Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 24
Filtrar
1.
Biomedicines ; 10(1)2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35052829

RESUMO

Mucosal melanomas (MM) are rare tumors, being less than 2% of all diagnosed melanomas, comprising a variegated group of malignancies arising from melanocytes in virtually all mucosal epithelia, even if more frequently found in oral and sino-nasal cavities, ano-rectum and female genitalia (vulva and vagina). To date, there is no consensus about the optimal management strategy of MM. Furthermore, the clinical rationale of molecular tumor characterization regarding BRAF, KIT or NRAS, as well as the therapeutic value of immunotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy, has not yet been deeply explored and clearly established in MM. In this overview, focused on anorectal and genital MM as models of rare melanomas deserving of a multidisciplinary approach, we highlight the need of referring these patients to centers with experts in melanoma, anorectal and uro-genital cancers treatments. Taking into account the rarity, the poor outcomes and the lack of effective treatment options for MM, tailored research needs to be promptly promoted.

2.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440824

RESUMO

Cutaneous melanoma is a lethal disease, even when diagnosed in advanced stages. Although recent progress in biology and treatment has dramatically improved survival rates, new therapeutic approaches are still needed. Deregulation of epigenetics, which mainly controls DNA methylation status and chromatin remodeling, is implied not only in cancer initiation and progression, but also in resistance to antitumor drugs. Epigenetics in melanoma has been studied recently in both melanoma preclinical models and patient samples, highlighting its potential role in different phases of melanomagenesis, as well as in resistance to approved drugs such as immune checkpoint inhibitors and MAPK inhibitors. This review summarizes what is currently known about epigenetics in melanoma and dwells on the recognized and potential new targets for testing epigenetic drugs, alone or together with other agents, in advanced melanoma patients.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Metilação de DNA , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/terapia , RNA não Traduzido/genética , RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281219

RESUMO

The cure rate of germ cell tumours (GCTs) has significantly increased from the late 1970s since the introduction of cisplatin-based therapy, which to date remains the milestone for GCTs treatment. The exquisite cisplatin sensitivity has been mainly explained by the over-expression in GCTs of wild-type TP53 protein and the lack of TP53 somatic mutations; however, several other mechanisms seem to be involved, many of which remain still elusive. The findings about the role of TP53 in platinum-sensitivity and resistance, as well as the reported evidence of second cancers (SCs) in GCT patients treated only with surgery, suggesting a spectrum of cancer predisposing syndromes, highlight the need for a deepened understanding of the role of TP53 in GCTs. In the following report we explore the complex role of TP53 in GCTs cisplatin-sensitivity and resistance mechanisms, passing through several recent genomic studies, as well as its role in GCT patients with SCs, going through our experience of Center of reference for both GCTs and cancer predisposing syndromes.


Assuntos
Genes p53 , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/secundário , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
4.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921760

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is the third cause of cancer-related death worldwide; the prognosis is poor especially in the case of metastatic disease. Liver, lymph nodes, peritoneum, and lung are the most frequent sites of metastases from GC; however, bone metastases from GC have been reported in the literature. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the metastatic sites may affect the prognosis. In particular, knowledge about the impact of bone metastases on GC patients' outcome is scant, and this may be related to the rarity of bone lesions and/or their underestimation at the time of diagnosis. In fact, there is still a lack of specific recommendation for their detection at the diagnosis. Then, the majority of the evidences in this field came from retrospective analysis on very heterogeneous study populations. In this context, the aim of this narrative review is to delineate an overview about the evidences existing about bone metastases in GC patients, focusing on their incidence and biology, the prognostic role of bone involvement, and their possible implication in the treatment choice.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801689

RESUMO

As widely acknowledged, 40-50% of all melanoma patients harbour an activating BRAF mutation (mostly BRAF V600E). The identification of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK (MAP kinase) signalling pathway and its targeting has represented a valuable milestone for the advanced and, more recently, for the completely resected stage III and IV melanoma therapy management. However, despite progress in BRAF-mutant melanoma treatment, the two different approaches approved so far for metastatic disease, immunotherapy and BRAF+MEK inhibitors, allow a 5-year survival of no more than 60%, and most patients relapse during treatment due to acquired mechanisms of resistance. Deep insight into BRAF gene biology is fundamental to describe the acquired resistance mechanisms (primary and secondary) and to understand the molecular pathways that are now being investigated in preclinical and clinical studies with the aim of improving outcomes in BRAF-mutant patients.


Assuntos
Melanoma/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/fisiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Ciclo Celular , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imunoterapia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , Oncologia/tendências , Melanoma/metabolismo , Mutação , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Recidiva , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo
6.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has overwhelmed the health systems worldwide. Data regarding the impact of COVID-19 on cancer patients (CPs) undergoing or candidate for immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are lacking. We depicted the practice and adaptations in the management of patients with solid tumors eligible or receiving ICIs during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a special focus on Campania region. METHODS: This survey (25 questions), promoted by the young section of SCITO (Società Campana di ImmunoTerapia Oncologica) Group, was circulated among Italian young oncologists practicing in regions variously affected by the pandemic: high (group 1), medium (group 2) and low (group 3) prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. For Campania region, the physician responders were split into those working in cancer centers (CC), university hospitals (UH) and general hospitals (GH). Percentages of agreement, among High (H) versus Medium (M) and versus Low (L) group for Italy and among CC, UH and GH for Campania region, were compared by using Fisher's exact tests for dichotomous answers and χ2 test for trends relative to the questions with 3 or more options. RESULTS: This is the first Italian study to investigate the COVID-19 impact on cancer immunotherapy, unique in its type and very clear in the results. The COVID-19 pandemic seemed not to affect the standard practice in the prescription and delivery of ICIs in Italy. Telemedicine was widely used. There was high consensus to interrupt immunotherapy in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients and to adopt ICIs with longer schedule interval. The majority of the responders tended not to delay the start of ICIs; there were no changes in supportive treatments, but some of the physicians opted for delaying surgeries (if part of patients' planned treatment approach). The results from responders in Campania did not differ significantly from the national ones. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the efforts of Italian oncologists to maintain high standards of care for CPs treated with ICIs, regardless the regional prevalence of COVID-19, suggesting the adoption of similar solutions. Research on patients treated with ICIs and experiencing COVID-19 will clarify the safety profile to continue the treatments, thus informing on the most appropriate clinical conducts.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oncologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Oncologia/normas , Neoplasias/imunologia , Oncologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento
7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080958

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) represent a promising treatment for many kinds of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The rationale for using ICIs in HCC is based on the immunogenic background of hepatitis and cirrhosis and on the observation of high programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in this cancer. Promising data from phase I/II studies in advanced HCC, showing durable objective response rates (~20% in first- and second-line settings) and good safety profile, have led to phase III studies with ICIs as single agents or in combination therapy, both in first and second line setting. While the activity of immunotherapy agents as single agents seems to be limited to an "ill-defined" small subset of patients, the combination of the anti PD-L1 atezolizumab and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor bevacizumab revealed a benefit in the outcomes when compared to sorafenib in the first line. In addition, the activity and efficacy of the combinations between anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 antibody and other ICIs, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, or surgical and locoregional therapies, has also been investigated in clinical trials. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of ICIs in the management of HCC with a critical evaluation of the current status and future directions.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466227

RESUMO

Some commonly available patient or disease characteristics may be associated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving EGFR-TKIs (epidermal growth factor receptor - tyrosine kinase inhibitors). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) to explore differences in outcomes associated with EGFR-TKIs among subgroups of EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients. Pooled HRs for progression or death (PFS-HRs) and pooled HRs for death (OS-HRs) were compared among sub-groups defined according to baseline clinical and demographic variables as well as type of EGFR mutation. In the entire assessable population of 4465 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients, significant interactions with PFS were found for gender (males vs. females; pooled ratio of the PFS-HRs = 1.2; 95% CI 1.12-1.56), smoking history (smokers vs. non-smokers; pooled ratio of the PFS-HRs = 1.26; 95% CI 1.05-1.51), and type of EGFR mutation (patients with exon 21 L858R mutation vs. exon 19 deletion; pooled ratio of the PFS-HRs = 1.39; 95% CI 1.18-1.63). Male patients, smokers and patients with EGFR exon 21 L858R mutation may derive less benefit from EGFR-TKIs compared to female patients, non-smokers and patients with EGFR exon 19 deletion.

9.
Oncotarget ; 9(28): 19861-19873, 2018 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29731989

RESUMO

Background: Statins may potentiate the effects of anti-hormonal agents for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) through further disruption of essential steroidogenic processes. We investigated the effects of statin use on clinical outcomes in patients with mCRPC receiving abiraterone or enzalutamide. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective multicenter study including patients that received abiraterone or enzalutamide for mCRPC. The effect of concurrent statin use on outcomes was evaluated. The associations of statins with early (≤12 weeks) prostate-specific antigen (PSA) declines (> 30%), cancer-specific survival and overall survival (OS) were evaluated after controlling for known prognostic factors. Results: Five hundred and ninety-eight patients treated with second-line abiraterone or enzalutamide after docetaxel for mCRPC were included. A total of 199 men (33.3%) received statins during abiraterone/enzalutamide treatment. Median OS was 20.8 months (95% CI = 18.3-23.2) for patients who received statins, versus 12.9 months (95% CI = 11.4-14.6) for patients who did not receive statins (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, alkaline phosphatase, PSA, neutrophil-to-lymphocytes ratio, Charlson comorbidity score, Gleason score, visceral disease, hemoglobin, opiate use and abiraterone versus enzalutamide treatment, the use of statin therapy was associated with a 53% reduction in the overall risk of death (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.35-0.63; P < 0.001). Statin use was also associated with a 63% increased odds of a > 30% PSA decline within the first 12 weeks of treatment (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.03-2.60; P = 0.039). Conclusions: In this retrospective cohort, statin use was significantly associated with both prolonged OS and cancer-specific survival and increased early > 30% PSA declines. Prospective validation is warranted.

10.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 189, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29615901

RESUMO

Sunitinib is the most commonly prescribed drug for advanced renal cell carcinoma in the first-line setting and has been associated with multiple adverse events related to its on-and off-target effects, including hand and foot syndrome and fatigue. It was hypothesized that sunitinib-induced fatigue may be related to off target inhibition of the AMPK enzyme, which results in impairment of energy-producing processes at a systemic level. Quercetin is a naturally occurring flavonol with established AMPK-stimulating activity. While clinical use of quercetin is limited by its poor bio-availability, quercetin-3-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside, that is isoquercetin, has an improved pharmacokinetic profile. On the grounds of the in vitro stimulatory activity with respect to AMPk, we hypothesized that oral isoquercetin could improve fatigue in kidney cancer patients receiving sunitinib. Given the lack of data on the safety of isoquercetin given concomitantly with sunitinib, we conducted a phase I trial to assess the safety of GMP manufactured isoquercetin given at two dose levels (450 and 900 mg a day). In the 12-patient study cohort included in this study, isoquercetin was administered concomitantly with 50 mg sunitinib for a median 81 days (IQR, 75.5, 86.5). None of the 12 patients required isoquercetin suspension or isoquercetin dose reduction because of adverse events. No abnormalities in ECG, heart or lower limbs doppler ultrasound were detected. A statistically significant improvement was reported for the FACIT fatigue score (6.8 points; 95% CI: 2.8-10.8; p = 0.002) and for the FACIT Adverse Events score (18.9 points; 95% CI: 9.1-28.8; p < 0.001) after isoquercetin consumption vs. baseline. In this phase I trial, isoquercetin was remarkably safe, with a preliminary signal of activity in terms of improvement of sunitinib adverse events.

11.
J Cancer ; 8(14): 2663-2668, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28928853

RESUMO

Background: Cabazitaxel is a second-generation taxane that is approved for use with concomitant low dose daily prednisone in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) after docetaxel failure. Since the role of daily corticosteroids in improving cabazitaxel efficacy or ameliorating its safety profile has not been adequately investigated so far, we compared outcomes of patients receiving cabazitaxel with or without daily corticosteroids in a retrospective single-Institution cohort of mCRPC patients. Patients and methods: Medical records of deceased patients with documented mCRPC treated with cabazitaxel following prior docetaxel between January, 2011 and January, 2017 were reviewed at the single participating center. Patients who were receiving daily doses of systemic corticosteroids other than low dose daily prednisone or prednisolone (<= 10 mg a day) were excluded. The primary end point of this analysis was overall survival (OS). Secondary end-points were exposure to cabazitaxel as well as incidence of grade 3-4 adverse events. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate prednisone use and other variables as potentially prognostic for overall survival. Results: Overall, among 91 patients, 57 patients received cabazitaxel concurrently with low dose prednisone and 34 patients did not receive concurrent prednisone. The median overall survival of the population was 9.8 months (interquartile range, 9 to 14). Patients receiving prednisone had an overall survival of 9 months (interquartile range, 8 to 12) vs.14 months (interquartile range, 9.4 to 16.7) for patients not treated with prednisone. Approximately 45% of patients had a >30% PSA decline at 12 weeks. Prednisone use was not significantly prognostic for overall survival or PSA decline ≥30% rates on regression analyses. Importantly, a >30% PSA decline at 12, but not at 3, 6, 9 weeks, was prognostic for improved survival at multivariate analysis Conclusions: The data presented here support the hypothesis that omitting daily corticosteroids in cabazitaxel-treated patients has no negative impact on either survival or safety profile. In the large prospective trial CABACARE, cabazitaxel-treated patients will be randomized to receive or not receive daily prednisone. The CABACARE (EudraCT n. 2016-003646-81) study is currently ongoing at University Federico II of Naples and at other multiple participating centers in Italy.

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(24): e6817, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28614217

RESUMO

RATIONALE: PSA responses have been associated with a survival benefit in patients treated with enzalutamide in retrospective analyses. PATIENT CONCERNS: However the prognostic value of PSA declines in highly pretreated patients receiving enzalutamide remains to be defined. DIAGNOSES AND INTERVENTATIONS: Medical records of patients with documented mCRPC treated with enzalutamide between September 2011 and August 2016 were reviewed at multiple participating centers and assessed for overall survival (OS), PSA variations, and other variables of interest. Univariable and multivariable analyses were conducted. OUTCOMES: A total of 129 patients received enzalutamide. PSA response rates (>50% PSA declines) were 58/119 (48.7%), 58/115 (50.4%), 54/110 (49.1%), and 47/91 (51.7%) at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16, respectively. Having a PSA response was a statistically significant prognostic factor of improved OS at 8 and 12 weeks in univariable analysis, whereas it was significant at 12 weeks in the multivariable analysis. Patients treated with enzalutamide had a median OS of 7.8 months. LESSONS: Our study supports the prognostic value of PSA declines in heavily treated patients receiving enzalutamide.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/metabolismo , Idoso , Benzamidas , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Nitrilas , Feniltioidantoína/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 16(11): 1387-1401, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27463642

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While the majority of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors currently used for the therapy of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) are small molecule agents inhibiting multiple targets, monoclonal antibodies are inhibitors of specific targets, which may decrease off-target effects while preserving on-target activity. A few monoclonal antibodies have already been approved for mRCC (bevacizumab, nivolumab), while many others may play an important role in the therapeutic scenario of mRCC. AREAS COVERED: This review describes emerging monoclonal antibodies for treating RCC. Currently, bevacizumab, a VEGF monoclonal antibody, is approved in combination with interferon for the therapy of metastatic RCC, while nivolumab, a Programmed Death (PD)-1 inhibitor, is approved following prior VEGF inhibitor treatment. Other PD-1 and PD-ligand (L)-1 inhibitors are undergoing clinical development. EXPERT OPINION: Combinations of inhibitors of the PD1/PD-L1 axis with VEGF inhibitors or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen (CTLA)-4 inhibitors have shown promising efficacy in mRCC. The development of biomarkers predictive for benefit and rational tolerable combinations are both important pillars of research to improve outcomes in RCC.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 95(14): e2754, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27057826

RESUMO

Chemotherapy agents for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) include docetaxel and cabazitaxel. Although docetaxel is approved in the first-line treatment setting, a few studies have shown that selected patients can benefit from docetaxel rechallenge.We, here, report the case of a heavily pretreated mCRPC patient who reported clinical benefit from receiving docetaxel after previous exposure to docetaxel, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, and enzalutamide.After 4 cycles of treatment, patient's performance status had improved to 1, the hemoglobin level was 12.9 g/dL and his serum prostate specific antigen levels were reduced by >70%, with no treatment-related adverse events.Although docetaxel rechallenge is a therapeutic option for selected patients, the risk of cumulative toxicity described in literature must be carefully considered.As the risk of cabazitaxel-related cumulative toxicity is probably lower, retreatment with cabazitaxel rather than docetaxel may also be an option in the setting of heavily pretreated mCRPC patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Docetaxel , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 95(2): e2299, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26765406

RESUMO

Cabazitaxel provided a survival advantage compared with mitoxantrone in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer refractory to docetaxel. Grade 3 to 4 (G3-4) neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were relatively frequent in the registrative XRP6258 Plus Prednisone Compared to Mitoxantrone Plus Prednisone in Hormone Refractory Metastatic Prostate Cancer (TROPIC) trial, but their incidence was lower in the Expanded Access Program (EAP). Although cumulative doses of docetaxel are associated with neuropathy, the effect of cumulative doses of cabazitaxel is unknown. In this retrospective review of prospectively collected data, the authors assessed "per cycle" incidence and predictors of toxicity in the Italian cohort of the EAP, with a focus on the effect of cumulative doses of cabazitaxel.The study population consisted of 218 Italian patients enrolled in the cabazitaxel EAP. The influence of selected variables on the most relevant adverse events identified was assessed using a Generalized Estimating Equations model at univariate and multivariate analysis."Per cycle" incidence of G 3 to 4 neutropenia was 8.7%, whereas febrile neutropenia was reported in 0.9% of cycles. All events of febrile neutropenia occurred during the first 3 cycles. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher prior dose of cabazitaxel was associated with decreased odds of having G3 to 4 neutropenia (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.86-0.93; P < 0.01), febrile neutropenia (OR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34-0.81; P < 0.01) and G3 to 4 anemia (OR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.86-1; P = 0.07). Patients with a body surface area >2 m2 presented increased odds of having G 3 to 4 neutropenia (OR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.86-1; P = 0.07), but decreased odds of having G3 to 4 anemia.Among the toxicities assessed, the authors did not identify any that appeared to be associated with a higher number of cabazitaxel cycles delivered. Prior cumulative dose was associated with reduced G3 to 4 neutropenia and anemia. The apparent protective effect associated with higher doses of cabazitaxel is likely to be affected by early dose reduction and early toxicity-related treatment discontinuation. Because this analysis is limited by its retrospective design, prospective trials are required to assess the optimal duration of cabazitaxel treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Future Oncol ; 10(8): 1353-60, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25052746

RESUMO

AIMS: Carboplatin plus etoposide has modest efficacy in docetaxel-pretreated castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. We hypothesized that carboplatin-etoposide could still exert some therapeutic activity after docetaxel, cabazitaxel and either abiraterone or enzalutamide. PATIENTS & METHODS: We enrolled 15 patients in the first step of a Phase II trial. The target sample size is 46 patients. The primary end point of the study was progression-free survival after 12 weeks. RESULTS: The median progression-free survival was 11 weeks (range: 8-18), while median overall survival was 18 weeks (range: 12-26). Of seven patients with measurable disease, two had a partial response, two showed stable disease and the remaining three had progressive disease as the best radiological response. Five patients were considered progression-free after 12 weeks, prompting continuation of the trial. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary findings support the hypothesis that carboplatin plus etoposide may yield some clinical benefit in a population of patients who failed all currently approved therapeutic options for prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
World J Clin Cases ; 2(6): 228-31, 2014 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24945013

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy for men. The skeleton is the most common metastatic site but, following an improvement in survival, metastases in uncommon sites are being found more frequently in clinical practice, especially brain metastases. Despite the new drugs now available for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer, no clinical evidence exists about their effectiveness on brain metastases. We describe the clinical history of 3 patients treated with cabazitaxel plus whole brain radiotherapy. These case reports demonstrate that cabazitaxel is highly active and well tolerated in brain metastases.

18.
Future Oncol ; 9(6): 889-97, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23718309

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to identify predictive/prognostic factors in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with cabazitaxel. PATIENTS & METHODS: Patients were enrolled from March 2011 to December 2011 in an international expanded access program. In January 2012, when cabazitaxel became commercially available, a prospective study was initiated at University Federico II of Naples and at Rionero in Vulture Hospital. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients were enrolled in this study. Patients received a median of nine cycles of cabazitaxel. Median progression-free survival was 7.0 months (95% CI: 5.7-8.0). Seventeen patients were still alive at the time of the analysis, with a median overall survival of 14 months (95% CI: 11-16). At multivariate analysis, a higher Gleason score (≥ 8) appeared to be associated with prolonged progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.18-0.72); however, the higher Gleason score showed no statistical impact on overall survival. CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that the Gleason score has the potential to be incorporated in the clinical decision-making process for definition of treatment strategy in docetaxel-pretreated castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. We encourage further experimentation in this setting.


Assuntos
Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Castração , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico
19.
World J Clin Oncol ; 4(2): 52-7, 2013 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23696963

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the outcomes and potential prognostic factors in patients with non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). METHODS: Patients with histologically proven non-AIDS-related KS treated with systemic chemotherapy were included in this retrospective analysis. In some cases, the human herpes virus 8 status was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The patients were staged according to the Mediterranean KS staging system. A multivariable model was constructed using a forward stepwise selection procedure. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant, and all tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Thirty-two cases were included in this analysis. The average age at diagnosis was 70 years, with a male/female ratio of approximately 2:1. Eighty-four percent of the cases had classic KS. All patients received systemic chemotherapy containing one of the following agents: vinca alkaloid, taxane, and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. Ten patients (31.5%) experienced a partial response, and a complete response was achieved in four patients (12.4%) and stable disease in sixteen cases (50%). Two patients (6.2%) were refractory to the systemic treatment. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 11.7 mo, whereas the median overall survival was 28.5 mo. At multivariate analysis, the presence of nodular lesions (vs macular lesions only) was significantly related to a lower PFS (hazard ratio: 3.09; 95%CI: 1.18-8.13, P = 0.0133). CONCLUSION: Non-AIDS-related KS appears mostly limited to the skin and is well-responsive to systemic therapies. Our data show that nodular lesions may be associated with a shorter PFS in patients receiving chemotherapy.

20.
Anticancer Res ; 33(3): 1135-9, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23482792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical metastases from unknown primary tumors are rare and no clear therapeutic options are available. This retrospective analysis aimed to evaluate toxicity and activity of a sequential chemoradiation regimen consisting of induction chemotherapy followed by extended-field radiotherapy in patients with cervical metastases from unknown primary tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with cytological or histological diagnosis of latero-cervical lymph-node metastasis from carcinoma with unknown origin treated with sequential chemotherapy (3 cycles of docetaxel and cisplatin, each administered as intravenous infusion at the dose of 75 mg/m(2) on day 1, every 21 days) and radiotherapy (cumulative dose of 70 Gy) were included in this study. The radiological response was assessed by central review according to the revised RECIST criteria. RESULTS: Fifteen patients received three cycles of induction chemotherapy with the combination of docetaxel and cisplatin. Patients were subsequently treated with extended-field radiotherapy. Three complete responses were observed after induction chemotherapy and 13 after the chemoradiation treatment. The overall response rate after chemoradiation, was 93.3% (14 of 15 evaluable patients). One year disease-free-survival was 83.3% (10 of 12 evaluable patients). Treatment was well-tolerated; two cases of grade 4 neutropenia, two of grade 3 mucositis and eight of grade 2 nausea were the worst, most clinically-relevant side-effects. CONCLUSION: Induction chemotherapy followed by extended-field radiotherapy showed good activity and manageable toxicity in patients with cervical metastases from unknown primary tumors.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia , Quimioterapia de Indução , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pescoço , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Primárias Desconhecidas/terapia , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxoides/administração & dosagem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...