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4.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(5): 812-818, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296366

RESUMO

The relations between race and cardiac structure and function are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that race-specific differences in echocardiography measurements exist. We compared the relation between echocardiography measurements and race among 12,429 nonobese adults without known cardiovascular disease who underwent echocardiography. We compared measurements between whites (n = 10,508), blacks (n = 792), Asians (n = 628), Hispanics (n = 315), Native Americans (n = 34), and multiracial/other (n = 152) cohorts. Multivariate analysis compared measurements indexed to body surface area (BSA) between races and adjusted for variables including age, gender, and mean blood pressure. Mean age was 46.9 ± 17.4 years and 60.5% were women. After multivariable adjustment and using whites as a baseline, there were significant differences (p <0.05) in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter/BSA for blacks (-0.5 mm/m2), Asians (0.4 mm/m2), Hispanics (0.2 mm/m2), and multiracial/others (0.1 mm/m2); septal wall thickness/BSA for blacks (0.4 mm/m2) and Asians (0.1 mm/m2); posterior wall thickness/BSA for blacks (0.4 mm/m2), Asians (0.1 mm/m2), Hispanics (0.04 mm/m2), and multiracial/others (0.03 mm/m2); left atrial diameter/BSA for Asians (0.2 mm/m2), Hispanics (0.3 mm/m2), and multiracial/others (0.1 mm/m2); septal and lateral e' for blacks (-0.7 cm/s; -0.9 cm/s); and peak tricuspid regurgitation gradient for blacks (4.3 mm Hg) and Asians (-0.9 mm Hg). Race is associated with significant differences in left ventricular size, left atrial size, mitral annular velocity, and tricuspid regurgitation gradient. Normal reference ranges for echocardiography measurements should utilize racially diverse cohorts to prevent misclassification of echocardiography findings based on race.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e010881, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311438

RESUMO

Background Clinical characteristics and outcomes of takotsubo syndrome (TTS) patients with malignancy have not been fully elucidated. This study sought to explore differences in clinical characteristics and to investigate short- and long-term outcomes in TTS patients with or without malignancy. Methods and Results TTS patients were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry. The TTS cohort was divided into patients with and without malignancy to investigate differences in clinical characteristics and to assess short- and long-term mortality. A subanalysis was performed comparing long-term mortality between a subset of TTS patients with or without malignancy and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with or without malignancy. Malignancy was observed in 16.6% of 1604 TTS patients. Patients with malignancy were older and more likely to have physical triggers, but less likely to have emotional triggers compared with those without malignancy. Long-term mortality was higher in patients with malignancy (P<0.001), while short-term outcome was comparable (P=0.17). In a subanalysis, long-term mortality was comparable between TTS patients with malignancies and ACS patients with malignancies (P=0.13). Malignancy emerged as an independent predictor of long-term mortality. Conclusions A substantial number of TTS patients show an association with malignancy. History of malignancy might increase the risk for TTS, and therefore, appropriate screening for malignancy should be considered in these patients. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrial.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947621.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297672

RESUMO

Left ventricular (LV) adaptation to aging is currently poorly understood. We aimed to characterize age related changes in LV structure and function by studying a large group of healthy subjects across a wide age range. Prospectively enrolled healthy volunteers (n = 778, 327 females; age 18 to 100 years, mean age 49.8 ± 18.1 years), were divided into 4 age groups: 18 to 34 years (n = 165); 35 to 49 years (n = 242), 50 to 79 years (n = 334) and ≥ 80 years (n = 40). All subjects underwent clinical examination, as well as comprehensive transthoracic echocardiogram [TTE]. Body mass index, systolic blood pressure (BP), and left atrial volume (p < 0.0001) increased with age while diastolic BP (p < 0.0001) decreased over time. LV mass/body surface area (BSA) and relative wall thickness increased with age (p < 0.0001) coincident with worsening parameters of diastolic function (E/A and E/Em, p < 0.0001). The ejection fraction and Sm did not change significantly. Stroke volume, ejection time index, flow rate and stroke work significantly increased with age (p < 0.01). The arterial elastance (Ea), a measure of ventricular afterload, and ventricular elastance (Ees), an index of LV systolic stiffness did not change with age nor did their ratio (Ees/Ea) the latter being an expression of ventricular-arterial coupling. Age, gender and LVM were the main independent variables associated with LV systolic function. In conclusion, LV adaptation to aging in a healthy cohort is characterized by concentric LV remodeling, increased contractility and preserved ventricular-arterial coupling.

8.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 32(6): 730-736, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an alternative treatment in surgically intermediate- or high-risk patients with classical low-flow, low-gradient (LFLG) aortic stenosis (AS). The objective of this study was to investigate whether two-dimensional (2D) speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) can predict left ventricular (LV) flow reserve during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) and remodeling after TAVR in patients with LFLG AS. METHODS: Seventy-five symptomatic patients with severe LFLG AS were recruited (mean age, 77.6 ± 8.4 years). Patients underwent a complete clinical evaluation, standard echocardiography, 2D STE, and DSE. Echocardiographic analysis was performed before and 6 months after TAVR using global longitudinal strain (GLS) measured on 2D STE. RESULTS: All patients received self-expanding transcatheter prosthetic valves. Six months after TAVR, LV GLS (12.8 ± 3.2% vs 16.3 ± 4.2%, P < .0001) significantly increased. In a multivariate analysis, LV GLS before TAVR (P < .0001) was an independent predictor of LV flow reserve during DSE. By receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, a cutoff value for LV GLS of ≤12% well distinguished patients without significant flow reserve and with lack of positive remodeling after TAVR at follow-up. These results support the hypothesis that myocardial analysis by 2D STE at baseline can be useful for the identification of patients with LFLG AS who would benefit from TAVR. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study underline the predictive value of LV GLS on flow reserve during DSE and on global LV remodeling after TAVR in patients with LFLG AS. Cutoff values for LV GLS could be used to identify patients responding better to TAVR.

11.
Heart Fail Clin ; 15(3): 349-358, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079693

RESUMO

The interplay between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and heart failure (HF) is intricate. Population studies show that MetS confers an increased risk to develop HF and this effect is mediated by insulin resistance (IR). However, obesity, a key component in MetS and common partner of IR, is protective in patients with established HF, although IR confers an increased risk of dying by HF. Such phenomenon, known as "obesity paradox," accounts for the complexity of the HF-MetS relationship. Because IR impacts more on outcomes than MetS itself, the former may be considered the actual target for MetS in HF patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Saúde Global , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Morbidade/tendências , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
12.
Heart Fail Clin ; 15(3): 377-391, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079696

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence led to the hypothesis that heart failure (HF) could be considered a multiple hormone deficiency syndrome. Deficiencies in the main anabolic axes cannot be considered as mere epiphenomena, are very common in HF, and are clearly associated with poor cardiovascular performance and outcomes. Growth hormone deficiency and testosterone deficiency play a pivotal role and the replacement treatment is an innovative therapy that should be considered. This article appraises the current evidence regarding growth hormone and testosterone deficiencies in HF and reviews novel findings about the treatment of these conditions in HF.


Assuntos
Hormônio do Crescimento/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico
13.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2142-2151, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098611

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the frequency, clinical features, and prognostic implications of cardiac arrest (CA) in takotsubo syndrome (TTS). METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed the records of patients with CA and known heart rhythm from the International Takotsubo Registry. The main outcomes were 60-day and 5-year mortality. In addition, predictors of mortality and predictors of CA during the acute TTS phase were assessed. Of 2098 patients, 103 patients with CA and known heart rhythm during CA were included. Compared with patients without CA, CA patients were more likely to be younger, male, and have apical TTS, atrial fibrillation (AF), neurologic comorbidities, physical triggers, and longer corrected QT-interval and lower left ventricular ejection fraction on admission. In all, 57.1% of patients with CA at admission had ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia, while 73.7% of patients with CA in the acute phase had asystole/pulseless electrical activity. Patients with CA showed higher 60-day (40.3% vs. 4.0%, P < 0.001) and 5-year mortality (68.9% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001) than patients without CA. T-wave inversion and intracranial haemorrhage were independently associated with higher 60-day mortality after CA, whereas female gender was associated with lower 60-day mortality. In the acute phase, CA occurred less frequently in females and more frequently in patients with AF, ST-segment elevation, and higher C-reactive protein on admission. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac arrest is relatively frequent in TTS and is associated with higher short- and long-term mortality. Clinical and electrocardiographic parameters independently predicted mortality after CA.

14.
Acta Cardiol ; : 1-9, 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is an acute heart syndrome characterised by reversible ventricular dysfunction with the absence of significant coronary occlusion, which typically occurs in postmenopausal women after emotional or physical stress. Differences of clinical or instrumental characteristics between fertile women and postmenopausal women with TTS have not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in clinical, biochemical and echocardiographic characteristics between postmenopausal women and fertile women with TTS. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-one patients (mean age 67.8 ± 11.3 years; 14 patients were still fertile) from four different Italian hospitals were enrolled, partially retrospectively and partial longitudinally. Physical examination, clinical history (including presenting symptoms and triggering stress factors), laboratory and ECG findings and Doppler echocardiography were collected at hospital admission. Echocardiography was repeated at discharge (after at least seven days from admission). RESULTS: No significant differences were observed considering trigger events or symptoms at presentation. Significant differences were observed considering left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) (37.9 ± 14.4% in fertile women, 43.9 ± 9.7% in postmenopausal women, p = .033) and regional wall motion abnormalities. The apical ballooning pattern was predominant in postmenopausal women, instead the midventricular type was mainly observed in fertile women (36% versus 1% in fertile versus postmenopausal women respectively, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographic involvement of left ventricle is atypical in fertile women compared to women in menopause (midventricular versus apical ballooning, respectively). Moreover, the young group presented with worse LVEF but they had the same LV function at discharge and similar prognosis.

15.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(12): 2015-2021, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955867

RESUMO

It is not clear whether there are differences in aortic dimensions by race. Our hypothesis was that race-specific differences in aortic size exist. We compared the relation between race and aortic dimensions among 15,295 adults without known risk factors for cardiovascular disease or aortic dilatation, who underwent clinically indicated transthoracic echocardiography. We compared inner edge-to-inner edge measurements between whites (n = 12,932), blacks (n = 958), Asians (n = 827), Hispanics (n = 366), Native Americans (n = 38), and others (n = 174). Multivariate analysis compared measurements indexed with body surface area (BSA) between races and adjusted for variables including age, gender, and mean blood pressure. Mean age was 49.9 ± 17.6 years, and 58.7% were female. On gender-specific comparisons, there were significant differences in aortic size between races (p <0.001 for each). Using whites as a baseline, multivariable analysis demonstrated that blacks had smaller BSA-indexed aortic sinus (-0.34 mm/m2, p <0.001) and ascending aorta (-0.43 mm/m2, p <0.001) dimensions; Asians had larger BSA-indexed aortic sinus (0.36 mm/m2, p <0.001), ascending aorta (0.41 mm/m2, p <0.001), and aortic arch (0.20 mm/m2, p = 0.002) dimensions; Hispanics had larger BSA-indexed aortic arch dimensions (0.15 mm/m2, p = 0.01); Native Americans had increased BSA-indexed aortic arch dimensions (0.32 mm/m2, p = 0.01); and other races had increased BSA-indexed aortic arch dimensions (0.11 mm/m2, p = 0.03). In a cohort without known risk factors for aortic dilatation, race is associated with significant differences in aortic dimensions. In conclusion, these findings suggest that reference ranges for aortic size should be established using racially diverse cohorts to prevent misdiagnosis of aortic dilatation based on race.

16.
Int J Cardiol ; 286: 117-120, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most frequent cardiac congenital valvular disease. Although the BAV risk of first degree relatives (FDR) has been assessed (7-9%), there is little information as to the heritable risk for aortopathy. OBJECTIVE: Identify the specific risk for regional aortopathy in FDR with tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) of BAV patients according to their aortic phenotype and aortic regurgitation (AR). METHODS: Using an international consortium, BAV probands were assessed for aortopathy of the root, ascending aorta and for AR. Aortopathy was defined by the presence of segmental dilatation. The presence of segmental aortopathy and AR in BAV probands was evaluated as predictor for aortopathy in FDR with TAV. RESULTS: We identified 74 FDR related to 49 probands with aortopathy and 66 FDR related to 31 probands without aortopathy. Demographic variables were similar between proband groups. Among FDR, 16 individuals had BAV (11.4%). TAV-FDR of probands with ascending aortopathy had higher incidence of root aortopathy (18.8% vs. 3.6% p < 0.05) while TAV-FDR of probands with root aortopathy had higher incidence of aortopathy at all aortic segments (55%vs25%, 55%vs21%, and 4%vs29% at annulus, root and ascending respectively, p < 0.05 for all). Independent predictors for root aortopathy in TAV-FDR were: ascending (OR = 6.23;95%CI:1.27-30.5) and root aortopathy (OR = 9.00;95%CI:1.58-51.1) in probands; and for ascending aortopathy: root aortopathy (OR = 4.04;95%CI:1.33-12.3) and AR in probands (OR = 4.84; 95%CI:1.75-13.4). CONCLUSION: Root and ascending aortopathy in BAV probands are strong predictors of aortopathy in their TAV-FDR. AR in BAV patients has an independent effect on the risk for ascending aortopathy in TAV-FDR.

18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(12): 1463-1482, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922478

RESUMO

There is increasing recognition of the crucial role of the right ventricle (RV) in determining functional status and prognosis in multiple conditions. The normal RV is anatomically and functionally different from the left ventricle, which precludes direct extrapolation of our knowledge of left-sided physiopathology to the right heart. RV adaptation is largely determined by the level of exposure to hemodynamic overload (both preload and afterload) as well as its intrinsic contractile function. These 3 processes (pressure overload, volume overload, and RV cardiomyopathy) are associated with distinct clinical course and therapeutic approach, although in reality they often coexist in various degrees. The close relationship between the RV and left ventricle (ventricular interdependence) and its coupling to the pulmonary circulation further modulate RV behavior in different clinical scenarios. In this review, the authors summarize current knowledge of RV anatomic, structural, metabolic, functional, and hemodynamic characteristics in both health and disease.

19.
Heart Fail Clin ; 15(2): 205-217, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832812

RESUMO

A comprehensive multi-imaging evaluation of the right heart structure, function, and pressures represents an essential step in the diagnostic and prognostic algorithm of patients with heart failure. Furthermore, it provides important information for detecting early signs of right ventricular unfavorable remodeling, and consequently, guiding appropriate therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Doença Crônica , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
20.
Heart Fail Clin ; 15(2): 321-331, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832821

RESUMO

Heart failure is a life-threatening disease. Its prevalence is characterized by a slow, steady increase, with unacceptable high mortality. Slowing disease progression is imperative. One of the most active field is the development of novel biomarkers. Biomarkers are used in routine clinical care for diagnosis, monitoring (response to treatment), and risk stratification of patients with heart failure. In this review, we consider in 2 different sections: blood-derived and imaging biomarkers. Finally, we analyze the effect of combining these 2 categories of biomarkers available in heart failure, aiming at understanding whether their role is complementary or subtractive.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Humanos , Prognóstico
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