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Genes Cells ; 24(11): 731-745, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554018


Cluap1/IFT38 is a ciliary protein that belongs to the IFT-B complex and is required for ciliogenesis. In this study, we have examined the behaviors of Cluap1 protein in nonciliated and ciliated cells. In proliferating cells, Cluap1 is located at the distal appendage of the mother centriole. When cells are induced to form cilia, Cluap1 is found in a novel noncentriolar compartment, the cytoplasmic IFT spot, which mainly exists once in a cell. Other IFT-B proteins such as IFT46 and IFT88 are colocalized in this spot. The cytoplasmic IFT spot is present in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) but is absent in ciliogenesis-defective MEFs lacking Cluap1, Kif3a or Odf2. The cytoplasmic IFT spot is also found in mouse embryos but is absent in the Cluap1 mutant embryo. When MEFs are induced to form cilia, the cytoplasmic IFT spot appears at an early step of ciliogenesis but starts to disappear when ciliogenesis is mostly completed. These results suggest that IFT-B proteins such as Cluap1 accumulate in a previously undescribed cytoplasmic compartment during ciliogenesis.

Cílios/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Animais , Cílios/ultraestrutura , Citoplasma/ultraestrutura , Fibroblastos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Cinesina , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor
Genes Cells ; 21(7): 728-39, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27353389


Lrrc6 encodes a cytoplasmic protein that is expressed specifically in cells with motile cilia including the node, trachea and testes of the mice. A mutation of Lrrc6 has been identified in human patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Mutant mice lacking Lrrc6 show typical PCD defects such as hydrocephalus and laterality defects. We found that in the absence of Lrrc6, the morphology of motile cilia remained normal, but their motility was completely lost. The 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules remained normal in Lrrc6(-/-) mice, but the outer dynein arms (ODAs), the structures essential for the ciliary beating, were absent from the cilia. In the absence of Lrrc6, ODA proteins such as DNAH5, DNAH9 and IC2, which are assembled in the cytoplasm and transported to the ciliary axoneme, remained in the cytoplasm and were not transported to the ciliary axoneme. The IC2-IC1 interaction, which is the first step of ODA assembly, was normal in Lrrc6(-/-) mice testes. Our results suggest that ODA proteins may be transported from the cytoplasm to the cilia by an Lrrc6-dependent mechanism.

Cílios/genética , Síndrome de Kartagener/genética , Proteínas/genética , Animais , Dineínas do Axonema/genética , Axonema/genética , Axonema/patologia , Cílios/patologia , Citoplasma/genética , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dineínas/genética , Humanos , Síndrome de Kartagener/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação
J Cell Biol ; 204(2): 203-13, 2014 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24421334


Axonemal dynein complexes are preassembled in the cytoplasm before their transport to cilia, but the mechanism of this process remains unclear. We now show that mice lacking Pih1d3, a PIH1 domain-containing protein, develop normally but manifest male sterility. Pih1d3(-/-) sperm were immotile and fragile, with the axoneme of the flagellum lacking outer dynein arms (ODAs) and inner dynein arms (IDAs) and showing a disturbed 9+2 microtubule organization. Pih1d3 was expressed specifically in spermatogenic cells, with the mRNA being most abundant in pachytene spermatocytes. Pih1d3 localized to the cytoplasm of spermatogenic cells but was not detected in spermatids or mature sperm. The levels of ODA and IDA proteins were reduced in the mutant testis and sperm, and Pih1d3 was found to interact with an intermediate chain of ODA as well as with Hsp70 and Hsp90. Our results suggest that Pih1d3 contributes to cytoplasmic preassembly of dynein complexes in spermatogenic cells by stabilizing and promoting complex formation by ODA and IDA proteins.

Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/fisiologia , Dineínas do Axonema/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Axonema/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Citoplasma/ultraestrutura , Fertilidade/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Masculino , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/ultraestrutura , Testículo/metabolismo
Dev Biol ; 381(1): 203-12, 2013 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23742838


Qilin is one of several genes in zebrafish whose mutation results in cystic kidney. We have now studied the role of its mouse ortholog, Cluap1, in embryonic development by generating Cluap1 knockout (Cluap1-/-) mice. Cluap1-/- embryos died mid-gestation manifesting impairment of ciliogenesis in various regions including the node and neural tube. The basal body was found to be properly docked to the apical membrane of cells in the mutant, but the axoneme failed to grow. Cluap1 is a ciliary protein and is preferentially localized at the base and tip of cilia. Hedgehog signaling, as revealed with a Pacthed1-lacZ reporter gene, was lost in Cluap1-/- embryos at embryonic day (E) 8.5 but was ectopically expanded at E9.0. The Cluap1 knockout embryos also failed to manifest left-right asymmetric expression of Nodal in the lateral plate, most likely as a result of the loss of Hedgehog signaling in node crown cells that in turn leads to pronounced down-regulation of Gdf1 expression in these cells. Crown cell-specific restoration of Cluap1 expression rescued Gdf1 expression in crown cells and left-sided Nodal expression in the lateral plate of mutant embryos. Our results suggest that Cluap1 contributes to ciliogenesis by regulating the intraflagellar transport (IFT) cycle at the base and tip of the cilium.

Cílios/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/fisiologia , Morfogênese/genética , Animais , Padronização Corporal , Regulação para Baixo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Genes Reporter , Genótipo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Óperon Lac , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Transdução de Sinais
Nat Commun ; 3: 622, 2012 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22233632


Determination of left-right asymmetry in mouse embryos is achieved by a leftward fluid flow (nodal flow) in the node cavity that is generated by clockwise rotational movement of 200-300 cilia in the node. The precise action of nodal flow and how much flow input is required for the robust read-out of left-right determination remains unknown. Here we show that a local leftward flow generated by as few as two rotating cilia is sufficient to break left-right symmetry. Quantitative analysis of fluid flow and ciliary rotation in the node of mouse embryos shows that left-right asymmetry is already established within a few hours after the onset of rotation by a subset of nodal cilia. Examination of various ciliary mutant mice shows that two rotating cilia are sufficient to initiate left-right asymmetric gene expression. Our results suggest the existence of a highly sensitive system in the node that is able to sense an extremely weak unidirectional flow, and may favour a model in which the flow is sensed as a mechanical force.

Padronização Corporal/genética , Cílios/fisiologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Embrião de Mamíferos/fisiologia , Animais , Biofísica/métodos , Biologia do Desenvolvimento/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Metilcelulose/química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Organizadores Embrionários/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
Infect Genet Evol ; 6(6): 440-6, 2006 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16581311


The epidemiology of Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis, is changing rapidly; hence powerful typing tools are required in order to monitor the parasite populations spreading and to adapt adequate control measures. We compared here the resolving power of four molecular methods at the zymodeme level: PCR-RFLP analysis of kDNA minicircles (kDNAPCR-RFLP) and antigen genes (cysteine proteinase b and major surface protease, cpb- and gp63PCR-RFLP), multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were applied to samples of 25 L. infantum MON-1 strains obtained from different hosts (HIV+ patients, HIV- patients and dogs) coming from three Spanish foci: Madrid, Mallorca and Ibiza. While RAPD was not sufficiently resolving, the other three methods allowed genotyping within the zymodeme. KDNAPCR-RFLP and MLMT were the most discriminatory and appeared the most adequate for strain fingerprinting. In an eco-geographical context, cpbPCR-RFLP, MLMT and kDNAPCR-RFLP were all informative: they showed here a similar picture, with the existence of cluster(s) of isolates from the islands and other one(s) of mixed composition (Madrid and the islands). None of the markers revealed an association with the host type or the clinical form. In general, there was a significant correlation between each pair of distances calculated from the cpb, microsatellite and kDNA data, respectively, but visual inspection of the trees revealed a better congruence between cpb and microsatellite trees. The methods used here are complementary and each adapted to answer specific epidemiological questions. Their choice should be the result of a compromise between the required resolving power, the genetic features of the respective markers and the technical aspects.

Leishmania infantum/classificação , Leishmania infantum/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores , Cães , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Filogenia