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Heliyon ; 8(10): e11172, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36325133


This study was intended to assess heavy metal contents and sources in commonly consumed vegetables and fish collected from the Jashore district of Bangladesh and to evaluate the probable human health risks via the ingesting of those vegetables and fish species. A total of 130 vegetable and fish samples were analyzed for As, Mn, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Pb concentration by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Metals and metalloids like As, Pb, and Cr in vegetable species were greater than the maximum allowable concentration (MAC), while Pb and cu in fish species exceeded the MAC. Pollution evaluation index values were ranges from 0.40-10.35 and 1.53-2.78 for vegetable and fish species, respectively, indicating light to serious pollution. Lactuca sativa followed by Cucurbita moschata, Amaranthus gangeticus for vegetables and Channa punctate, Oreochromis mossambicus, followed by Dendrobranchiata for fish are the most contaminated food items. The positive matrix factorization model showed that As (81.9%), Ni (48%), Cr (49.6%), Mn (46%), Pb (44.3%), and Cu (44.4%) for vegetable species and As (86.9%), Ni (90.5%), Mn (67.6%), Pb (65.3%), Cr (57%) and Cu (46.2%) for fish species were resulting from agrochemical, atmospheric emission, irrigation, contaminated feed, and mixed sources. The self-organizing map and principle component analysis indicates three spatial patterns e.g., As-Mn-Cu, Pb-Cr, and Ni in vegetables and As-Mn-Cr, Cu-Ni, and Pb in fish samples. The THQ values for single elements were less than 1 (except As for vegetables and Pb for fish species) for all food items but the HI values for all of the vegetables (2.18E+00 to 2.04E+01) and fish (1.07E+00 to 9.39E+00) samples were exceeded the USEPA acceptable risk level (HI > 1E+00). While the cancer risks only induced by As for all vegetables and fish species, which exceeded the USEPA safe level (TCR>1E-04). Sensitivity analysis indicates that metal concentration was the most responsible factor for carcinogenic risk.