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1.
Pulm Circ ; 11(3): 20458940211028017, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276963

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by vascular cell proliferation leading to pulmonary vascular remodelling and ultimately right heart failure. Previous data indicated that 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F]-fluorothymidine (18FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) scanning was increased in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients, hence providing a possible biomarker for pulmonary arterial hypertension as it reflects vascular cell hyperproliferation in the lung. This study sought to validate 18FLT-PET in an expanded cohort of pulmonary arterial hypertension patients in comparison to matched healthy controls and unaffected bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 mutation carriers. 18FLT-PET scanning was performed in 21 pulmonary arterial hypertension patients (15 hereditary pulmonary arterial hypertension and 6 idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension), 11 unaffected mutation carriers and 9 healthy control subjects. In-depth kinetic analysis indicated that there were no differences in lung 18FLT k3 phosphorylation among pulmonary arterial hypertension patients, unaffected bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 mutation carriers and healthy controls. Lung 18FLT uptake did not correlate with haemodynamic or clinical parameters in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients. Sequential 18FLT-PET scanning in three patients demonstrated uneven regional distribution in 18FLT uptake by 3D parametric mapping of the lung, although this did not follow the clinical course of the patient. We did not detect significantly increased lung 18FLT uptake in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients, nor in the unaffected bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 mutation carriers, as compared to healthy subjects. The conflicting results with our preliminary human 18FLT report may be explained by a small sample size previously and we observed large variation of lung 18FLT signals between patients, challenging the application of 18FLT-PET as a biomarker in the pulmonary arterial hypertension clinic.

2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(9): 957-968, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The major complication of COVID-19 is hypoxaemic respiratory failure from capillary leak and alveolar oedema. Experimental and early clinical data suggest that the tyrosine-kinase inhibitor imatinib reverses pulmonary capillary leak. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was done at 13 academic and non-academic teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Hospitalised patients (aged ≥18 years) with COVID-19, as confirmed by an RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2, requiring supplemental oxygen to maintain a peripheral oxygen saturation of greater than 94% were eligible. Patients were excluded if they had severe pre-existing pulmonary disease, had pre-existing heart failure, had undergone active treatment of a haematological or non-haematological malignancy in the previous 12 months, had cytopenia, or were receiving concomitant treatment with medication known to strongly interact with imatinib. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either oral imatinib, given as a loading dose of 800 mg on day 0 followed by 400 mg daily on days 1-9, or placebo. Randomisation was done with a computer-based clinical data management platform with variable block sizes (containing two, four, or six patients), stratified by study site. The primary outcome was time to discontinuation of mechanical ventilation and supplemental oxygen for more than 48 consecutive hours, while being alive during a 28-day period. Secondary outcomes included safety, mortality at 28 days, and the need for invasive mechanical ventilation. All efficacy and safety analyses were done in all randomised patients who had received at least one dose of study medication (modified intention-to-treat population). This study is registered with the EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT 2020-001236-10). FINDINGS: Between March 31, 2020, and Jan 4, 2021, 805 patients were screened, of whom 400 were eligible and randomly assigned to the imatinib group (n=204) or the placebo group (n=196). A total of 385 (96%) patients (median age 64 years [IQR 56-73]) received at least one dose of study medication and were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. Time to discontinuation of ventilation and supplemental oxygen for more than 48 h was not significantly different between the two groups (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·95 [95% CI 0·76-1·20]). At day 28, 15 (8%) of 197 patients had died in the imatinib group compared with 27 (14%) of 188 patients in the placebo group (unadjusted HR 0·51 [0·27-0·95]). After adjusting for baseline imbalances between the two groups (sex, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease) the HR for mortality was 0·52 (95% CI 0·26-1·05). The HR for mechanical ventilation in the imatinib group compared with the placebo group was 1·07 (0·63-1·80; p=0·81). The median duration of invasive mechanical ventilation was 7 days (IQR 3-13) in the imatinib group compared with 12 days (6-20) in the placebo group (p=0·0080). 91 (46%) of 197 patients in the imatinib group and 82 (44%) of 188 patients in the placebo group had at least one grade 3 or higher adverse event. The safety evaluation revealed no imatinib-associated adverse events. INTERPRETATION: The study failed to meet its primary outcome, as imatinib did not reduce the time to discontinuation of ventilation and supplemental oxygen for more than 48 consecutive hours in patients with COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen. The observed effects on survival (although attenuated after adjustment for baseline imbalances) and duration of mechanical ventilation suggest that imatinib might confer clinical benefit in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, but further studies are required to validate these findings. FUNDING: Amsterdam Medical Center Foundation, Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek/ZonMW, and the European Union Innovative Medicines Initiative 2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Mesilato de Imatinib/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Permeabilidade Capilar/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Placebos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Br J Anaesth ; 126(5): 958-966, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma-induced shock is associated with endothelial dysfunction. We examined whether the tyrosine kinase inhibitor bosutinib as an adjunct therapy to a balanced blood component resuscitation strategy reduces trauma-induced endothelial permeability, thereby improving shock reversal and limiting transfusion requirements and organ failure in a rat polytrauma transfusion model. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=13 per group) were traumatised and exsanguinated until a MAP of 40 mm Hg was reached, then randomised to two groups: red blood cells, plasma and platelets in a 1:1:1 ratio with either bosutinib or vehicle. Controls were randomised to sham (median laparotomy, no trauma) with bosutinib or vehicle. Organs were harvested for histology and wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio. RESULTS: Traumatic injury resulted in shock, with higher lactate levels compared with controls. In trauma-induced shock, the resuscitation volume needed to obtain a MAP of 60 mm Hg was lower in bosutinib-treated animals (2.8 [2.7-3.2] ml kg-1) compared with vehicle (6.1 [5.1-7.2] ml kg-1, P<0.001). Lactate levels in the bosutinib group were 2.9 [1.7-4.8] mM compared with 6.2 [3.1-14.1] mM in the vehicle group (P=0.06). Bosutinib compared with vehicle reduced lung vascular leakage (W/D ratio of 5.1 [4.6-5.3] vs 5.7 [5.4-6.0] (P=0.046) and lung injury scores (P=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Bosutinib as an adjunct therapy to a balanced transfusion strategy reduced resuscitation volume, improved shock reversal, and reduced vascular leak and organ injury in a rat polytrauma model.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Traumatismo Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Choque/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Masculino , Traumatismo Múltiplo/complicações , Traumatismo Múltiplo/fisiopatologia , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque/etiologia
4.
J Nat Prod ; 84(2): 382-394, 2021 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596384

RESUMO

Strychnine is the prototypic antagonist of glycine receptors, a family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. Recent high-resolution structures of homomeric glycine receptors have confirmed the presence of five orthosteric binding sites located in the extracellular subunit interfaces of the receptor complex that are targeted by strychnine. Here, we report the synthesis and extensive pharmacological evaluation of bivalent ligands composed of two strychnine pharmacophores connected by appropriate spacers optimized toward simultaneous binding to two adjacent orthosteric sites of homomeric α1 glycine receptors. In all bivalent ligands, the two strychnine units were linked through C-2 by amide spacers of various lengths ranging from 6 to 69 atoms. Characterization of the compounds in two functional assays and in a radioligand binding assay indicated that compound 11a, with a spacer consisting of 57 atoms, may be capable of bridging the homomeric α1 GlyRs by simultaneous occupation of two adjacent strychnine-binding sites. The findings are supported by docking experiments to the crystal structure of the homomeric glycine receptor. Based on its unique binding mode, its relatively high binding affinity and antagonist potency, and its slow binding kinetics, the bivalent strychnine analogue 11a could be a valuable tool to study the functional properties of glycine receptors.


Assuntos
Receptores de Glicina/antagonistas & inibidores , Estricnina/análogos & derivados , Sítios de Ligação , Humanos , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Ensaio Radioligante
5.
Exp Physiol ; 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347661

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? How does the interaction between posture and gravity affect the stresses on the lung, particularly in highly inflated gravitationally non-dependent regions, which are potentially vulnerable to increased mechanical stress and injury? What is the main finding and its importance? Changes in stress attributable to gravity are not well characterized between postures. Using a new metric of gravitational stress, we show that regions of the lung near maximal inflation have the greatest gravitational stresses while supine, but not while prone. In simulations of increased lung weight consistent with severe pulmonary oedema, the prone lung has lower gravitational stress in vulnerable, non-dependent regions, potentially protecting them from overinflation and injury. ABSTRACT: Prone posture changes the gravitational vector, and potentially the stress induced by tissue deformation, because a larger lung volume is gravitationally dependent when supine, but non-dependent when prone. To evaluate this, 10 normal subjects (six male and four female; age, means ± SD = 27 ± 6 years; height, 171 ± 9 cm; weight, 69 ± 13 kg; forced expiratory volume in the first second/forced expiratory volume as a percentage of predicted, 93 ± 6%) were imaged at functional residual capacity, supine and prone, using magnetic resonance imaging, to quantify regional lung density. We defined regional gravitational stress as the cumulative weight, per unit area, of the column of lung tissue below each point. Gravitational stress was compared between regions of differing inflation to evaluate differences between highly stretched, and thus potentially vulnerable, regions and less stretched lung. Using reference density values for normal lungs at total lung capacity (0.10 ± 0.03 g/ml), regions were classified as highly inflated (density < 0.13 g/ml, i.e., close to total lung capacity), intermediate (0.13 ≤ density < 0.16 g/ml) or normally inflated (density ≥ 0.16 g/ml). Gravitational stress differed between inflation categories while supine (-1.6 ± 0.3 cmH2 O highly inflated; -1.4 ± 0.3 cmH2 O intermediate; -1.1 ± 0.1 cmH2 O normally inflated; P = 0.05) but not while prone (-1.4 ± 0.2 cmH2 O highly inflated; -1.3 ± 0.2 cmH2 O intermediate; -1.3 ± 0.1 cmH2 O normally inflated; P = 0.39), and increased more with height from dependent lung while supine (-0.24 ± 0.02 cmH2 O/cm supine; -0.18 ± 0.04 cmH2 O/cm prone; P = 0.05). In simulated severe pulmonary oedema, the gradient in gravitational stress increased in both postures (all P < 0.0001), was greater in the supine posture than when prone (-0.57 ± 0.21 cmH2 O/cm supine; -0.34 ± 0.16 cmH2 O/cm prone; P = 0.0004) and was similar to the gradient calculated from supine computed tomography images in a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (-0.51 cmH2 O/cm). The non-dependent lung has greater gravitational stress while supine and might be protected while prone, particularly in the presence of oedema.

8.
J Cell Sci ; 133(9)2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198280

RESUMO

Endothelial barrier dysfunction leads to edema and vascular leak, causing high morbidity and mortality. Previously, Abl kinase inhibition has been shown to protect against vascular leak. Using the distinct inhibitory profiles of clinically available Abl kinase inhibitors, we aimed to provide a mechanistic basis for novel treatment strategies against vascular leakage syndromes. We found that the inhibitor bosutinib most potently protected against inflammation-induced endothelial barrier disruption. In vivo, bosutinib prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced alveolar protein extravasation in an acute lung injury mice model. Mechanistically, mitogen-activated protein 4 kinase 4 (MAP4K4) was identified as important novel mediator of endothelial permeability, which signaled via ezrin, radixin and moesin proteins to increase turnover of integrin-based focal adhesions. The combined inhibition of MAP4K4 and Abl-related gene (Arg, also known as ABL2) by bosutinib preserved adherens junction integrity and reduced turnover of focal adhesions, which synergistically act to stabilize the endothelial barrier during inflammation. We conclude that MAP4K4 is an important regulator of endothelial barrier integrity, increasing focal adhesion turnover and disruption of cell-cell junctions during inflammation. Because it inhibits both Arg and MAP4K4, use of the clinically available drug bosutinib might form a viable strategy against vascular leakage syndromes.


Assuntos
Adesões Focais , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Junções Aderentes , Compostos de Anilina , Animais , Permeabilidade Capilar , Camundongos , Nitrilas , Quinolinas
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(12)2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486375

RESUMO

In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), lung-angioproliferation leads to increased pulmonary vascular resistance, while simultaneous myocardial microvessel loss contributes to right ventricular (RV) failure. Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFC) are highly proliferative, angiogenic cells that may contribute to either pulmonary vascular obstruction or to RV microvascular adaptation. We hypothesize ECFC phenotypes (outgrowth, proliferation, tube formation) are related to markers of disease severity in a prospective cohort-study of 33 PAH and 30 healthy subjects. ECFC were transplanted in pulmonary trunk banded rats with RV failure. The presence of ECFC outgrowth in PAH patients was associated with low RV ejection fraction, low central venous saturation and a shorter time to clinical worsening (5.4 months (0.6⁻29.2) vs. 36.5 months (7.4⁻63.4), p = 0.032). Functionally, PAH ECFC had higher proliferative rates compared to control in vitro, although inter-patient variability was high. ECFC proliferation was inversely related to RV end diastolic volume (R² = 0.39, p = 0.018), but not pulmonary vascular resistance. Tube formation-ability was similar among donors. Normal and highly proliferative PAH ECFC were transplanted in pulmonary trunk banded rats. While no effect on hemodynamic measurements was observed, RV vascular density was restored. In conclusion, we found that ECFC outgrowth associates with high clinical severity in PAH, suggesting recruitment. Transplantation of highly proliferative ECFC restored myocardial vascular density in pulmonary trunk banded rats, while RV functional improvements were not observed.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/transplante , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Prognóstico , Ratos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transplante de Células-Tronco , Resistência Vascular , Disfunção Ventricular Direita
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