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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 167, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919346

RESUMO

Intense x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses hold great promise for imaging function in nanoscale and biological systems with atomic resolution. So far, however, the spatial resolution obtained from single shot experiments lags averaging static experiments. Here we report on a combined computational and experimental study about ultrafast diffractive imaging of sucrose clusters which are benchmark organic samples. Our theoretical model matches the experimental data from the water window to the keV x-ray regime. The large-scale dynamic scattering calculations reveal that transient phenomena driven by non-linear x-ray interaction are decisive for ultrafast imaging applications. Our study illuminates the complex interplay of the imaging process with the rapidly changing transient electronic structures in XFEL experiments and shows how computational models allow optimization of the parameters for ultrafast imaging experiments.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(5): 2704-2712, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793561

RESUMO

The recent demonstration of isolated attosecond pulses from an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) opens the possibility for probing ultrafast electron dynamics at X-ray wavelengths. An established experimental method for probing ultrafast dynamics is X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy, where the X-ray absorption spectrum is measured by scanning the central photon energy and recording the resultant photoproducts. The spectral bandwidth inherent to attosecond pulses is wide compared to the resonant features typically probed, which generally precludes the application of this technique in the attosecond regime. In this paper we propose and demonstrate a new technique to conduct transient absorption spectroscopy with broad bandwidth attosecond pulses with the aid of ghost imaging, recovering sub-bandwidth resolution in photoproduct-based absorption measurements.

3.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 6): 1956-1966, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721741

RESUMO

The full radiation from the first harmonic of a synchrotron undulator (between 5 and 12 keV) at the Advanced Photon Source is microfocused using a stack of beryllium compound refractive lenses onto a fast-moving liquid jet and overlapped with a high-repetition-rate optical laser. This micro-focused geometry is used to perform efficient nonresonant X-ray emission spectroscopy on transient species using a dispersive spectrometer geometry. The overall usable flux achieved on target is above 1015 photons s-1 at 8 keV, enabling photoexcited systems in the liquid phase to be tracked with time resolutions from tens of picoseconds to microseconds, and using the full emission spectrum, including the weak valence-to-core signal that is sensitive to chemically relevant electronic properties.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(12): 123201, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633947

RESUMO

Femtosecond laser pulses have opened new frontiers for the study of ultrafast phase transitions and nonequilibrium states of matter. In this Letter, we report on structural dynamics in atomic clusters pumped with intense near-infrared (NIR) pulses into a nanoplasma state. Employing wide-angle scattering with intense femtosecond x-ray pulses from a free-electron laser source, we find that highly excited xenon nanoparticles retain their crystalline bulk structure and density in the inner core long after the driving NIR pulse. The observed emergence of structural disorder in the nanoplasma is consistent with a propagation from the surface to the inner core of the clusters.

5.
J Chem Phys ; 151(14): 144306, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615248

RESUMO

Ligand substitution reactions are common in solvated transition metal complexes, and harnessing them through initiation with light promises interesting practical applications, driving interest in new means of probing their mechanisms. Using a combination of time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy and hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulations and x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy calculations, we elucidate the mechanism of photoaquation in the model system iron(ii) hexacyanide, where UV excitation results in the exchange of a CN- ligand with a water molecule from the solvent. We take advantage of the high flux and stability of synchrotron x-rays to capture high precision x-ray absorption spectra that allow us to overcome the usual limitation of the relatively long x-ray pulses and extract the spectrum of the short-lived intermediate pentacoordinated species. Additionally, we determine its lifetime to be 19 (±5) ps. The QM/MM simulations support our experimental findings and explain the ∼20 ps time scale for aquation as involving interconversion between the square pyramidal (SP) and trigonal bipyramidal pentacoordinated geometries, with aquation being only active in the SP configuration.

6.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 4): 1073-1084, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274430

RESUMO

The SwissFEL soft X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) beamline Athos will be ready for user operation in 2021. Its design includes a novel layout of alternating magnetic chicanes and short undulator segments. Together with the APPLE X architecture of undulators, the Athos branch can be operated in different modes producing FEL beams with unique characteristics ranging from attosecond pulse length to high-power modes. Further space has been reserved for upgrades including modulators and an external seeding laser for better timing control. All of these schemes rely on state-of-the-art technologies described in this overview. The optical transport line distributing the FEL beam to the experimental stations was designed with the whole range of beam parameters in mind. Currently two experimental stations, one for condensed matter and quantum materials research and a second one for atomic, molecular and optical physics, chemical sciences and ultrafast single-particle imaging, are being laid out such that they can profit from the unique soft X-ray pulses produced in the Athos branch in an optimal way.

7.
Sci Adv ; 5(5): eaav8801, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058226

RESUMO

The possibility of imaging single proteins constitutes an exciting challenge for x-ray lasers. Despite encouraging results on large particles, imaging small particles has proven to be difficult for two reasons: not quite high enough pulse intensity from currently available x-ray lasers and, as we demonstrate here, contamination of the aerosolized molecules by nonvolatile contaminants in the solution. The amount of contamination on the sample depends on the initial droplet size during aerosolization. Here, we show that, with our electrospray injector, we can decrease the size of aerosol droplets and demonstrate virtually contaminant-free sample delivery of organelles, small virions, and proteins. The results presented here, together with the increased performance of next-generation x-ray lasers, constitute an important stepping stone toward the ultimate goal of protein structure determination from imaging at room temperature and high temporal resolution.

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4200, 2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305630

RESUMO

An accurate description of the interaction of intense hard X-ray pulses with heavy atoms, which is crucial for many applications of free-electron lasers, represents a hitherto unresolved challenge for theory because of the enormous number of electronic configurations and relativistic effects, which need to be taken into account. Here we report results on multiple ionization of xenon atoms by ultra-intense (about 1019 W/cm2) femtosecond X-ray pulses at photon energies from 5.5 to 8.3 keV and present a theoretical model capable of reproducing the experimental data in the entire energy range. Our analysis shows that the interplay of resonant and relativistic effects results in strongly structured charge state distributions, which reflect resonant positions of relativistically shifted electronic levels of highly charged ions created during the X-ray pulse. The theoretical approach described here provides a basis for accurate modeling of radiation damage in hard X-ray imaging experiments on targets with high-Z constituents.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(46): 11772-11777, 2018 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373827

RESUMO

Fluctuation X-ray scattering (FXS) is an emerging experimental technique in which X-ray solution scattering data are collected from particles in solution using ultrashort X-ray exposures generated by a free-electron laser (FEL). FXS experiments overcome the low data-to-parameter ratios associated with traditional solution scattering measurements by providing several orders of magnitude more information in the final processed data. Here we demonstrate the practical feasibility of FEL-based FXS on a biological multiple-particle system and describe data-processing techniques required to extract robust FXS data and significantly reduce the required number of snapshots needed by introducing an iterative noise-filtering technique. We showcase a successful ab initio electron density reconstruction from such an experiment, studying the Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus (PBCV-1).


Assuntos
Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica/métodos , Chlorella , Cristalografia por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica/estatística & dados numéricos , Radiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Espalhamento de Radiação , Difração de Raios X , Raios X
10.
Sci Data ; 5: 180201, 2018 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277481

RESUMO

Fluctuation X-ray scattering (FXS) is an emerging experimental technique in which solution scattering data are collected using X-ray exposures below rotational diffusion times, resulting in angularly anisotropic X-ray snapshots that provide several orders of magnitude more information than traditional solution scattering data. Such experiments can be performed using the ultrashort X-ray pulses provided by a free-electron laser source, allowing one to collect a large number of diffraction patterns in a relatively short time. Here, we describe a test data set for FXS, obtained at the Linac Coherent Light Source, consisting of close to 100 000 multi-particle diffraction patterns originating from approximately 50 to 200 Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella virus particles per snapshot. In addition to the raw data, a selection of high-quality pre-processed diffraction patterns and a reference SAXS profile are provided.


Assuntos
Phycodnaviridae , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X
11.
IUCrJ ; 5(Pt 5): 531-541, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224956

RESUMO

Diffraction before destruction using X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has the potential to determine radiation-damage-free structures without the need for crystallization. This article presents the three-dimensional reconstruction of the Melbournevirus from single-particle X-ray diffraction patterns collected at the LINAC Coherent Light Source (LCLS) as well as reconstructions from simulated data exploring the consequences of different kinds of experimental sources of noise. The reconstruction from experimental data suffers from a strong artifact in the center of the particle. This could be reproduced with simulated data by adding experimental background to the diffraction patterns. In those simulations, the relative density of the artifact increases linearly with background strength. This suggests that the artifact originates from the Fourier transform of the relatively flat background, concentrating all power in a central feature of limited extent. We support these findings by significantly reducing the artifact through background removal before the phase-retrieval step. Large amounts of blurring in the diffraction patterns were also found to introduce diffuse artifacts, which could easily be mistaken as biologically relevant features. Other sources of noise such as sample heterogeneity and variation of pulse energy did not significantly degrade the quality of the reconstructions. Larger data volumes, made possible by the recent inauguration of high repetition-rate XFELs, allow for increased signal-to-background ratio and provide a way to minimize these artifacts. The anticipated development of three-dimensional Fourier-volume-assembly algorithms which are background aware is an alternative and complementary solution, which maximizes the use of data.

12.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 25(Pt 5): 1517-1528, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179193

RESUMO

Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and X-ray free-electron lasers enable new scientific opportunities. Their ultra-intense coherent femtosecond pulses give unprecedented access to the structure of undepositable nanoscale objects and to transient states of highly excited matter. In order to probe the ultrafast complex light-induced dynamics on the relevant time scales, the multi-purpose end-station CAMP at the free-electron laser FLASH has been complemented by the novel multilayer-mirror-based split-and-delay unit DESC (DElay Stage for CAMP) for time-resolved experiments. XUV double-pulses with delays adjustable from zero femtoseconds up to 650 picoseconds are generated by reflecting under near-normal incidence, exceeding the time range accessible with existing XUV split-and-delay units. Procedures to establish temporal and spatial overlap of the two pulses in CAMP are presented, with emphasis on the optimization of the spatial overlap at long time-delays via time-dependent features, for example in ion spectra of atomic clusters.

13.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 89(3): 035112, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604777

RESUMO

The Laser Applications in Materials Processing (LAMP) instrument is a new end-station for soft X-ray imaging, high-field physics, and ultrafast X-ray science experiments that is available to users at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free-electron laser. While the instrument resides in the Atomic, Molecular and Optical science hutch, its components can be used at any LCLS beamline. The end-station has a modular design that provides high flexibility in order to meet user-defined experimental requirements and specifications. The ultra-high-vacuum environment supports different sample delivery systems, including pulsed and continuous atomic, molecular, and cluster jets; liquid and aerosols jets; and effusive metal vapor beams. It also houses movable, large-format, high-speed pnCCD X-ray detectors for detecting scattered and fluorescent photons. Multiple charged-particle spectrometer options are compatible with the LAMP chamber, including a double-sided spectrometer for simultaneous and even coincident measurements of electrons, ions, and photons produced by the interaction of the high-intensity X-ray beam with the various samples. Here we describe the design and capabilities of the spectrometers along with some general aspects of the LAMP chamber and show some results from the initial instrument commissioning.

14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(5): 1156-1163, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444399

RESUMO

In many cases fragmentation of molecules upon inner-shell ionization is very unspecific with respect to the initially localized ionization site. Often this finding is interpreted in terms of an equilibration of internal energy into vibrational degrees of freedom after Auger decay. We investigate the X-ray photofragmentation of ethyl trifluoroacetate upon core electron ionization at environmentally distinct carbon sites using photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence measurements and ab initio electronic structure calculations. For all four carbon ionization sites, the Auger decay weakens the same bonds and transfers the two charges to opposite ends of the molecule, which leads to a rapid dissociation into three fragments, followed by further fragmentation steps. The lack of site specificity is attributed to the character of the dicationic electronic states after Auger decay instead of a fast equilibration of internal energy.

15.
Faraday Discuss ; 194: 305-324, 2016 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27711899

RESUMO

With the invention of femtosecond X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), studies of light-induced chemical reaction dynamics and structural dynamics reach a new era, allowing for time-resolved X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy. To ultimately probe coherent electron and nuclear dynamics on their natural time and length scales, coherent nonlinear X-ray spectroscopy schemes have been proposed. In this contribution, we want to critically assess the experimental realisation of nonlinear X-ray spectroscopy at current-day XFEL sources, by presenting first experimental attempts to demonstrate stimulated resonant X-ray Raman scattering in molecular gas targets.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 117(15): 153401, 2016 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27768378

RESUMO

We studied the nanoplasma formation and explosion dynamics of single large xenon clusters in ultrashort, intense x-ray free-electron laser pulses via ion spectroscopy. The simultaneous measurement of single-shot diffraction images enabled a single-cluster analysis that is free from any averaging over the cluster size and laser intensity distributions. The measured charge state-resolved ion energy spectra show narrow distributions with peak positions that scale linearly with final ion charge state. These two distinct signatures are attributed to highly efficient recombination that eventually leads to the dominant formation of neutral atoms in the cluster. The measured mean ion energies exceed the value expected without recombination by more than an order of magnitude, indicating that the energy release resulting from electron-ion recombination constitutes a previously unnoticed nanoplasma heating process. This conclusion is supported by results from semiclassical molecular dynamics simulations.

17.
Sci Data ; 3: 160058, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27479514

RESUMO

Structural studies on living cells by conventional methods are limited to low resolution because radiation damage kills cells long before the necessary dose for high resolution can be delivered. X-ray free-electron lasers circumvent this problem by outrunning key damage processes with an ultra-short and extremely bright coherent X-ray pulse. Diffraction-before-destruction experiments provide high-resolution data from cells that are alive when the femtosecond X-ray pulse traverses the sample. This paper presents two data sets from micron-sized cyanobacteria obtained at the Linac Coherent Light Source, containing a total of 199,000 diffraction patterns. Utilizing this type of diffraction data will require the development of new analysis methods and algorithms for studying structure and structural variability in large populations of cells and to create abstract models. Such studies will allow us to understand living cells and populations of cells in new ways. New X-ray lasers, like the European XFEL, will produce billions of pulses per day, and could open new areas in structural sciences.


Assuntos
Lasers , Difração de Raios X , Células , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cianobactérias , Elétrons , Modelos Moleculares , Modelos Teóricos , Nanopartículas , Proteínas , Pulso Arterial , Fatores de Tempo , Raios X
18.
Sci Data ; 3: 160060, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27479754

RESUMO

Free-electron lasers (FEL) hold the potential to revolutionize structural biology by producing X-ray pules short enough to outrun radiation damage, thus allowing imaging of biological samples without the limitation from radiation damage. Thus, a major part of the scientific case for the first FELs was three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of non-crystalline biological objects. In a recent publication we demonstrated the first 3D reconstruction of a biological object from an X-ray FEL using this technique. The sample was the giant Mimivirus, which is one of the largest known viruses with a diameter of 450 nm. Here we present the dataset used for this successful reconstruction. Data-analysis methods for single-particle imaging at FELs are undergoing heavy development but data collection relies on very limited time available through a highly competitive proposal process. This dataset provides experimental data to the entire community and could boost algorithm development and provide a benchmark dataset for new algorithms.


Assuntos
Mimiviridae , Difração de Raios X , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Cristalografia por Raios X , Coleta de Dados , Elétrons , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem Tridimensional , Lasers , Modelos Teóricos , Tamanho da Partícula , Espalhamento de Radiação , Raios X
19.
Sci Data ; 3: 160061, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27479842

RESUMO

Ultra-intense femtosecond X-ray pulses from X-ray lasers permit structural studies on single particles and biomolecules without crystals. We present a large data set on inherently heterogeneous, polyhedral carboxysome particles. Carboxysomes are cell organelles that vary in size and facilitate up to 40% of Earth's carbon fixation by cyanobacteria and certain proteobacteria. Variation in size hinders crystallization. Carboxysomes appear icosahedral in the electron microscope. A protein shell encapsulates a large number of Rubisco molecules in paracrystalline arrays inside the organelle. We used carboxysomes with a mean diameter of 115±26 nm from Halothiobacillus neapolitanus. A new aerosol sample-injector allowed us to record 70,000 low-noise diffraction patterns in 12 min. Every diffraction pattern is a unique structure measurement and high-throughput imaging allows sampling the space of structural variability. The different structures can be separated and phased directly from the diffraction data and open a way for accurate, high-throughput studies on structures and structural heterogeneity in biology and elsewhere.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Halothiobacillus/ultraestrutura , Organelas , Halothiobacillus/metabolismo , Organelas/ultraestrutura , Raios X
20.
Sci Adv ; 2(1): e1500837, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27152323

RESUMO

In condensed matter systems, strong optical excitations can induce phonon-driven processes that alter their mechanical properties. We report on a new phenomenon where a massive electronic excitation induces a collective change in the bond character that leads to transient lattice contraction. Single large van der Waals clusters were isochorically heated to a nanoplasma state with an intense 10-fs x-ray (pump) pulse. The structural evolution of the nanoplasma was probed with a second intense x-ray (probe) pulse, showing systematic contraction stemming from electron delocalization during the solid-to-plasma transition. These findings are relevant for any material in extreme conditions ranging from the time evolution of warm or hot dense matter to ultrafast imaging with intense x-ray pulses or, more generally, any situation that involves a condensed matter-to-plasma transition.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos
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