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1.
Endocrinol. diabetes nutr. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(10): 654-662, dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184793

RESUMO

Las enfermedades endocrinas están experimentando un importante incremento de su prevalencia, debido a causas de diversa índole, entre ellas la epidemia de obesidad y de desnutrición, el envejecimiento de la población, pero también el efecto de los disruptores endocrinos, entre otros. Por otra parte, las nuevas tecnologías, tanto a nivel de analítica molecular y genética, de imagen y de nuevos dispositivos terapéuticos, obligan a que la comunidad profesional endocrina en España tenga que estar en constante formación. La conexión con los pacientes a través de sus asociaciones, cada vez más activas, y con la sociedad civil en general, el compromiso profesional y la demanda de diversos colectivos sociales de una atención moderna y equitativa, y a llevar a cabo investigación que facilite la consecución de avances para los pacientes, obligan al especialista en Endocrinología y Nutrición, y a la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición (SEEN), a posicionarse y dar respuesta a todos estos retos. En el presente documento, la SEEN expone sus propuestas y su estrategia hasta el 2022


Endocrine diseases are experiencing an important increase in their prevalence, due to causes of various kinds, including the epidemic of obesity and malnutrition, the aging of the population, but also the effect of endocrine disruptors, among others. On the other hand, new technologies, both in terms of molecular and genetic analysis, image and new therapeutic devices, require that the endocrine professional community in Spain must be in constant training. The connection with patients through their associations, increasingly active, and with the civil society in general, the professional commitment and demand of various social groups for a modern and equitable care, and to carry out research that facilitates the achievement of advances for patients, forces the specialist in endocrinology and nutrition and the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN) to position themselves and respond to all these challenges. In this document, the SEEN presents its proposals and its strategy until 2022


Assuntos
Endocrinologia/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/tendências , Estratégias , Endocrinologia/tendências , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde , Medicina/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde , Espanha
2.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr ; 66(10): 654-662, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272927

RESUMO

Endocrine diseases are experiencing an important increase in their prevalence, due to causes of various kinds, including the epidemic of obesity and malnutrition, the aging of the population, but also the effect of endocrine disruptors, among others. On the other hand, new technologies, both in terms of molecular and genetic analysis, image and new therapeutic devices, require that the endocrine professional community in Spain must be in constant training. The connection with patients through their associations, increasingly active, and with the civil society in general, the professional commitment and demand of various social groups for a modern and equitable care, and to carry out research that facilitates the achievement of advances for patients, forces the specialist in endocrinology and nutrition and the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN) to position themselves and respond to all these challenges. In this document, the SEEN presents its proposals and its strategy until 2022.

3.
Environ Res ; 176: 108543, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensification of agricultural practices has caused several negative effects to the environment. The use of fertilizers and pesticides may alter geochemical cycles or cause direct wildlife intoxication. Detrimental effects of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have forced the authorities to ban or restrict its use. This study evaluates the variation in levels of OCPs in a sentinel species in relation to changes in government regulations and the spatial configuration of agricultural practices around the nests. METHODS: Between 2003 and 2007, we analysed OCP levels in 256 blood samples of Eurasian Eagle-owl (Bubo bubo) chicks nesting in area of intensive commercial agriculture with historical frequent use of pesticides, in South-eastern Spain. We studied year-to-year variations in OCP concentrations and their relation with land use configuration around raptor nests by Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM). RESULTS: OCPs were detected in 100% samples surveyed in 2003 and 2004, while dropped to 27% in 2005, 6.8% in 2006 and 6.3% in 2007, coinciding with the ban of OCPs. The presence of the main OCPs was related to agricultural practices. In particular, endosulfan and lindane were related to irrigated crops and urban areas, while DDT-related compounds and dieldrin were associated with dry land farming. CONCLUSIONS: OCP concentrations in blood samples of Eurasian Eagle-owls may respond quickly to the implementations of new regulations about the use of agricultural products. This raptor was confirmed as a good sentinel species allowing rapid detection of changes in pesticides use.

4.
Glob Chang Biol ; 25(9): 3005-3017, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127672

RESUMO

Understanding the distribution of biodiversity across the Earth is one of the most challenging questions in biology. Much research has been directed at explaining the species latitudinal pattern showing that communities are richer in tropical areas; however, despite decades of research, a general consensus has not yet emerged. In addition, global biodiversity patterns are being rapidly altered by human activities. Here, we aim to describe large-scale patterns of species richness and diversity in terrestrial vertebrate scavenger (carrion-consuming) assemblages, which provide key ecosystem functions and services. We used a worldwide dataset comprising 43 sites, where vertebrate scavenger assemblages were identified using 2,485 carcasses monitored between 1991 and 2018. First, we evaluated how scavenger richness (number of species) and diversity (Shannon diversity index) varied among seasons (cold vs. warm, wet vs. dry). Then, we studied the potential effects of human impact and a set of macroecological variables related to climatic conditions on the scavenger assemblages. Vertebrate scavenger richness ranged from species-poor to species rich assemblages (4-30 species). Both scavenger richness and diversity also showed some seasonal variation. However, in general, climatic variables did not drive latitudinal patterns, as scavenger richness and diversity were not affected by temperature or rainfall. Rainfall seasonality slightly increased the number of species in the community, but its effect was weak. Instead, the human impact index included in our study was the main predictor of scavenger richness. Scavenger assemblages in highly human-impacted areas sustained the smallest number of scavenger species, suggesting human activity may be overriding other macroecological processes in shaping scavenger communities. Our results highlight the effect of human impact at a global scale. As species-rich assemblages tend to be more functional, we warn about possible reductions in ecosystem functions and the services provided by scavengers in human-dominated landscapes in the Anthropocene.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Animais , Clima , Peixes , Humanos , Vertebrados
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 17(7)2017 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737693

RESUMO

The main causes of building defects are errors in the design and the construction phases. These causes related to construction are mainly due to the general lack of control of construction work and represent approximately 75% of the anomalies. In particular, one of the main causes of such anomalies, which end in building defects, is the lack of control over the physical variables of the work environment during the execution of tasks. Therefore, the high percentage of defects detected in buildings that have the root cause in the construction phase could be avoidable with a more accurate and efficient control of the process. The present work proposes a novel integration model based on information and communications technologies for the automation of both construction work and its management at the execution phase, specifically focused on the flat roof construction process. Roofs represent the second area where more defects are claimed. The proposed model is based on a Web system, supported by a service oriented architecture, for the integral management of tasks through the Last Planner System methodology, but incorporating the management of task restrictions from the physical environment variables by designing specific sensing systems. Likewise, all workers are integrated into the management process by Internet-of-Things solutions that guide them throughout the execution process in a non-intrusive and transparent way.

6.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4019, 2017 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28642457

RESUMO

Human-mediated secondary contact of recently diverged taxa offers valuable opportunities for studying the evolutionary mechanisms involved in the establishment and maintenance of genetic boundaries between taxa. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite markers to examine a recently introduced population of the spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) of mixed origin in the Doñana National Park (SW Spain). The earliest records of tortoises in Doñana trace back to the 18th century, but several population reinforcements in the 20th century with animals from Morocco are well-documented. Consequently, different genetic lineages, which represent distinct subspecies, are thought to co-exist there. Our results confirmed the presence of distinct lineages by revealing that tortoises of the subspecies T. g. marokkensis were introduced into a local allochthonous T. g. graeca population. Unexpectedly, T. g. marokkensis haplotypes exclusively appeared in males, and admixture levels were statistically sex-biased toward males. The sex ratio of the population deviated from parity, with males being 2.36-fold more abundant than females. Our results indicated that population reinforcements had a strong effect on the genetic composition of this population and aggravated its sex ratio deviation. We predict that this sex-biased pattern of introgression is ephemeral and advocated to the near loss of T. g. marokkensis haplotypes.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Tartarugas/classificação , Tartarugas/genética , África do Norte , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites
7.
Ecology ; 97(1): 95-105, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27008779

RESUMO

Disentangling the processes that shape the organization of ecological assemblages and its implications for species coexistence is one of the foremost challenges of ecology. Although insightful advances have recently related community composition and structure with species coexistence in mutualistic and antagonistic networks, little is known regarding other species assemblages, such as those of scavengers exploiting carrion. Here we studied seven assemblages of scavengers feeding on ungulate carcasses in mainland Spain. We used dynamical models to investigate if community composition, species richness and structure (nestedness) affect species coexistence at carcasses. Scavenging networks showed a nested pattern in sites where highly efficient, obligate scavengers (i.e., vultures) were present and a non-nested pattern everywhere else. Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) and certain meso-facultative mammalian scavengers (i.e., red fox, Vulpes vulpes, and stone marten, Martes foina) were the main species contributing to nestedness. Assemblages with vultures were also the richest ones in species. Nested species-rich assemblages with vulture presence were associated with high carcass consumption rates, indicating higher interspecific competition at the local scale. However, the proportion of species stopping the consumption of carrion (as derived from the competitive dynamic model) stabilized at high richness and nestedness levels. This suggests that high species richness and nestedness may characterize scavenging networks that are robust to high levels of interspecific competition for carrion. Some facilitative interactions driven by vultures and major facultative scavengers could be behind these observations. Our findings are relevant for understanding species' coexistence in highly competitive systems.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Carnívoros/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo , Falconiformes/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional , Espanha
10.
PLoS One ; 10(7): e0133954, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26230922

RESUMO

The study of the demographic history of species can help to understand the negative impact of recent population declines in organisms of conservation concern. Here, we use neutral molecular markers to explore the genetic consequences of the recent population decline and posterior recovery of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) in the Iberian Peninsula. During the last century, the species was the object of extermination programs, suffering direct persecution by hunters until the 70's. Moreover, during the last decades the eagle owl was severely impacted by increased mortality due to electrocution and the decline of its main prey species, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In recent times, the decrease of direct persecution and the implementation of some conservation schemes have allowed the species' demographic recovery. Yet, it remains unknown to which extent the past population decline and the later expansion have influenced the current species' pattern of genetic diversity. We used eight microsatellite markers to genotype 235 eagle owls from ten Spanish subpopulations and analyse the presence of genetic signatures attributable to the recent population fluctuations experienced by the species. We found moderate levels of differentiation among the studied subpopulations and Bayesian analyses revealed the existence of three genetic clusters that grouped subpopulations from central, south-western and south-eastern Spain. The observed genetic structure could have resulted from recent human-induced population fragmentation, a patchy distribution of prey populations and/or the philopatric behaviour and habitat selection of the species. We detected an old population bottleneck, which occurred approximately 10,000 years ago, and significant signatures of recent demographic expansions. However, we did not find genetic signatures for a recent bottleneck, which may indicate that population declines were not severe enough to leave detectable signals on the species genetic makeup or that such signals have been eroded by the rapid demographic recovery experienced by the species in recent years.


Assuntos
Comportamento Predatório , Estrigiformes/fisiologia , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Variação Genética , Espanha , Estrigiformes/genética
11.
Sci Rep ; 5: 7811, 2015 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25589381

RESUMO

Global warming due to human-induced increments in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) is one of the most debated topics among environmentalists and politicians worldwide. In this paper we assess a novel source of GHG emissions emerged following a controversial policy decision. After the outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Europe, the sanitary regulation required that livestock carcasses were collected from farms and transformed or destroyed in authorised plants, contradicting not only the obligations of member states to conserve scavenger species but also generating unprecedented GHG emission. However, how much of this emission could be prevented in the return to traditional and natural scenario in which scavengers freely remove livestock carcasses is largely unknown. Here we show that, in Spain (home of 95% of European vultures), supplanting the natural removal of dead extensive livestock by scavengers with carcass collection and transport to intermediate and processing plants meant the emission of 77,344 metric tons of CO2 eq. to the atmosphere per year, in addition to annual payments of ca. $50 million to insurance companies. Thus, replacing the ecosystem services provided by scavengers has not only conservation costs, but also important and unnecessary environmental and economic costs.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Efeito Estufa , Animais , Gado , Saneamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Espanha
12.
Biol Lett ; 9(3): 20121091, 2013 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23554278

RESUMO

Much of our current knowledge about the genetic dynamics in range expansions originates from models, simulations and microcosm experiments that need to be corroborated by field data. Here, we report a neutral genetic pattern that matches the predictions of the genetic surfing theory. Genetic surfing occurs when repeated founding events and genetic drift act on the wave of advance of an expanding population, promoting strong spatial structure. In the range expansion of the tortoise Testudo graeca from North Africa to southeastern Spain, we found several genetic signatures consistent with surfing: a decrease of genetic diversity with distance from the initial founder area, clinal patterns in allele frequencies, rare African alleles which have become common at distal sites in the Spanish range, and stronger spatial differentiation in the expanded range than in the original one. Our results provide support for the theory that genetic drift can be an important force in shaping the genetic structure of expanding populations.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Animais , Pesquisa Empírica , Deriva Genética , Variação Genética , Tartarugas/genética
19.
Proc Biol Sci ; 277(1696): 2983-90, 2010 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20462909

RESUMO

The distributional patterns of actively moving animals are influenced by the cues that the individuals use for choosing sites into which they settle. Individuals may gather information about habitat quality using two types of strategies, either directly assessing the relevant environmental factors, or using the presence of conspecifics or heterospecifics as an indirect measure of habitat quality. We examined patterns of heterospecific attraction with observational time-series data on a community of seven waterbird species breeding in artificial irrigation ponds. We fitted to the data a multivariate logistic regression model, which attributes the presence-absence of each species to a set of environmental and spatial covariates, to the presence of con- and heterospecifics in the previous year and to the presence of heterospecifics in the same year. All species showed a clear tendency to continue breeding in the same sites where they were observed in the previous year. Additionally, the presence of heterospecifics, both in the previous year and in the same year, generally increased the probability that the focal species was found breeding on a given pond. Our data thus give support for the heterospecific attraction hypothesis, though causal inference should be confirmed with manipulative experiments.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Aves/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Modelos Biológicos , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Phytopathology ; 94(5): 470-7, 2004 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18943765

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Nonisotopic molecular dot blot hybridization technique and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for the specific detection of Lettuce big-vein virus (LBVV) and Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV) in lettuce tissue were developed. Both procedures were suitable for the specific detection of both viruses in a range of naturally infected lettuce plants from various Spanish production areas and seven different cultivars. The study of the distribution of both viruses in the plant revealed that the highest concentration of LBVV and MiLV occurred in roots and old leaves, respectively. LBVV infection progress in a lettuce production area was faster than that observed for MiLV. In spite of different rates of virus infection progress, most lettuce plants became infected with both viruses about 100 days posttransplant. The appearance of both viruses in lettuce crops was preceded by a peak in the concentration of resting spores and zoosporangia of the fungus vector Olpidium brassicae in lettuce roots.

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