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1.
Arch Toxicol ; 93(4): 833-857, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859261

RESUMO

The factors underlying the increasing rates and the geographic variation of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Epidemiological studies provide limited evidence for a possible role in the etiology of certain types of childhood cancer of the exposure of pregnant women to environmental carcinogens (e.g., tobacco smoke and pesticides); however, such evidence is inadequate to allow definitive conclusions. Complementary evidence can be obtained from biomarker-based population studies. Such studies have demonstrated that, following exposure of pregnant mothers, most environmental carcinogens reach the fetus and, in many cases, induce therein genotoxic damage which in adults is known to be associated with increased cancer risk, implying that environmental carcinogens may contribute to the etiology of childhood cancer. During recent years, intermediate disease biomarkers, obtained via omic profiling, have provided additional insights into the impact of transplacental exposures on fetal tissues which, in some cases, are also compatible with a precarcinogenic role of certain in utero exposures. Here we review the epidemiological and biomarker evidence and discuss how further research, especially utilizing high-density profiling, may allow a better evaluation of the links between in utero environmental exposures and cancer in children.

2.
Environ Int ; 126: 24-36, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the impact of PCB exposure on DNA methylation in peripheral blood leucocytes and to evaluate the corresponding changes in relation to possible health effects, with a focus on B-cell lymphoma. METHODS: We conducted an epigenome-wide association study on 611 adults free of diagnosed disease, living in Italy and Sweden, in whom we also measured plasma concentrations of 6 PCB congeners, DDE and hexachlorobenzene. RESULTS: We identified 650 CpG sites whose methylation correlates strongly (FDR < 0.01) with plasma concentrations of at least one PCB congener. Stronger effects were observed in males and in Sweden. This epigenetic exposure profile shows extensive and highly statistically significant overlaps with published profiles associated with the risk of future B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) as well as with clinical CLL (38 and 28 CpG sites, respectively). For all these sites, the methylation changes were in the same direction for increasing exposure and for higher disease risk or clinical disease status, suggesting an etiological link between exposure and CLL. Mediation analysis reinforced the suggestion of a causal link between exposure, changes in DNA methylation and disease. Disease connectivity analysis identified multiple additional diseases associated with differentially methylated genes, including melanoma for which an etiological link with PCB exposure is established, as well as developmental and neurological diseases for which there is corresponding epidemiological evidence. Differentially methylated genes include many homeobox genes, suggesting that PCBs target stem cells. Furthermore, numerous polycomb protein target genes were hypermethylated with increasing exposure, an effect known to constitute an early marker of carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides mechanistic evidence in support of a link between exposure to PCBs and the etiology of CLL and underlines the utility of omic profiling in the evaluation of the potential toxicity of environmental chemicals.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 746, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679748

RESUMO

PCBs are classified as xenoestrogens and carcinogens and their health risks may be sex-specific. To identify potential sex-specific responses to PCB-exposure we established gene expression profiles in a population study subdivided into females and males. Gene expression profiles were determined in a study population consisting of 512 subjects from the EnviroGenomarkers project, 217 subjects who developed lymphoma and 295 controls were selected in later life. We ran linear mixed models in order to find associations between gene expression and exposure to PCBs, while correcting for confounders, in particular distribution of white blood cells (WBC), as well as random effects. The analysis was subdivided according to sex and development of lymphoma in later life. The changes in gene expression as a result of exposure to the six studied PCB congeners were sex- and WBC type specific. The relatively large number of genes that are significantly associated with PCB-exposure in the female subpopulation already indicates different biological response mechanisms to PCBs between the two sexes. The interaction analysis between different PCBs and WBCs provides only a small overlap between sexes. In males, cancer-related pathways and in females immune system-related pathways are identified in association with PCBs and WBCs. Future lymphoma cases and controls for both sexes show different responses to the interaction of PCBs with WBCs, suggesting a role of the immune system in PCB-related cancer development.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 143(6): 1335-1347, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29667176

RESUMO

Recent prospective studies have shown that dysregulation of the immune system may precede the development of B-cell lymphomas (BCL) in immunocompetent individuals. However, to date, the studies were restricted to a few immune markers, which were considered separately. Using a nested case-control study within two European prospective cohorts, we measured plasma levels of 28 immune markers in samples collected a median of 6 years before diagnosis (range 2.01-15.97) in 268 incident cases of BCL (including multiple myeloma [MM]) and matched controls. Linear mixed models and partial least square analyses were used to analyze the association between levels of immune marker and the incidence of BCL and its main histological subtypes and to investigate potential biomarkers predictive of the time to diagnosis. Linear mixed model analyses identified associations linking lower levels of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 p = 7.2 × 10-4 ) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α, p = 6.5 × 10-5 ) and BCL incidence. Analyses stratified by histological subtypes identified inverse associations for MM subtype including FGF-2 (p = 7.8 × 10-7 ), TGF-α (p = 4.08 × 10-5 ), fractalkine (p = 1.12 × 10-3 ), monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (p = 1.36 × 10-4 ), macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (p = 4.6 × 10-4 ) and vascular endothelial growth factor (p = 4.23 × 10-5 ). Our results also provided marginal support for already reported associations between chemokines and diffuse large BCL (DLBCL) and cytokines and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Case-only analyses showed that Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor levels were consistently higher closer to diagnosis, which provides further evidence of its role in tumor progression. In conclusion, our study suggests a role of growth-factors in the incidence of MM and of chemokine and cytokine regulation in DLBCL and CLL.

5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(16): 3221-3231, 2017 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28535255

RESUMO

Lifestyle factors, such as food choices and exposure to chemicals, can alter DNA methylation and lead to changes in gene activity. Two such exposures with pharmacologically active components are coffee and tea consumption. Both coffee and tea have been suggested to play an important role in modulating disease-risk in humans by suppressing tumour progression, decreasing inflammation and influencing estrogen metabolism. These mechanisms may be mediated by changes in DNA methylation. To investigate if DNA methylation in blood is associated with coffee and tea consumption, we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation study for coffee and tea consumption in four European cohorts (N = 3,096). DNA methylation was measured from whole blood at 421,695 CpG sites distributed throughout the genome and analysed in men and women both separately and together in each cohort. Meta-analyses of the results and additional regional-level analyses were performed. After adjusting for multiple testing, the meta-analysis revealed that two individual CpG-sites, mapping to DNAJC16 and TTC17, were differentially methylated in relation to tea consumption in women. No individual sites were associated with men or with the sex-combined analysis for tea or coffee. The regional analysis revealed that 28 regions were differentially methylated in relation to tea consumption in women. These regions contained genes known to interact with estradiol metabolism and cancer. No significant regions were found in the sex-combined and male-only analysis for either tea or coffee consumption.


Assuntos
Café , Metilação de DNA , Chá , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Cafeína/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , DNA/sangue , Estradiol/sangue , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
6.
Sci Rep ; 7: 42870, 2017 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28225026

RESUMO

We recently reported that differential gene expression and DNA methylation profiles in blood leukocytes of apparently healthy smokers predicts with remarkable efficiency diseases and conditions known to be causally associated with smoking, suggesting that blood-based omic profiling of human populations may be useful for linking environmental exposures to potential health effects. Here we report on the sex-specific effects of tobacco smoking on transcriptomic and epigenetic features derived from genome-wide profiling in white blood cells, identifying 26 expression probes and 92 CpG sites, almost all of which are affected only in female smokers. Strikingly, these features relate to numerous genes with a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, especially thrombin signaling, including the thrombin receptors on platelets F2R (coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor; PAR1) and GP5 (glycoprotein 5), as well as HMOX1 (haem oxygenase 1) and BCL2L1 (BCL2-like 1) which are involved in protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis, respectively. These results are in concordance with epidemiological evidence of higher female susceptibility to tobacco-induced cardiovascular disease and underline the potential of blood-based omic profiling in hazard and risk assessment.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Environ Health ; 16(1): 9, 2017 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28202064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests a largely environmental component to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDE and HCB have been repeatedly implicated, but the literature is inconsistent and a causal relationship remains to be determined. METHODS: The EnviroGenoMarkers study is nested within two prospective cohorts EPIC-Italy and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Six PCB congeners, DDE and HCB were measured in blood plasma samples provided at recruitment using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry. During 16 years follow-up 270 incident cases of B-cell NHL (including 76 cases of multiple myeloma) were diagnosed. Cases were matched to 270 healthy controls by centre, age, gender and date of blood collection. Cases were categorised into ordered quartiles of exposure for each POP based on the distribution of exposure in the control population. Logistic regression was applied to assess the association with risk, multivariate and stratified analyses were performed to identify confounders or effect modifiers. RESULTS: The exposures displayed a strong degree of correlation, particularly amongst those PCBs with similar degrees of chlorination. There was no significant difference (p < 0.05) in median exposure levels between cases and controls for any of the investigated exposures. However under a multivariate model PCB138, PCB153, HCB and DDE displayed significant inverse trends (Wald test p-value <0.05). Under stratified analyses these were determined to be driven by males and by the Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma subtype. When considering those in the highest levels of exposure (>90th percentile) the association was null for all POPs CONCLUSION: We report no evidence that a higher body burden of PCBs, DDE or HCB increased the risk of subsequent NHL diagnosis. Significantly inverse associations were noted for males with a number of the investigated POPs. We hypothesize these unexpected relationships may relate to the subtype composition of our population, effect modification by BMI or other unmeasured confounding. This study provides no additional support for the previously observed role of PCBs, DDE and HCB as risk factors for NHL.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Linfoma de Células B/epidemiologia , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Linfoma de Células B/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 210: 439-43, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25991182

RESUMO

In this paper, a Web-based software platform appropriately designed to support the continuity of health care information and management for both in and out of hospital care is presented. The system has some additional features as it is the formation of continuity of care records and the transmission of referral letters with a semantically annotated web service. The platform's Web-orientation provides significant advantages, allowing for easily accomplished remote access.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Sistemas de Informação Hospitalar/organização & administração , Internet/organização & administração , Registro Médico Coordenado/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/organização & administração , Software , Grécia , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Integração de Sistemas , Interface Usuário-Computador
11.
Environ Health Perspect ; 123(4): 374-80, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25626179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bulky DNA adducts reflect genotoxic exposures, have been associated with lower birth weight, and may predict cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: We selected factors known or hypothesized to affect in utero adduct formation and repair and examined their associations with adduct levels in neonates. METHODS: Pregnant women from Greece, Spain, England, Denmark, and Norway were recruited in 2006-2010. Cord blood bulky DNA adduct levels were measured by the 32P-postlabeling technique (n = 511). Diet and maternal characteristics were assessed via questionnaires. Modeled exposures to air pollutants and drinking-water disinfection by-products, mainly trihalomethanes (THMs), were available for a large proportion of the study population. RESULTS: Greek and Spanish neonates had higher adduct levels than the northern European neonates [median, 12.1 (n = 179) vs. 6.8 (n = 332) adducts per 108 nucleotides, p < 0.001]. Residence in southern European countries, higher maternal body mass index, delivery by cesarean section, male infant sex, low maternal intake of fruits rich in vitamin C, high intake of dairy products, and low adherence to healthy diet score were statistically significantly associated with higher adduct levels in adjusted models. Exposure to fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide was associated with significantly higher adducts in the Danish subsample only. Overall, the pooled results for THMs in water show no evidence of association with adduct levels; however, there are country-specific differences in results with a suggestion of an association in England. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that a combination of factors, including unknown country-specific factors, influence the bulky DNA adduct levels in neonates.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Adutos de DNA/sangue , Dieta , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Água Potável/química , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Troca Materno-Fetal , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Trialometanos/toxicidade
12.
Environ Res ; 141: 42-57, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25526891

RESUMO

The potential of Human Biomonitoring (HBM) in exposure characterisation and risk assessment is well established in the scientific HBM community and regulatory arena by many publications. The European Environment and Health Strategy as well as the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004-2010 of the European Commission recognised the value of HBM and the relevance and importance of coordination of HBM programmes in Europe. Based on existing and planned HBM projects and programmes of work and capabilities in Europe the Seventh Framework Programme (FP 7) funded COPHES (COnsortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale) to advance and improve comparability of HBM data across Europe. The pilot study protocol was tested in 17 European countries in the DEMOCOPHES feasibility study (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) cofunded (50%) under the LIFE+ programme of the European Commission. The potential of HBM in supporting and evaluating policy making (including e.g. REACH) and in awareness raising on environmental health, should significantly advance the process towards a fully operational, continuous, sustainable and scientifically based EU HBM programme. From a number of stakeholder activities during the past 10 years and the national engagement, a framework for sustainable HBM structure in Europe is recommended involving national institutions within environment, health and food as well as European institutions such as ECHA, EEA, and EFSA. An economic frame with shared cost implications for national and European institutions is suggested benefitting from the capacity building set up by COPHES/DEMOCOPHES.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Cooperação Internacional , Formulação de Políticas , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Orçamentos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Coleta de Dados , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Estudos de Viabilidade , Guias como Assunto , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Desenvolvimento de Programas/economia , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Política Pública
13.
Mutagenesis ; 29(6): 393-400, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25296962

RESUMO

The use of biomarkers of early genetic effects, predictive for cancer, such as micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes, may help to investigate the association between diet and cancer. We hypothesised that the presence of mutagens in the diet may increase MN formation. A 'pooled' standardised analysis was performed by applying the same experimental protocol for the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay in 625 young healthy women after delivery from five European study populations (Greece, Denmark, UK, Spain and Norway). We assessed MN frequencies in mono- and binucleated T-lymphocytes (MNMONO and MNBN) and the cytokinesis blocked proliferation index using a semi-automated image analysis system. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were used to estimate intake of fatty acids and a broad range of immunotoxic and genotoxic/carcinogenic compounds through the diet. Pooled difference based on delivery type revealed higher MNMONO frequencies in caesarean than in vaginal delivery (P = 0.002). Statistical analysis showed a decrease in MNMONO frequencies with increasing calculated omega-6 PUFA concentrations and a decrease in MNBN frequencies with increasing calculated omega-3 PUFA concentrations. The expected toxic compounds estimated by FFQs were not associated with MN formation in mothers after delivery. In pregnant women, an omega-3 and -6 rich diet estimated by FFQ is associated with lower MN formation during pregnancy and delivery.


Assuntos
Dieta , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Comportamento Alimentar , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Citocinese/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Gravidez , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 484: 121-8, 2014 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24691212

RESUMO

Maternal diet can result in exposure to environmental contaminants including dioxins which may influence foetal growth. We investigated the association between maternal diet and birth outcomes by defining a dioxin-rich diet. We used validated food frequency questionnaires to assess the diet of pregnant women from Greece, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark and Norway and estimated plasma dioxin-like activity by the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR-CALUX®) bioassay in 604 maternal blood samples collected at delivery. We applied reduced rank regression to identify a dioxin-rich dietary pattern based on dioxin-like activity (DR-CALUX®) levels in maternal plasma, and calculated a dioxin-diet score as an estimate of adherence to this dietary pattern. In the five country population, dioxin-diet score was characterised by high consumption of red and white meat, lean and fatty fish, low-fat dairy and low consumption of salty snacks and high-fat cheese, during pregnancy. The upper tertile of the dioxin-diet score was associated with a change in birth weight of -121g (95% confidence intervals: -232, -10g) compared to the lower tertile after adjustment for confounders. A small non-significant reduction in gestational age was also observed (-1.4days, 95% CI: -3.8, 1.0days). Our results suggest that maternal diet might contribute to the exposure of the foetus to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and may be related to reduced birth weight. More studies are needed to develop updated dietary guidelines for women of reproductive age, aiming to the reduction of dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants as dioxins and dioxin-like compounds.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Dioxinas/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Política Ambiental , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Grécia/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
Environ Health Perspect ; 122(2): 193-200, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24252472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leukemia incidence has increased in recent decades among European children, suggesting that early-life environmental exposures play an important role in disease development. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the hypothesis that childhood susceptibility may increase as a result of in utero exposure to carcinogens and hormonally acting factors. Using cord blood samples from the NewGeneris cohort, we examined associations between a range of biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and hormonally acting factors with micronuclei (MN) frequency as a proxy measure of cancer risk. Associations with gene expression and genotype were also explored. METHODS: DNA and protein adducts, gene expression profiles, circulating hormonally acting factors, and GWAS (genome-wide association study) data were investigated in relation to genomic damage measured by MN frequency in lymphocytes from 623 newborns enrolled between 2006 and 2010 across Europe. RESULTS: Malondialdehyde DNA adducts (M1dG) were associated with increased MN frequency in binucleated lymphocytes (MNBN), and exposure to androgenic, estrogenic, and dioxin-like compounds was associated with MN frequency in mononucleated lymphocytes (MNMONO), although no monotonic exposure-outcome relationship was observed. Lower frequencies of MNBN were associated with a 1-unit increase expression of PDCD11, LATS2, TRIM13, CD28, SMC1A, IL7R, and NIPBL genes. Gene expression was significantly higher in association with the highest versus lowest category of bulky and M1dG-DNA adducts for five and six genes, respectively. Gene expression levels were significantly lower for 11 genes in association with the highest versus lowest category of plasma AR CALUX® (chemically activated luciferase expression for androgens) (8 genes), ERα CALUX® (for estrogens) (2 genes), and DR CALUX® (for dioxins). Several SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) on chromosome 11 near FOLH1 significantly modified associations between androgen activity and MNBN frequency. Polymorphisms in EPHX1/2 and CYP2E1 were associated with MNBN. CONCLUSION: We measured in utero exposure to selected environmental carcinogens and circulating hormonally acting factors and detected associations with MN frequency in newborns circulating T lymphocytes. The results highlight mechanisms that may contribute to carcinogen-induced leukemia and require further research.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Sangue Fetal/citologia , Hormônios/análise , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Linfócitos T/química , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Adutos de DNA/efeitos adversos , Adutos de DNA/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genótipo , Hormônios/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucemia/induzido quimicamente , Malondialdeído/efeitos adversos , Malondialdeído/análise , Testes para Micronúcleos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
PLoS One ; 8(11): e81892, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24312375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are hypothesised to be risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), a group of haematological malignancies with a suspected environmental aetiology. Within the EnviroGenoMarkers study we utilised pre-diagnostic erythrocyte concentrations of Cd and Pb to determine whether exposure was associated with risk of B-cell NHL and multiple myeloma. METHODS: 194 incident cases of B-cell NHL and 76 cases of multiple myeloma diagnosed between 1990 and 2006 were identified from two existing cohorts; EPIC-Italy and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study. Cases were matched to healthy controls by centre, age, gender and date of blood collection. Cd and Pb were measured in blood samples provided at recruitment using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Logistic regression was applied to assess the association with risk. Analyses were stratified by cohort and gender and by subtype where possible. RESULTS: There was little evidence of an increased risk of B-cell NHL or multiple myeloma with exposure to Cd (B-cell NHL: OR 1.09 95%CI 0.61, 1.93, MM: OR 1.16 95% CI: 0.40, 3.40 ) or Pb (B-cell NHL: 0.93 95% CI 0.43, 2.02, multiple myeloma: OR 1.63 95%CI 0.45, 5.94) in the total population when comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of exposure. However, gender and cohort specific differences in results were observed. In females the risk of B-cell NHL was more than doubled in those with a body burden of Cd >1 µg/L (OR 2.20 95%CI; 1.04, 4.65). CONCLUSIONS: This nested case-control study does not support a consistent positive association between Cd or Pb and NHL, but there is some indication of a gender specific effect suggesting further research is warranted.


Assuntos
Cádmio/sangue , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Chumbo/sangue , Linfoma de Células B/sangue , Mieloma Múltiplo/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
17.
Environ Health Perspect ; 121(10): 1200-6, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23906905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco-smoke, airborne, and dietary exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been associated with reduced prenatal growth. Evidence from biomarker-based studies of low-exposed populations is limited. Bulky DNA adducts in cord blood reflect the prenatal effective dose to several genotoxic agents including PAHs. OBJECTIVES: We estimated the association between bulky DNA adduct levels and birth weight in a multicenter study and examined modification of this association by maternal intake of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant women from Denmark, England, Greece, Norway, and Spain were recruited in 2006-2010. Adduct levels were measured by the 32P-postlabeling technique in white blood cells from 229 mothers and 612 newborns. Maternal diet was examined through questionnaires. RESULTS: Adduct levels in maternal and cord blood samples were similar and positively correlated (median, 12.1 vs. 11.4 adducts in 108 nucleotides; Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.66, p < 0.001). Cord blood adduct levels were negatively associated with birth weight, with an estimated difference in mean birth weight of -129 g (95% CI: -233, -25 g) for infants in the highest versus lowest tertile of adducts. The negative association with birth weight was limited to births in Norway, Denmark, and England, the countries with the lowest adduct levels, and was more pronounced in births to mothers with low intake of fruits and vegetables (-248 g; 95% CI: -405, -92 g) compared with those with high intake (-58 g; 95% CI: -206, 90 g). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal exposure to genotoxic agents that induce the formation of bulky DNA adducts may affect intrauterine growth. Maternal fruit and vegetable consumption may be protective.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Adutos de DNA/sangue , Dieta , Sangue Fetal/química , Frutas , Verduras , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade
18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 120(12): 1739-45, 2012 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23092936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acrylamide is a common dietary exposure that crosses the human placenta. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and developmental toxicity has been observed in rodents. OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between prenatal exposure to acrylamide and birth outcomes in a prospective European mother-child study. METHODS: Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide were measured in cord blood (reflecting cumulated exposure in the last months of pregnancy) from 1,101 singleton pregnant women recruited in Denmark, England, Greece, Norway, and Spain during 2006-2010. Maternal diet was estimated through food-frequency questionnaires. RESULTS: Both acrylamide and glycidamide Hb adducts were associated with a statistically significant reduction in birth weight and head circumference. The estimated difference in birth weight for infants in the highest versus lowest quartile of acrylamide Hb adduct levels after adjusting for gestational age and country was -132 g (95% CI: -207, -56); the corresponding difference for head circumference was -0.33 cm (95% CI: -0.61, -0.06). Findings were similar in infants of nonsmokers, were consistent across countries, and remained after adjustment for factors associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal consumption of foods rich in acrylamide, such as fried potatoes, was associated with cord blood acrylamide adduct levels and with reduced birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary exposure to acrylamide was associated with reduced birth weight and head circumference. Consumption of specific foods during pregnancy was associated with higher acrylamide exposure in utero. If confirmed, these findings suggest that dietary intake of acrylamide should be reduced among pregnant women.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/sangue , Peso ao Nascer , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Compostos de Epóxi/sangue , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Espectrometria de Massas , Exposição Materna , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários
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