5.30, CI 2.74-10.20, p<0.01). Bleeding requiring transfusion was associated with urgent/emergent procedures (OR 9.61, CI 2.90-31.80, p<0.01), history of bleeding disorder (OR 14.16, CI 4.41-45.45, p<0.01), and age <3 years (OR 3.92, CI 0.99-15.61, p = 0.05). Black children were significantly more likely to undergo urgent/emergent surgery than white children (19.7% vs. 9.6%, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This multi-institutional study confirms that while pediatric ESS is largely safe, urgent/emergent procedures carry the greatest risk of postoperative adverse events, and black children are significantly more likely to undergo higher acuity surgery than white children. Regardless of procedure acuity, young age and bleeding disorder are associated with higher risk of 30-day adverse events.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Nasais/efeitos adversos , Seios Paranasais/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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