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Sci Total Environ ; 578: 139-147, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27838052


The scientific community strongly recommends the adoption of indicators for the evaluation and monitoring of progress towards sustainable development. Furthermore, international organizations consider that indicators are powerful decision-making tools. Nevertheless, the quality and reliability of the indicators depends on the application of adequate and appropriate criteria to assess them. The general objective of this study was to evaluate how indicators related to water use and management perform against a set of sustainability criteria. Our research identified 170 indicators related to water use and management. These indicators were assessed by an international panel of experts that evaluated whether they fulfil the four sustainability criteria: social, economic, environmental, and institutional. We employed an evaluation matrix that classified all indicators according to the DPSIR (Driving Forces, Pressures, States, Impacts and Responses) framework. A pilot study served to test and approve the research methodology before carrying out the full implementation. The findings of the study show that 24 indicators comply with the majority of the sustainability criteria; 59 indicators are bi-dimensional (meaning that they comply with two sustainability criteria); 86 are one-dimensional indicators (fulfilling just one of the four sustainability criteria) and one indicator do not fulfil any of the sustainability criteria.

Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim ; 57(6): 351-6, 2010.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20645486


OBJECTIVE: To determine whether intubation conditions under remifentanil-propofol plus sevoflurane rather than a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocker are similar to those obtained when a neuromuscular blocker is used. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this double-blind controlled trial, 100 patients undergoing outpatient surgery were randomized to 2 groups. Intubation in one group was performed under remifentanil, propofol and sevoflurane. In the other, intubation was performed under remifentanil, propofol, and the nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocker rocuronium. We recorded dysphonia at 24 hours, Cormack-Lehane classification at laryngoscopy, mandibular relaxation, vocal cord position and mobility, and cough or movement during laryngoscopy, on intubation and on cuff inflation. Blood pressure and heart rate before and after tracheal intubation were also recorded. RESULTS: No significant between-group differences were observed in dysphonia 24 hours after surgery, Cormack-Lehane classification at laryngoscopy, mandibular relaxation, the position or mobility of vocal cords, or cough or movement during laryngoscopy, intubation or cuff inflation. After intubation the mean (SD) systolic blood pressure was 119.7 (75.4) mm Hg in the rocuronium group and 97.5 (54.5) mm Hg in the sevoflurane group. Mean heart rate was 80.7 beats/min in the rocuronium group and 66.7 beats/min in the sevoflurane group. The differences were significant (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Adequate doses of remifentanil, propofol, and sevoflurane provide intubation conditions that are similar to those achieved by using a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocker, without exposing patients to additional risk. Avoiding use of a neuromuscular blocker would circumvent the development of complications associated with use of these agents or their antagonists and costs would be lower.

Androstanóis , Anestesia por Inalação , Anestesia Intravenosa , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Éteres Metílicos , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes , Piperidinas , Propofol , Adulto , Androstanóis/administração & dosagem , Androstanóis/efeitos adversos , Androstanóis/farmacologia , Anestésicos Combinados/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Intravenosos/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Intravenosos/farmacologia , Tosse/etiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Disfonia/etiologia , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Éteres Metílicos/administração & dosagem , Éteres Metílicos/efeitos adversos , Éteres Metílicos/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes/administração & dosagem , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Propofol/efeitos adversos , Propofol/farmacologia , Remifentanil , Rocurônio , Sevoflurano