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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(3): 916-922, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369125

RESUMO

ALX4 is a homeobox gene expressed in the mesenchyme of developing bone and is known to play an important role in the regulation of osteogenesis. Enlarged parietal foramina (EPF) is a phenotype of delayed intramembranous ossification of calvarial bones due to variants of ALX4. The contrasting phenotype of premature ossification of sutures is observed with heterozygous loss-of-function variants of TWIST1, which is an important regulator of osteoblast differentiation. Here, we describe an individual with a large cranium defect, with dominant transmission from the mother, both carrying disease causing heterozygous variants in ALX4 and TWIST1. The distinct phenotype of absent superior and posterior calvarium in the child and his mother was in sharp contrast to the other affected maternal relatives with a recognizable ALX4-related EPF phenotype. This report demonstrates comorbid disorders of Saethre-Chotzen syndrome and EPF in a mother and her child, resulting in severe skull defects reminiscent of calvarial abnormalities observed with bilallelic ALX4 variants. To our knowledge this is the first instance of ALX4 and TWIST1 variants acting synergistically to cause a unique phenotype influencing skull ossification.

3.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 30(6): 791-797, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234646

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic testing serves an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and management of primary immunodeficiency. In this review, the strengths and limitations of various genetic testing methods are summarized, providing a foundation for the clinical approach to achieving a molecular diagnosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Rapid advances in sequencing technology have enabled the incorporation of comprehensive genetic testing into first-line clinical diagnostics. Recent articles enable comparisons of the diagnostic utility of new testing strategies while simultaneously reminding clinicians of the strengths of traditional methods. SUMMARY: Genetic testing in primary immunodeficiency cannot be standardized, but instead needs to be personalized based on the presenting phenotype and a basic understanding of the utility of different molecular methods. These tools, when correctly employed, can achieve a molecular diagnosis and inform the natural history, prognosis, recurrence risk, and therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genômica , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1126-1142, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29805043

RESUMO

The proteasome processes proteins to facilitate immune recognition and host defense. When inherently defective, it can lead to aberrant immunity resulting in a dysregulated response that can cause autoimmunity and/or autoinflammation. Biallelic or digenic loss-of-function variants in some of the proteasome subunits have been described as causing a primary immunodeficiency disease that manifests as a severe dysregulatory syndrome: chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE). Proteasome maturation protein (POMP) is a chaperone for proteasome assembly and is critical for the incorporation of catalytic subunits into the proteasome. Here, we characterize and describe POMP-related autoinflammation and immune dysregulation disease (PRAID) discovered in two unrelated individuals with a unique constellation of early-onset combined immunodeficiency, inflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis, and autoimmunity. We also begin to delineate a complex genetic mechanism whereby de novo heterozygous frameshift variants in the penultimate exon of POMP escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) and result in a truncated protein that perturbs proteasome assembly by a dominant-negative mechanism. To our knowledge, this mechanism has not been reported in any primary immunodeficiencies, autoinflammatory syndromes, or autoimmune diseases. Here, we define a unique hypo- and hyper-immune phenotype and report an immune dysregulation syndrome caused by frameshift mutations that escape NMD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Mutação/genética , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido/genética , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Éxons/genética , Família , Mutação da Fase de Leitura/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Imunofenotipagem , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação/patologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Síndrome , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas
5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(7): 1667-1669, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740950

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in CHD2 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 2) have been reported in neurodevelopmental disorders with a broad spectrum of phenotypic variability, ranging from mild intellectual disability to atonic-myoclonic epilepsy. However, given the paucity of reported cases the extent of this phenotypic spectrum is currently unknown. Furthermore, all confirmed pathogenic CHD2 variants reported to date have been de novo, preventing the study of intrafamilial phenotypic heterogeneity and creating ambiguity regarding recurrence risk, penetrance, and expressivity. Here, we report the first known case of an inherited pathogenic CHD2 variant in affected mother and daughter. This case demonstrates intrafamilial phenotypic heterogeneity and confirms potential heritability of CHD2-related neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães , Núcleo Familiar , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
6.
JAMA Pediatr ; 171(12): e173438, 2017 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973083

RESUMO

Importance: While congenital malformations and genetic diseases are a leading cause of early infant death, to our knowledge, the contribution of single-gene disorders in this group is undetermined. Objective: To determine the diagnostic yield and use of clinical exome sequencing in critically ill infants. Design, Setting, and Participants: Clinical exome sequencing was performed for 278 unrelated infants within the first 100 days of life who were admitted to Texas Children's Hospital in Houston, Texas, during a 5-year period between December 2011 and January 2017. Exome sequencing types included proband exome, trio exome, and critical trio exome, a rapid genomic assay for seriously ill infants. Main Outcomes and Measures: Indications for testing, diagnostic yield of clinical exome sequencing, turnaround time, molecular findings, patient age at diagnosis, and effect on medical management among a group of critically ill infants who were suspected to have genetic disorders. Results: The mean (SEM) age for infants participating in the study was 28.5 (1.7) days; of these, the mean (SEM) age was 29.0 (2.2) days for infants undergoing proband exome sequencing, 31.5 (3.9) days for trio exome, and 22.7 (3.9) days for critical trio exome. Clinical indications for exome sequencing included a range of medical concerns. Overall, a molecular diagnosis was achieved in 102 infants (36.7%) by clinical exome sequencing, with relatively low yield for cardiovascular abnormalities. The diagnosis affected medical management for 53 infants (52.0%) and had a substantial effect on informed redirection of care, initiation of new subspecialist care, medication/dietary modifications, and furthering life-saving procedures in select patients. Critical trio exome sequencing revealed a molecular diagnosis in 32 of 63 infants (50.8%) at a mean (SEM) of 33.1 (5.6) days of life with a mean (SEM) turnaround time of 13.0 (0.4) days. Clinical care was altered by the diagnosis in 23 of 32 patients (71.9%). The diagnostic yield, patient age at diagnosis, and medical effect in the group that underwent critical trio exome sequencing were significantly different compared with the group who underwent regular exome testing. For deceased infants (n = 81), genetic disorders were molecularly diagnosed in 39 (48.1%) by exome sequencing, with implications for recurrence risk counseling. Conclusions and Relevance: Exome sequencing is a powerful tool for the diagnostic evaluation of critically ill infants with suspected monogenic disorders in the neonatal and pediatric intensive care units and its use has a notable effect on clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Exoma , Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Texas
7.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 73, 2017 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: De novo missense variants in CDK13 have been described as the cause of syndromic congenital heart defects in seven individuals ascertained from a large congenital cardiovascular malformations cohort. We aimed to further define the phenotypic and molecular spectrum of this newly described disorder. METHODS: To minimise ascertainment bias, we recruited nine additional individuals with CDK13 pathogenic variants from clinical and research exome laboratory sequencing cohorts. Each individual underwent dysmorphology exam and comprehensive medical history review. RESULTS: We demonstrate greater than expected phenotypic heterogeneity, including 33% (3/9) of individuals without structural heart disease on echocardiogram. There was a high penetrance for a unique constellation of facial dysmorphism and global developmental delay, as well as less frequently seen renal and sacral anomalies. Two individuals had novel CDK13 variants (p.Asn842Asp, p.Lys734Glu), while the remaining seven unrelated individuals had a recurrent, previously published p.Asn842Ser variant. Summary of all variants published to date demonstrates apparent restriction of pathogenic variants to the protein kinase domain with clustering in the ATP and magnesium binding sites. CONCLUSIONS: Here we provide detailed phenotypic and molecular characterisation of individuals with pathogenic variants in CDK13 and propose management guidelines based upon the estimated prevalence of anomalies identified.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase CDC2/genética , Face/anormalidades , Cardiopatias Congênitas/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Mutação , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Síndrome
8.
JIMD Rep ; 30: 39-44, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26936850

RESUMO

Recent studies have implicated trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in atherosclerosis, raising concern about L-carnitine, a common supplement for patients with inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) and a TMAO precursor metabolized, in part, by intestinal microbes. Dietary meat restriction attenuates carnitine-to-TMAO conversion, suggesting that TMAO production may not occur in meat-restricted individuals taking supplemental L-carnitine, but this has not been tested. Here, we mine a metabolomic dataset to assess TMAO levels in patients with diverse IEMs, including organic acidemias. These data were correlated with clinical information and confirmed using a quantitative TMAO assay. Marked plasma TMAO elevations were detected in patients treated with supplemental L-carnitine, including those on a meat-free diet. On average, patients with an organic acidemia had ~45-fold elevated [TMAO], as compared to the reference population. This effect was mitigated by metronidazole therapy lasting 7 days each month. Collectively, our data show that TMAO production occurs at high levels in patients with IEMs receiving oral L-carnitine. Further studies are needed to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of chronic oral L-carnitine supplementation and whether suppression or circumvention of intestinal bacteria may improve L-carnitine therapy.

9.
J Immunol Methods ; 365(1-2): 76-86, 2011 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21182840

RESUMO

In vivo hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT)-deficient T cells (MT) from melanoma patients are enriched for T cells with in vivo clonal amplifications that traffic between blood and tumor tissues. Melanoma is thus a model cancer to test the hypothesis that in vivo MT from cancer patients can be used as immunological probes for immunogenic tumor antigens. MT were obtained by 6-thioguanine (TG) selection of lymphocytes from peripheral blood and tumor tissues, and wild-type T cells (WT) were obtained analogously without TG selection. cDNA sequences of the T cell receptor beta chains (TRB) were used as unambiguous biomarkers of in vivo clonality and as indicators of T cell specificity. Public TRB were identified in MT from the blood and tumor of different melanoma patients. Such public TRB were not found in normal control MT or WT. As an indicator of T cell specificity for melanoma, the >2600 MT and WT TRB, including the public TRB from melanoma patients, were compared to a literature-derived empirical database of >1270 TRB from melanoma-reactive T cells. Various degrees of similarity, ranging from 100% conservation to 3-amino acid motifs (3-mer), were found between both melanoma patient MT and WT TRBs and the empirical database. The frequency of 3-mer and 4-mer TRB matching to the empirical database was significantly higher in MT compared with WT in the tumor (p=0.0285 and p=0.006, respectively). In summary, in vivo MT from melanoma patients contain public TRB as well as T cells with specificity for characterized melanoma antigens. We conclude that in vivo MT merit study as novel probes for uncharacterized immunogenic antigens in melanoma and other malignancies.


Assuntos
Genes Codificadores da Cadeia beta de Receptores de Linfócitos T , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoxantina Fosforribosiltransferase/deficiência , Hipoxantina Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/secundário , Antígenos Específicos de Melanoma/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Tioguanina/farmacologia
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