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2.
Int J Gynecol Pathol ; 40(Suppl 1): S102-S110, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570867

RESUMO

To review the scientific evidence related to predictive biomarkers in cervical adenocarcinoma (ADC). The authors reviewed the literature regarding predictive biomarkers in cervical ADC. There were several limitations: (1) there is an overlap between predictive and prognostic biomarkers, as the vast majority of patients are treated with anticancer strategies; (2) in many studies and clinical trials, cervical ADC patients are included in a large series of patients predominantly composed of cervical squamous cell carcinomas; and (3) in most of the studies, and clinical trials, there is no distinction between human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated and HPV-independent cervical ADCs, or between various histologic subtypes. Results obtained from a small group of studies confirm that cervical ADCs exhibit distinct molecular features as compared with squamous carcinomas, and that there are different molecular features between different types of cervical ADCs. Promising areas of interest include ERBB2 (HER2) mutations and PD-L1 expression as predictive biomarkers for anti-HER2 treatment and immunotherapy, respectively. To date, no definitive data can be obtained from the literature regarding predictive biomarkers for cervical ADC. Clinical trials specifically designed for endocervical ADC patients are required to elucidate the predictive value of HER2 mutations and PD-L1 expression. The distinction between HPV-associated and HPV-independent cervical ADCs as well as early involvement of pathologists in the design of future clinical trials are needed to identify new predictive biomarkers in cervical ADC.

3.
Virchows Arch ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604759

RESUMO

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multidisciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide. ESGO/ESTRO/ESP nominated an international multidisciplinary development group consisting of practicing clinicians and researchers who have demonstrated leadership and expertise in the care and research of endometrial carcinoma (27 experts across Europe). To ensure that the guidelines are evidence-based, the literature published since 2014, identified from a systematic search was reviewed and critically appraised. In the absence of any clear scientific evidence, judgment was based on the professional experience and consensus of the development group. The guidelines are thus based on the best available evidence and expert agreement. Prior to publication, the guidelines were reviewed by 191 independent international practitioners in cancer care delivery and patient representatives. The guidelines comprehensively cover endometrial carcinoma staging, definition of prognostic risk groups integrating molecular markers, pre- and intra-operative work-up, fertility preservation, management for early, advanced, metastatic, and recurrent disease and palliative treatment. Principles of radiotherapy and pathological evaluation are also defined.

4.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(1): 12-39, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397713

RESUMO

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multi-disciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO), and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide.

5.
Gynecol Oncol ; 160(2): 568-578, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The development of effective cancer treatments depends on the availability of cell lines that faithfully recapitulate the cancer in question. This study definitively re-assigns the histologic identities of two ovarian cancer cell lines, COV434 (originally described as a granulosa cell tumour) and TOV-112D (originally described as grade 3 endometrioid carcinoma), both of which were recently suggested to represent small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT), based on their shared gene expression profiles and sensitivity to EZH2 inhibitors. METHODS: For COV434 and TOV-112D, we re-reviewed the original pathology slides and obtained clinical follow-up on the patients, when available, and performed immunohistochemistry for SMARCA4, SMARCA2 and additional diagnostic markers on the original formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) clinical material, when available. For COV434, we further performed whole exome sequencing and validated SMARCA4 mutations by Sanger sequencing. We studied the growth of the cell lines at baseline and upon re-expression of SMARCA4 in vitro for both cell lines and evaluated the serum calcium levels in vivo upon injection into immunodeficient mice for COV434 cells. RESULTS: The available morphological, immunohistochemical, genetic, and clinical features indicate COV434 is derived from SCCOHT, and TOV-112D is a dedifferentiated carcinoma. Transplantation of COV434 into mice leads to increased serum calcium level. Re-expression of SMARCA4 in either COV434 and TOV-112D cells suppressed their growth dramatically. CONCLUSIONS: COV434 represents a bona fide SCCOHT cell line. TOV-112D is a dedifferentiated ovarian carcinoma cell line.

6.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082238

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer is primarily treated with surgery. Adjuvant treatment strategies for endometrial cancer, such as external beam pelvic radiotherapy, vaginal brachytherapy, chemotherapy, and combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy, have been studied in several randomized trials. Adjuvant treatment is currently based on the presence of clinico-pathological risk factors. Low-risk disease is adequately managed with surgery alone. In high-intermediate risk endometrial cancer, adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy is recommended to maximize local control, with only mild side effects and without impact on quality of life. For high-risk endometrial cancer, recent large randomized trials support the use of pelvic radiotherapy, especially in stage I-II endometrial cancer with risk factors. For women with serous cancers and those with stage III disease, chemoradiation increased both recurrence-free and overall survival, while GOG-258 showed similar recurrence-free survival compared with six cycles of chemotherapy alone, but with better pelvic and para-aortic nodal control with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent molecular studies, most notably the work from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, have shown that four endometrial cancer molecular classes can be distinguished; POLE ultra-mutated, microsatellite instable hypermutated, copy-number-low, and copy-number-high. Subsequent studies, using surrogate markers to identify groups analogous to TCGA sub-classes, showed that all four endometrial cancer sub-types are found across all stages, histological types, and grades. Moreover, the molecular sub-groups have proved to have a stronger prognostic impact than histo-pathological tumor characteristics. This introduces an new era of molecular classification based diagnostics and treatment approaches. Integration of the molecular factors and new therapeutic targets will lead to molecular-integrated adjuvant treatment including targeted treatments, which are the rationale of new and ongoing trials. This review presents an overview of current adjuvant treatment strategies in endometrial cancer, highlights the development and evaluation of a molecular-integrated risk profile, and briefly discusses ongoing developments in targeted treatment.

7.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(12): 2002-2007, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaginal brachytherapy is currently recommended as adjuvant treatment in patients with high-intermediate risk endometrial cancer to maximize local control and has only mild side effects and no or limited impact on quality of life. However, there is still considerable overtreatment and also some undertreatment, which may be reduced by tailoring adjuvant treatment to the patients' risk of recurrence based on molecular tumor characteristics. PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: To compare the rates of vaginal recurrence in women with high-intermediate risk endometrial cancer, treated after surgery with molecular-integrated risk profile-based recommendations for either observation, vaginal brachytherapy or external pelvic beam radiotherapy or with standard adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy STUDY HYPOTHESIS: Adjuvant treatment based on a molecular-integrated risk profile provides similar local control and recurrence-free survival as current standard adjuvant brachytherapy in patients with high-intermediate risk endometrial cancer, while sparing many patients the morbidity of adjuvant treatment and reducing healthcare costs. TRIAL DESIGN: A multicenter, international phase III randomized trial (2:1) of molecular-integrated risk profile-based adjuvant treatment (experimental arm) or adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy (standard arm). MAJOR INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Women aged 18 years and over with a histological diagnosis of high-intermediate risk endometrioid endometrial cancer after total abdominal or laparoscopic hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. High-intermediate risk factors are defined as: (i) International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IA (with invasion) and grade 3; (ii) stage IB grade 1 or 2 with age ≥60 and/or lymph-vascular space invasion; (iii) stage IB, grade 3 without lymph-vascular space invasion; or (iv) stage II (microscopic and grade 1). ENDPOINTS: The primary endpoint is vaginal recurrence. Secondary endpoints are recurrence-free and overall survival; pelvic and distant recurrence; 5-year vaginal control (including treatment for relapse); adverse events and patient-reported symptoms and quality of life; and endometrial cancer-related healthcare costs. SAMPLE SIZE: 500 eligible and evaluable patients. ESTIMATED DATES FOR COMPLETING ACCRUAL AND PRESENTING RESULTS: Estimated date for completing accrual will be late 2021. Estimated date for presentation of (first) results is expected in 2023. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03469674) and ISRCTN (11659025).

8.
Cancer Immunol Res ; 8(12): 1508-1519, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999003

RESUMO

Optimum risk stratification in early-stage endometrial cancer combines clinicopathologic factors and the molecular endometrial cancer classification defined by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). It is unclear whether analysis of intratumoral immune infiltrate improves this. We developed a machine-learning, image-based algorithm to quantify density of CD8+ and CD103+ immune cells in tumor epithelium and stroma in 695 stage I endometrioid endometrial cancers from the PORTEC-1 and -2 trials. The relationship between immune cell density and clinicopathologic/molecular factors was analyzed by hierarchical clustering and multiple regression. The prognostic value of immune infiltrate by cell type and location was analyzed by univariable and multivariable Cox regression, incorporating the molecular endometrial cancer classification. Tumor-infiltrating immune cell density varied substantially between cases, and more modestly by immune cell type and location. Clustering revealed three groups with high, intermediate, and low densities, with highly significant variation in the proportion of molecular endometrial cancer subgroups between them. Univariable analysis revealed intraepithelial CD8+ cell density as the strongest predictor of endometrial cancer recurrence; multivariable analysis confirmed this was independent of pathologic factors and molecular subgroup. Exploratory analysis suggested this association was not uniform across molecular subgroups, but greatest in tumors with mutant p53 and absent in DNA mismatch repair-deficient cancers. Thus, this work identified that quantification of intraepithelial CD8+ cells improved upon the prognostic utility of the molecular endometrial cancer classification in early-stage endometrial cancer.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003546

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that the efficacy of PARP inhibitors in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is related to tumor-specific defects in homologous recombination (HR) and extends beyond BRCA1/2 deficient EOC. A robust method with which to identify HR-deficient (HRD) carcinomas is therefore of utmost clinical importance. In this study, we investigated the proficiency of a functional HR assay based on the detection of RAD51 foci, the REcombination CAPacity (RECAP) test, in identifying HRD tumors in a cohort of prospectively collected epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOCs). Of the 39 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOC), the RECAP test detected 26% (10/39) to be HRD, whereas ovarian carcinomas of other histologic subtypes (n = 10) were all HR-proficient (HRP). Of the HRD tumors that could be sequenced, 8/9 showed pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants or BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation, indicating that the RECAP test reliably identifies HRD, including but not limited to tumors related to BRCA1/2 deficiency. Furthermore, we found a trend towards better overall survival (OS) of HGSOC patients with RECAP-identified HRD tumors compared to patients with HRP tumors. This study shows that the RECAP test is an attractive alternative to DNA-based HRD tests, and further development of a clinical grade RECAP test is clearly warranted.

10.
Gynecol Oncol ; 159(3): 649-656, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is great need for better risk stratification in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). Our aim was to define the prognostic significance of stratifying VSCC based on p16 and p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC) as surrogate markers for HPV and TP53 mutations. METHODS: A large retrospective cohort of surgically treated women with primary VSCC was used. VSCC were classified into three subtypes: HPV-positive (HPVpos), HPV-negative/p53 mutant (HPVneg/p53mut), and HPV-negative/p53 wildtype (HPVneg/p53wt). Overall survival (OS), relative survival (RS), and recurrence-free period (RFP) were depicted using the Kaplan-Meier method and survival curves for relative survival; associations were studied using univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Of the 413 VSCCs, 75 (18%) were HPVpos, 63 (15%) HPVneg/p53wt, and 275 (66%) HPVneg/p53mut VSCC. Patients with HPVneg/p53mut VSCC had worse OS and RS (HR 3.43, 95%CI 1.80-6.53, and relative excess risk (RER) of 4.02; 95%CI 1.48-10.90, respectively, and worse RFP (HR 3.76, 95%CI 2.02-7.00). HPVpos VSCC patients showed most favorable outcomes. In univariate analysis, the molecular subtype of VSCC was a prognostic marker for OS, RS and RFP (p = 0.003, p = 0.009, p < 0.001, respectively) and remained prognostic for RFP even after adjusting for known risk factors (p = 0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: Stratification of VSCC by p16- and p53-IHC has potential to be used routinely in diagnostic pathology. It results in the identification of three clinically distinct subtypes and may be used to guide treatment and follow-up, and in stratifying patients in future clinical trials.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(29): 3388-3397, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749941

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The randomized Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Versus Radiotherapy Alone in Women With High-Risk Endometrial Cancer (PORTEC-3) trial investigated the benefit of combined adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy (CTRT) versus radiotherapy alone (RT) for women with high-risk endometrial cancer (EC). Because The Cancer Genome Atlas defined an EC molecular classification with strong prognostic value, we investigated prognosis and impact of chemotherapy for each molecular subgroup using tissue samples from PORTEC-3 trial participants. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded tissues of 423 consenting patients were collected. Immunohistochemistry for p53 and mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, and DNA sequencing for POLE exonuclease domain were done to classify tumors as p53 abnormal (p53abn), POLE-ultramutated (POLEmut), MMR-deficient (MMRd), or no specific molecular profile (NSMP). The primary end point was recurrence-free survival (RFS). Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox model were used for analysis. RESULTS: Molecular analysis was successful in 410 high-risk EC (97%), identifying the 4 subgroups: p53abn EC (n = 93; 23%), POLEmut (n = 51; 12%), MMRd (n = 137; 33%), and NSMP (n = 129; 32%). Five-year RFS was 48% for patients with p53abn EC, 98% for POLEmut EC, 72% for MMRd EC, and 74% for NSMP EC (P < .001). The 5-year RFS with CTRT versus RT for p53abn EC was 59% versus 36% (P = .019); 100% versus 97% for patients with POLEmut EC (P = .637); 68% versus 76% (P = .428) for MMRd EC; and 80% versus 68% (P = .243) for NSMP EC. CONCLUSION: Molecular classification has strong prognostic value in high-risk EC, with significantly improved RFS with adjuvant CTRT for p53abn tumors, regardless of histologic type. Patients with POLEmut EC had an excellent RFS in both trial arms. EC molecular classification should be incorporated in the risk stratification of these patients as well as in future trials to target specific subgroups of patients.

12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(20): 5400-5410, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737030

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Endometrioid ovarian carcinoma (ENOC) is generally associated with a more favorable prognosis compared with other ovarian carcinomas. Nonetheless, current patient treatment continues to follow a "one-size-fits-all" approach. Even though tumor staging offers stratification, personalized treatments remain elusive. As ENOC shares many clinical and molecular features with its endometrial counterpart, we sought to investigate The Cancer Genome Atlas-inspired endometrial carcinoma (EC) molecular subtyping in a cohort of ENOC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: IHC and mutation biomarkers were used to segregate 511 ENOC tumors into four EC-inspired molecular subtypes: low-risk POLE mutant (POLEmut), moderate-risk mismatch repair deficient (MMRd), high-risk p53 abnormal (p53abn), and moderate-risk with no specific molecular profile (NSMP). Survival analysis with established clinicopathologic and subtype-specific features was performed. RESULTS: A total of 3.5% of cases were POLEmut, 13.7% MMRd, 9.6% p53abn, and 73.2% NSMP, each showing distinct outcomes (P < 0.001) and survival similar to observations in EC. Median OS was 18.1 years in NSMP, 12.3 years in MMRd, 4.7 years in p53abn, and not reached for POLEmut cases. Subtypes were independent of stage, grade, and residual disease in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: EC-inspired molecular classification provides independent prognostic information in ENOC. Our findings support investigating molecular subtype-specific management recommendations for patients with ENOC; for example, subtypes may provide guidance when fertility-sparing treatment is desired. Similarities between ENOC and EC suggest that patients with ENOC may benefit from management strategies applied to EC and the opportunity to study those in umbrella trials.

13.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 152: 102973, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497971

RESUMO

The prognosis of recurrent or metastatic endometrial cancer is poor, with five-year survival of only 10-20 %. First-line therapy consists of either platinum-based chemotherapy or hormonal therapy. No standard subsequent-line therapy has been identified. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the knowledge on underlying molecular biology of endometrial cancer and potential targets for therapy have been identified. Targeted therapies as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and immunotherapy as PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors have the potential to be effective against specific subtypes of endometrial cancer. Preclinical studies have shown that combining these agents may result in a synergistic effect. In this review, we focus on the molecular basis of checkpoint inhibition and targeted therapy as PARP inhibition in endometrial cancer and summarize available clinical data, and ongoing and planned clinical trials that investigate these agents as mono- or combination therapies in endometrial cancer and where relevant, other gynecological cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Antígeno B7-H1 , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Poli Adenosina Difosfato Ribose , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Proteínas
14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(6)2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545676

RESUMO

In epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the strongest prognostic factor is the completeness of surgery. Intraoperative molecular imaging that targets cell-surface proteins on tumor cells may guide surgeons to detect metastases otherwise not visible to the naked eye. Previously, we identified 29% more metastatic lesions during cytoreductive surgery using OTL-38, a fluorescent tracer targeting folate receptor-a (FRa). Unfortunately, eleven out of thirteen fluorescent lymph nodes were tumor negative. The current study evaluates the suitability of five biomarkers (EGFR, VEGF-A, L1CAM, integrin avb6 and EpCAM) as alternative targets for molecular imaging of EOC metastases and included FRa as a reference. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections of primary ovarian tumors, omental, peritoneal and lymph node metastases from 84 EOC patients. Tumor-negative tissue specimens from these patients were included as controls. EGFR, VEGF-A and L1CAM were highly expressed in tumor-negative tissue, whereas avb6 showed heterogeneous expression in metastases. The expression of EpCAM was most comparable to FRa in metastatic lesions and completely absent in the lymph nodes that were false-positively illuminated with OTL-38 in our previous study. Hence, EpCAM seems to be a promising novel target for intraoperative imaging and may contribute to a more reliable detection of true metastatic EOC lesions.

15.
Histopathology ; 77(1): 92-99, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236967

RESUMO

AIMS: The most commonly mutated gene in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is TP53 and its prognostic value, particularly in HPV-independent VSCC, is uncertain. In other tumours, p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an excellent surrogate marker for TP53 mutations. In order to study this in VSCC, we assigned six p53 IHC patterns into two final classes: 'wild-type' or 'mutant'. We determined the performance and interobserver variability of this pattern-based p53 IHC approach. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two experienced gynaecological pathologists scored the predefined p53 IHC patterns of 59 VSCC, independently and blinded for molecular data. Agreement was calculated by Cohen's kappa. All disagreements regarding p53 IHC patterns were resolved by a consensus meeting. After DNA isolation, the presence of pathogenic TP53 variants was determined by next-generation sequencing (NGS). Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of p53 IHC as a surrogate marker for TP53 mutation status were calculated. Initial p53 IHC pattern interpretation showed substantial agreement between both observers (k = 0.71, P < 0.001). After consensus, 18 cases (30.5%) were assigned a final p53 IHC class as TP53 wild-type and 41 cases (69.5%) as mutant. The accuracy between the p53 IHC class and TP53 mutation status, after the consensus meeting, was 96.6%. Moreover, the sensitivity and specificity were high 95.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 82.9-99.1% and 100% (95% CI = 75.9-100%)]. CONCLUSIONS: Pattern-based p53 IHC classification is highly reproducible among experienced gynaecological pathologists and accurately reflects TP53 mutations in VSCC. This approach to p53 IHC interpretation offers guidance and provides necessary clarity for resolving the proposed prognostic relevance of final p53 IHC class within HPV-independent VSCC.

16.
Mod Pathol ; 33(8): 1595-1605, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203095

RESUMO

The recent literature has shown that vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) can be stratified into two prognostically relevant groups based on human papillomavirus (HPV) status. The prognostic value of p53 for further sub-stratification, particularly in the HPV-independent group, has not been agreed upon. This disagreement is likely due to tremendous variations in p53 immunohistochemical (IHC) interpretation. To address this problem, we sought to compare p53 IHC patterns with TP53 mutation status. We studied 61 VSCC (48 conventional VSCC, 2 VSCC with sarcomatoid features, and 11 verrucous carcinomas) and 42 in situ lesions (30 differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia [dVIN], 9 differentiated exophytic vulvar intraepithelial lesions [deVIL], and 3 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia [HSIL/uVIN]). IHC for p16 and p53, and sequencing of TP53 exons 4-9 were performed. HPV in situ hybridization (ISH) was performed in selected cases. We identified six major p53 IHC patterns, two wild-type patterns: (1) scattered, (2) mid-epithelial expression (with basal sparing), and four mutant patterns: (3) basal overexpression, (4) parabasal/diffuse overexpression, (5) absent, and (6) cytoplasmic expression. These IHC patterns were consistent with TP53 mutation status in 58/61 (95%) VSCC and 39/42 (93%) in situ lesions. Cases that exhibited strong scattered staining and those with a weak basal overexpression pattern could be easily confused. The mid-epithelial pattern was exclusively observed in p16-positive lesions; the basal and parabasal layers that had absent p53 staining, appeared to correlate with the cells that were positive for HPV-ISH. This study describes a pattern-based p53 IHC interpretation framework, which can be utilized as a surrogate marker for TP53 mutational status in both VSCC and vulvar in situ lesions.

18.
Histopathology ; 76(1): 52-63, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846532

RESUMO

Histopathological evaluation including subtyping and grading is the current cornerstone for endometrial cancer (EC) classification. This provides clinicians with prognostic information and input for further treatment recommendations. Nonetheless, patients with histologically similar ECs may have very different outcomes, notably in patients with high-grade endometrial carcinomas. For endometrial cancer, four molecular subgroups have undergone extensive studies in recent years: POLE ultramutated (POLEmut), mismatch repair-deficient (MMRd), p53 mutant (p53abn) and those EC lacking any of these alterations, referred to as NSMP (non-specific molecular profile). Several large studies confirm the prognostic relevance of these molecular subgroups. However, this 'histomolecular' approach has so far not been implemented in clinical routine. The ongoing PORTEC4a trial is the first clinical setting in which the added value of integrating molecular parameters in adjuvant treatment decisions will be determined. For diagnostics, the incorporation of the molecular parameters in EC classification will add a level of objectivity which will yield biologically more homogeneous subclasses. Here we illustrate how the management of individual EC patients may be impacted when applying the molecular EC classification. We describe our current approach to the integrated diagnoses of EC with a focus on scenarios with conflicting morphological and molecular findings. We also address several pitfalls accompanying the diagnostic implementation of molecular EC classification and give practical suggestions for diagnostic scenarios.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Endometrioide/terapia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Endometrioide/genética , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação , Prognóstico
19.
Int J Gynecol Pathol ; 39(5): 420-427, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460873

RESUMO

Surgical resection with free surgical margins is the cornerstone of successful primary treatment of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). In general reexcision is recommended when the minimum peripheral surgical margin (MPSM) is <8 mm microscopically. Pathologists are, therefore, required to report the minimum distance from the tumor to the surgical margin. Currently, there are no guidelines on how to make this measurement, as this is often considered straightforward. However, during the 2018 Annual Meeting of the British Association of Gynaecological Pathologists (BAGP), a discussion on this topic revealed a variety of opinions with regard to reporting and method of measuring margin clearance in VSCC specimens. Given the need for uniformity and the lack of guidance in the literature, we initiated an online survey in order to deliver a consensus-based definition of peripheral surgical margins in VSCC resections. The survey included questions and representative diagrams of peripheral margin measurements. In total, 57 pathologists participated in this survey. On the basis of consensus results, we propose to define MPSM in VSCC as the minimum distance from the peripheral edge of the invasive tumor nests toward the inked peripheral surgical margin reported in millimeters. This MPSM measurement should run through tissue and preferably be measured in a straight line. Along with MPSM, other relevant measurements such as depth of invasion or tumor thickness and distance to deep margins should be reported. This manuscript provides guidance to the practicing pathologist in measuring MPSM in VSCC resection specimens, in order to promote uniformity in measuring and reporting.

20.
J Pathol ; 250(3): 336-345, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829441

RESUMO

TP53 mutations are considered a surrogate biomarker of the serous-like 'copy number high' molecular subtype of endometrial carcinoma (EC). In ovarian carcinoma, p53 immunohistochemistry (IHC) accurately reflects mutational status with almost 100% specificity but its performance in EC has not been established. This study tested whether p53 IHC reliably predicts TP53 mutations identified by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in EC biopsy samples for all ECs and as part of a molecular classification algorithm after exclusion of cases harbouring mismatch repair defects (MMRd) or pathogenic DNA polymerase epsilon exonuclease domain mutations (POLEmut). A secondary aim assessed inter-laboratory variability in p53 IHC. From a total of 207 cases from five centres (37-49 cases per centre), p53 IHC carried out at a central reference laboratory was compared with local IHC (n = 164) and curated tagged-amplicon NGS TP53 sequencing results (n = 177). Following consensus review, local and central p53 IHC results were concordant in 156/164 (95.1%) tumours. Discordant results were attributable to both interpretive and technical differences in staining between the local and central laboratories. When results were considered as any mutant pattern versus wild-type pattern staining, however, there was disagreement between local and central review in only one case. The concordance between p53 IHC and TP53 mutation was 155/168 (92.3%) overall, and 117/123 (95.1%) after excluding MMRd and POLEmut EC. Three (3/6) discordant results were in serous carcinomas with complete absence of p53 staining but no detectable TP53 mutation. Subclonal mutant p53 IHC expression was observed in 9/177 (5.1%) cases, of which four were either MMRd or POLEmut. Mutant pattern p53 IHC was observed in 63/63 (100%) serous carcinomas that were MMR-proficient/POLE exonuclease domain wild-type. Optimised p53 IHC performs well as a surrogate test for TP53 mutation in EC biopsies, demonstrates excellent inter-laboratory reproducibility, and has high clinical utility for molecular classification algorithms in EC. © 2019 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Endometrioide/metabolismo , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mutação , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Carcinoma Endometrioide/genética , Carcinoma Endometrioide/patologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
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