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1.
Molecules ; 26(22)2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834093

RESUMO

Anti-Kasha behavior has been the subject of intense debate in the last few years, as demonstrated by the high number of papers appearing in the literature on this topic, dealing with both mechanistic and applicative aspects of this phenomenon. Examples of anomalous emitters reported in the last 10 years are collected in the present review, which is focused on strictly anti-Kasha organic molecules displaying radiative deactivation from Sn and/or Tn, with n greater than 1.

2.
Chemistry ; 27(67): 16690-16700, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634149

RESUMO

Organic materials with multiple emissions tunable by external stimuli represent a great challenge. TTPyr, crystallizing in different polymorphs, shows a very rich photophyisics comprising excitation-dependent fluorescence and phosphorescence at ambient conditions, and mechanochromic and thermochromic behavior. Transformation among the different species has been followed by thermal and X-ray diffraction analyses and the emissive features interpreted through structural results and DFT/TDDFT calculations. Particularly intriguing is the polymorph TTPyr(HT), serendipitously obtained at high temperature but stable also at room temperature, whose non-centrosymmetric structure guarantees an SHG efficiency 10 times higher than that of standard urea. Its crystal packing, where only the TT units are strongly rigidified by π-π stacking interactions while the Pyr moieties possess partial conformational freedom, is responsible for the observed dual fluorescence. The potentialities of TTPyr for bioimaging have been successfully established.

3.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672710

RESUMO

The presence of excited-states and charge-separated species was identified through UV and visible laser pump and visible/near-infrared probe femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy in spin coated films of poly[N-9″-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4,7-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) nanoparticles and mesoparticles. Optical gain in the mesoparticle films is observed after excitation at both 400 and 610 nm. In the mesoparticle film, charge generation after UV excitation appears after around 50 ps, but little is observed after visible pump excitation. In the nanoparticle film, as for a uniform film of the pure polymer, charge formation was efficiently induced by UV excitation pump, while excitation of the low energetic absorption states (at 610 nm) induces in the nanoparticle film a large optical gain region reducing the charge formation efficiency. It is proposed that the different intermolecular interactions and molecular order within the nanoparticles and mesoparticles are responsible for their markedly different photophysical behavior. These results therefore demonstrate the possibility of a hitherto unexplored route to stimulated emission in a conjugated polymer that has relatively undemanding film preparation requirements.


Assuntos
Carbazóis/química , Nanopartículas/química , Polímeros/química , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Semicondutores
4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(2): 834-839, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975897

RESUMO

Hybrid perovskite (HP) materials are of interest in photovoltaics and lighting applications. Here we report that hybrid perovskite composites, as crystallized powders, can behave as intelligent materials showing highly sensitive and reversible mechanochromic luminescence (MCL). Composites consisting of monolayered 2D HP and 3D HP components exhibit reversible tunable color emission upon mechanical strain. The bluish-whitish emission of the 2D HP turns into orange in the composite owing to an energy transfer process. The bright green emission, observed as soon as the composite is slightly crushed, originates from the 3D HP after efficient energy funneling from the multi-layered 2D HP produced at the 2D/3D interface by the mechanical treatment. Besides highlighting the key role of the interfaces in light emission of HP, our findings pave the way for hybrid perovskites as highly sensitive MCL smart materials for mechanosensors, security papers, or optical storage applications.

5.
Chem Sci ; 11(29): 7599-7608, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033610

RESUMO

The development of purely organic materials showing multicolor fluorescent and phosphorescent behaviour represents a formidable challenge in view of practical applications. Herein the rich photophysical behaviour of 3-(pyridin-2-yl)triimidazotriazine (TT-Py) organic molecule, comprising excitation-dependent fluorescence and phosphorescence under ambient conditions in both blended films and the crystalline phase, is investigated by means of steady state, time resolved and ultrafast spectroscopies and interpreted on the basis of X-ray diffraction studies and DFT/TDDFT calculations. In particular, by proper excitation wavelength, dual fluorescence and dual phosphorescence of molecular origin can be observed together with low energy phosphorescences resulting from aggregate species. It is demonstrated that the multiple emission properties originate from the copresence, in the investigated system, of an extended polycyclic nitrogen-rich moiety (TT), strongly rigidified by π-π stacking interactions and short C-H···N hydrogen bonds, and a fragment (Py) having partial conformational freedom.

6.
Org Lett ; 22(8): 3263-3267, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255355

RESUMO

We demonstrate the broad applicability of the annulation protocol combining, in one pot, a direct arylation and cross aldol condensation for the straightforward synthesis at gram-scale of π-extended thiophene-based scaffolds. The regiospecific direct arylation drives the subsequent cross-aldol condensation proceed under the same basic conditions, and the overall protocol has broad applicability in the synthesis of extended aromatics wherein the thiophene ring is annulated with furans, pyridines, indoles, benzothiophenes, and benzofurans. These scaffolds can be further elaborated into π-extended, highly fluorescent oligomers with a central deficient benzothiadiazole unit with up to nine aromatic rings through coupling reactions.

7.
Pharmaceutics ; 11(9)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480633

RESUMO

A new polymer brush was synthesized by spontaneous polymerization of benzofulvene macromonomer 6-MOEG-9-T-BF3k bearing a nona(ethylene glycol) side chain linked to the 3-phenylindene scaffold by means of a triazole heterocycle. The polymer structure was studied by SEC-MALS, NMR spectroscopy, and MALDI-TOF MS techniques, and the results supported the role of oligomeric initiatory species in the spontaneous polymerization of polybenzofulvene derivatives. The aggregation features of high molecular weight poly-6-MOEG-9-T-BF3k-FE were investigated by pyrene fluorescence analysis, dynamic light scattering studies, and transmission electron microscopy, which suggested a tendency towards the formation of spherical objects showing dimensions in the range of 20-200 nm. Moreover, poly-6-MOEG-9-T-BF3k-FE showed an interesting cytocompatibility in the whole concentration range tested that, besides its aggregation features, makes this polybenzofulvene brush a good polymer candidate for nanoencapsulation and delivery of drug molecules. Finally, the photo-physical features of poly-6-MOEG-9-T-BF3k-FE could allow the biodistribution of the resulting drug delivery systems to be monitored by fluorescence microscopy techniques.

8.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337009

RESUMO

Organic room temperature persistent luminescence is a fascinating but still largely unexplored phenomenon. Cyclic-triimidazole and its halogenated (Br, I) derivatives have recently revealed as intriguing phosphors characterized by multifaceted emissive behavior including room temperature ultralong phosphorescence (RTUP) associated with the presence of H-aggregates in their crystal structure. Here, we move towards a multicomponent system by incorporating a fluoropyridinic fragment on the cyclic-triimidazole scaffold. Such chromophore enhances the molecular properties resulting in a high photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) in solution but preserves the solid-state RTUP. By means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, theoretical calculations, steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy on solutions, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) blends and crystals, the nature of the different radiative deactivation channels of the compound has been disclosed. In particular, the molecular fluorescence and phosphorescence, this latter observed in frozen solution and in PMMA blends, are associated to deactivation from S1 and T1 respectively, while the low energy RTUP, observed only for crystals, is interpreted as originated from H aggregates.


Assuntos
Fluorescência , Luminescência , Temperatura , Triazinas/química , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Análise Espectral
9.
Front Chem ; 7: 409, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263691

RESUMO

The photophysics of water and propan-1-ol suspensions of poly [N-9"-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4,7-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'- benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) nanoparticles and mesoparticles has been studied by ultrafast spectroscopy. High molar mass polymer (HMM > 20 kg/mol) forms nanoparticles with around 50 nm diameter via mini-emulsion post-polymerization, while low molar mass (LMM < 5 kg/mol) polymer prepared by dispersion polymerization results in particles with a diameter of almost one order of magnitude larger (450 ± 50 nm). In this study, the presence of excited-states and charge separated species was identified through UV pump and visible/near-infrared probe femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A different behavior for the HMM nanoparticles has been identified compared to the LMM mesoparticles. The nanoparticles exhibit typical features of an energetically disordered conjugated polymer with a broad density of states, allowing for delayed spectral relaxation of excited states, while the mesoparticles show a J-aggregate-like behavior where interchain interactions are less efficient. Stimulated emission in the red-near infrared region has been found in the mesoparticles which indicates that they present a more energetically ordered system.

10.
Chem Asian J ; 14(6): 853-858, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600907

RESUMO

Four coordination compounds [Zn3 (CH3 COO)6 (H2 O)2 ](TT)2 [Cd(H2 O)6 ](ClO4 )2 (TT)2 , [Cd(H2 O)6 ](BF4 )2 (TT)2 , [Zn(H2 O)6 ](BF4 )2 (TT)2 (1-4) accommodating the crystallization induced emissive triimidazo[1,2-a:1',2'-c:1'',2''-e][1,3,5]triazine (TT) as a guest in their crystal lattice are isolated and fully photophysically and structurally characterized. Their emission properties are compared with those of afterglow TT and interpreted taking into account the heavy atom effect and crystal packing similarities and differences. In the case of 1, due to the closeness of the TT H-aggregates arrangement with that of the phosphor's pure phase, the observed intensification of the phosphorescent emission at the expense of the prompt one is attributed to the extrinsic heavy atom effect of Zn. In 2 and 3, the heavier Cd atom is responsible for a decrease in the lifetimes of the afterglow emission, despite the presence of tightly overlapped H-dimers in the crystal structure. Finally, for 4, isostructural with 3, the Zn atom reveals in RTUP lifetime comparable with that of 1.

11.
Chemistry ; 25(10): 2452-2456, 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561845

RESUMO

Considering that heavy halogen atoms can be used to tune the emissive properties of organic luminogens, the understanding of their role in photophysics is fundamental for materials engineering. Here, the extrinsic and intrinsic heavy-atom effects on the photophysics of organic crystals were separately evaluated by comparing cyclic triimidazole (TT) with its monoiodo derivative (TTI) and its co-crystal with diiodotetrafluorobenzene (TTCo). Crystals of TT showed room-temperature ultralong phosphorescence (RTUP) originated from H-aggregation. TTI and TTCo displayed two additional long-lived components, the origin of which is elucidated through single-crystal X-ray and DFT/TDDFT studies. The results highlight the different effects of the I atom on the three phosphorescent emissions. Intrinsic heavy-atom effects play a major role on molecular phosphorescence, which is displayed at room temperature only for TTI. The H-aggregate RTUP and the I⋅⋅⋅N XB-induced (XB=halogen bond) phosphorescence on the other side depend only on packing features.

12.
Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom ; 1866(5-6): 661-667, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621606

RESUMO

Amyloid structures are universal structures, widely diffuse in nature. Silk, capable of forming some of the strongest tensile materials on earth represents an important example of formation of functional amyloid fibrils, a process reminiscent of the oligomerization of peptides involved in neurodegenerative diseases. The stability of silk fibroin solutions in different conditions and its transition from α-helix/random coil to ß-sheet structures, at the basis of gelation processes and fibril formation, have been here investigated and monitored employing different biophysical approaches. Silk fibroin aggregation state as a function of concentration, pH and aging has been characterized employing NMR ordered diffusion spectroscopy. The change of silk fibroin diffusion coefficient over time, which reflects the progress of oligomerization, has been monitored for silk fibroin alone and in the presence of a polycondensed aromatic dye, namely rhodamine 6G. NMR, UV and DLS measurements indicated that rhodamine specifically binds to silk fibroin with a micromolar KD. The reported data reveal, for the first time, that RHD is capable of inhibiting fibroin self-association, thus controlling ß-conformational transition at the basis of fibril formation. The described approach could be extended to further protein systems, allowing better control of the oligomerisation process.


Assuntos
Fibroínas/metabolismo , Agregados Proteicos , Rodaminas/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Multimerização Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(14): 11794-11800, 2018 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29546977

RESUMO

Push-coating is a green and extremely low-cost process in which only few microliters of conjugated polymer solutions are used to produce thin films using capillary forces. Here, we adapt this fabrication technique to replicate self-assembled nanoporous structures on green and red light-emitting conjugated polymer thin films. These films display ring-like photoluminescence and are successfully integrated into polymer light-emitting devices as emitting layers. At low applied voltages, the green-emitting devices exhibit electroluminescence (EL) from hexagonally arranged nanopixel arrays resulting from a stronger electric field in the thinner areas inside the pores. By gradually increasing the voltage up to 10 V, the emission extends to the areas around the pores. At voltages higher than 10 V, a nonreversible nanopixel to nanoring-like switching of the EL can be observed. After filling the pores with a second blue-emitting conjugated polymer, voltage-dependent reversible color tuning of the EL is achieved in the nanostructured light-emitting bilayers.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(51): 16302-16307, 2017 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106768

RESUMO

The performance of solid luminogens depends on both their inherent electronic properties and their packing status. Intermolecular interactions have been exploited to achieve persistent room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) from organic molecules. However, the design of organic materials with bright RTP and the rationalization of the role of interchromophoric electronic coupling remain challenging tasks. Cyclic triimidazole has been shown to be a promising scaffold for such purposes owing to its crystallization-induced room-temperature ultralong phosphorescence (RTUP), which has been associated with H-aggregation. Herein, we report three triimidazole derivatives as significant examples of multifaceted emission. In particular, dual fluorescence, RTUP, and phosphorescence from the molecular and supramolecular units were observed. H-aggregation is responsible for the red RTUP, and Br substituents favor yellow molecular phosphorescence while halogen-bonded Br⋅⋅⋅Br tetrameric units are involved in the blue-green phosphorescence.

15.
Inorg Chem ; 56(9): 4829-4839, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28387513

RESUMO

New heteroleptic compounds of platinum(II)-containing cyclometalated N-heterocyclic carbenes, [PtCl(R-C^C*)(PPh3)] [R-CH^C*-κC* = 3-methyl-1-(naphthalen-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene (R-C = Naph; 1A), 1-[4-(ethoxycarbonyl)phenyl]-3-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene (R = CO2Et; 1B), and [Pt(R-C^C*)(py)(PPh3)]PF6 (py = pyridine; R-C = Naph, 2A; R = CO2Et, 2B], have been prepared and fully characterized. All of them were obtained as the trans-(C*,PPh3) isomer in high yields. The selectivity of their synthesis has been explained in terms of the degree of transphobia (T) of pairs of ligands in trans positions. X-ray diffraction studies on both 2A and 2B revealed that only in 2A, containing a C^C* with a more extended π system, do the molecules assemble themselves into head-to-tail pairs through intermolecular π···π contacts. The photophysical properties of 2A and 2B and those of the related compounds [Pt(NC-C^C*)(PPh3)L]PF6 [NC-CH^C*-κC* = 1-(4-cyanophenyl)-3-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene; L = pyridine (py; 2C), 2,6-dimethylphenylisocyanide (CNXyl; 3C), and 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (MMI; 4C)] have been examined to analyze the influence of the R substituent on R-C^C* (R-C = Naph; R = CO2Et, CN) and that of the ancillary ligands (L) on them. Experimental data and time-dependent density functional theory calculations showed the similarity of the electronic features associated with R-C^C* (R = CN, CO2Et) and their difference with respect to R-C^C* (R-C = Naph). All of the compounds are very efficient blue emitters in poly(methyl methacrylate) films under an argon atmosphere, with QY values ranging from 68% (2B) to 93% (2C). In the solid state, the color of the emission changes to yellowish-orange for compounds 2A (λmax = 600 nm) and 3C (λmax = 590 nm) because of the formation of aggregates through intermolecular π···π interactions. 2C and 3C were chosen to fabricate fully solution-processed electroluminescent devices with blue-light (2C), yellow-orange-light (3C), and white-light (mixtures of 2C and 3C) emission from neat films of the compounds as emitting layers.

16.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(8): 1894-1898, 2017 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28388077

RESUMO

Solid-state luminescent materials with long lifetimes are the subject of ever-growing interest from both a scientific and a technological point of view. However, when dealing with organic compounds, the achievement of highly efficient materials is limited by aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) phenomena on one side and by ultrafast deactivation of the excited states on the other. Here, we report on a simple organic molecule, namely, cyclic triimidazole (C9H6N6), 1, showing crystallization-induced emissive (CIE) behavior and, in particular, ultralong phosphorescence due to strong coupling in H-aggregated molecules. Our experimental data reveal that luminescence lifetimes up to 1 s, which are several orders of magnitude longer than those of conventional organic fluorophores, can be realized under ambient conditions, thus expanding the class of organic materials for phosphorescence applications.

17.
Chemphyschem ; 18(16): 2157-2161, 2017 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28240411

RESUMO

A novel and versatile approach to tune photoluminescence and electroluminescence by in situ controlled thermal deprotonation is presented. This methodology, based on a single organic π-conjugated material (pyrene derivative), allows the manufacturing of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) prototypes by solution methods with controlled tunable emission ranging from the orange (protonated form of the dye) to the blue (pristine or deprotonated form). While several protonation/deprotonation cycles can be performed on thin films, for the devices only one cycle is possible so that their use as anti-fraud labels can be envisaged. OLEDs exhibit daylight visible brightness of 150 cd m-2 and device lifetime exceeding 30 hours of continuous operation. Thanks to the simplicity of both material design and device fabrication our approach opens new perspectives in the wide field of thermal sensors for customer care or risk perception.

18.
ACS Omega ; 2(9): 5453-5459, 2017 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31457813

RESUMO

In order to obtain new fluorophores potentially useful in imidazole labeling and subsequent conjugation, a small series of Morita-Baylis-Hillman acetates (3a-c) was designed, synthesized, and reacted with imidazole. The optical properties of the corresponding imidazole derivatives 4a-c were analyzed both in solution and in the solid state. Although the solutions display a very weak emission, the powders show a blue emission, particularly enhanced in the case of compound 4c possessing two methoxy groups in the cinnamic scaffold. The photophysical study confirmed the hypothesis that the molecular rigidity of the solid state enhances the emission properties of these compounds by triggering the restriction of intramolecular motions, paving the way for their applications in fluorogenic labeling.

19.
Faraday Discuss ; 196: 143-161, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27901153

RESUMO

We report the design, synthesis, molecular optical properties, and solid state emissive behaviour of a series of novel compounds, which, similar to the archetypal AIE luminogen tetraphenylethene, are formed of a central olefin stator and decorated with either three or four rotors. These rotors, being either electron-rich substituted benzenes, or electron-withdrawing functional groups (esters, ketones, cyano groups) confer a "push-pull" character to the overall molecular structure. Building on both new and already published contributions, a comprehensive picture of the properties and the potential of these compounds is provided.

20.
Sci Rep ; 6: 34096, 2016 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27677240

RESUMO

Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) operating in the near-infrared spectral region are gaining growing relevance for emerging photonic technologies, such as lab-on-chip platforms for medical diagnostics, flexible self-medicated pads for photodynamic therapy, night vision and plastic-based telecommunications. The achievement of efficient near-infrared electroluminescence from solution-processed OLEDs is, however, an open challenge due to the low photoluminescence efficiency of most narrow-energy-gap organic emitters. Diketopyrrolopyrrole-boron complexes are promising candidates to overcome this limitation as they feature extremely high photoluminescence quantum yield in the near-infrared region and high chemical stability. Here, by incorporating suitably functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole derivatives emitting at ~760 nm in an active matrix of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) and without using complex light out-coupling or encapsulation strategies, we obtain all-solution-processed NIR-OLEDs with external quantum efficiency as high as 0.5%. Importantly, our test-bed devices show no efficiency roll-off even for high current densities and high operational stability, retaining over 50% of the initial radiant emittance for over 50 hours of continuous operation at 10 mA/cm2, which emphasizes the great applicative potential of the proposed strategy.

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