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1.
Med Image Anal ; 75: 102264, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781160

RESUMO

Cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy response predictions from tissue specimens highly depend on the phenotype and topological distribution of constituting histological entities. Thus, adequate tissue representations for encoding histological entities is imperative for computer aided cancer patient care. To this end, several approaches have leveraged cell-graphs, capturing the cell-microenvironment, to depict the tissue. These allow for utilizing graph theory and machine learning to map the tissue representation to tissue functionality, and quantify their relationship. Though cellular information is crucial, it is incomplete alone to comprehensively characterize complex tissue structure. We herein treat the tissue as a hierarchical composition of multiple types of histological entities from fine to coarse level, capturing multivariate tissue information at multiple levels. We propose a novel multi-level hierarchical entity-graph representation of tissue specimens to model the hierarchical compositions that encode histological entities as well as their intra- and inter-entity level interactions. Subsequently, a hierarchical graph neural network is proposed to operate on the hierarchical entity-graph and map the tissue structure to tissue functionality. Specifically, for input histology images, we utilize well-defined cells and tissue regions to build HierArchical Cell-to-Tissue (HACT) graph representations, and devise HACT-Net, a message passing graph neural network, to classify the HACT representations. As part of this work, we introduce the BReAst Carcinoma Subtyping (BRACS) dataset, a large cohort of Haematoxylin & Eosin stained breast tumor regions-of-interest, to evaluate and benchmark our proposed methodology against pathologists and state-of-the-art computer-aided diagnostic approaches. Through comparative assessment and ablation studies, our proposed method is demonstrated to yield superior classification results compared to alternative methods as well as individual pathologists. The code, data, and models can be accessed at https://github.com/histocartography/hact-net.

2.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 16(1): 62, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717691

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection can impact the physical, cognitive, mental health of patients, especially in those recovered in intensive care units. Moreover, it was proved that the effects of the virus may persist for weeks or months. The term long-COVID or post-COVID syndrome is commonly used for indicating a variety of physical and psychological symptoms that continue after the resolution of the acute phase. This narrative review is aimed at providing an updated overview of the impact of physical, cognitive, and psychological health disorders in COVID-19 survivors, by summarizing the data already published in literature in the last year. Studies cited were found through PubMed searches. We also presented an overview of the post-COVID-19 health consequences on three important aspects: nutritional status, neurological disorders, and physical health. Moreover, to activate a correct health planning policy, a multidisciplinary approach for addressing the post- COVID-19 issue, has been proposed. Finally, the involvement of health professionals is necessary even after the pandemic, to reduce expected post-pandemic psychosocial responses and mental health disorders.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576322

RESUMO

Rare cancers are identified as those with an annual incidence of fewer than 6 per 100,000 persons and includes both epithelial and stromal tumors from different anatomical areas. The advancement of analytical methods has produced an accurate molecular characterization of most human cancers, suggesting a "molecular classification" that has allowed the establishment of increasingly personalized therapeutic strategies. However, the limited availability of rare cancer samples has resulted in very few therapeutic options for these tumors, often leading to poor prognosis. Long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs mostly involved in tumor progression and drug response. In particular, the lncRNA HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) represents an emergent diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarker in many human cancers. The aim of this review is to highlight the role of HOTAIR in rare cancers, proposing it as a new biomarker usable in the management of these tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: in recent years, the management of advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) has been greatly improved with integrated strategies including stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT). The administration of SRT has been demonstrated, particularly in oligo-metastatic (om) CRC, to be a safe and effective option. Interestingly, it has been demonstrated that SRT can induce regression of tumors in non-irradiated regions ("abscopal effect") through stimulation of anti-tumor immune effects ("radiation-induced immunity"). We have recently shown that lung-limited omCRC is characterized by regression of tumor clones bearing specific key driver gene mutations. AIMS: to assess the genetic evolution on tumor cancer cells induced by SRT in lung-limited omCRC. Secondary objectives included descriptions of the abscopal effect, responses' duration, toxicity, and progression-free survival. A translational research will be performed to evaluate tumor genetic evolution (through liquid biopsies and Next Generation Sequencing), HLA class I repertoire, peripheral immune cells, and cytokine dynamics. METHODS: PRELUDE-1 is a prospective translational study. SRT will be administered only to the largest nodule (with a maximum diameter ≤ 25 mm) in omCRC with two or three radiologically evident lesions. The sample size is based on the innovative hypothesis that radiation-induced immunity could induce regression of tumor clones bearing KRAS oncogene mutations. According to the binomial test, considering the frequency of KRAS mutations and assuming a probability of mutant KRAS→wild type KRAS of p0 = 0.0077, with α = 0.05 and 1-ß = 0.60, the final sample size is 25 patients.

7.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439967

RESUMO

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus, "SARS-CoV-2", was recognized as the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Several studies have explored the changes and the role of inflammatory cells and cytokines in the immunopathogenesis of the disease, but until today, the results have been controversial. Based on these premises, we conducted a retrospective assessment of monocyte intracellular TNF-α expression (iTNF-α) and on the frequencies of lymphocyte sub-populations in twenty-five patients with moderate/severe COVID-19. We found lymphopenia in all COVID-19 infected subjects compared to healthy subjects. On initial observation, in patients with favorable outcomes, we detected a high absolute eosinophil count and a high CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes ratio, while in the Exitus Group, we observed high neutrophil and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts. During infection, in patients with favorable outcomes, we observed a rise in the lymphocyte count, in the monocyte and in Treg lymphocyte counts, and in the CD4+ and in CD8+ T lymphocytes count but a reduction in the CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio. Instead, in the Exitus Group, we observed a reduction in the Treg lymphocyte counts and a decrease in iTNF-α expression. Our preliminary findings point to a modulation of the different cellular mediators of the immune system, which probably play a key role in the outcomes of COVID-19.

8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 734689, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386018

RESUMO

The response to anti-SARS-Cov-2 preventive vaccine shows high interpersonal variability at short and medium term. One of the explanations might be the individual HLA allelic variants. Indeed, B cell response is stimulated and sustained by CD4+ T helper cells activated by antigens presented by HLA-class II alleles on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The impact of the number of antigens binding to HLA class-II alleles on the antibody response to the COVID vaccine has been assessed in a cohort of 56 healthcare workers who received the full schedule of the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccine. Such vaccine is based on the entire spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2. Ab titers have been evaluated 2 weeks after the first dose as well as 2 weeks and 4 months after the boosting dose. HLA-DRB1 and DBQ1 for each of the vaccinees have been assessed, and strong binders have been predicted. The analysis showed no significant correlation between the short-medium-term Ab titers and the number of strong binders (SB) for each individual. These results indicate that levels of Ab response to the spike glycoprotein is not dependent on HLA class II allele, suggesting an equivalent efficacy at global level of the currently used vaccines. Furthermore, the pattern of persistence in Ab titer does not correlate with specific alleles or with the number of SBs.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-D/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
9.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 2897-2911, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267567

RESUMO

Purpose: A risk assessment matrix is a widely used tool for analyzing, assessing and setting priorities in risk management in many fields. This paper overviews critical variables, advantages, disadvantages, strengths and weaknesses of this tool, according to the ISO 31000 risk management framework. Results: Risk assessment is one of the key stages in the Risk Management Process and involves specific steps: identifying hazards, analyzing and evaluating all possible risks. Several methods are developed to assess risks in the literature. A risk matrix method, also called "decision matrix risk assessment (DMRA) technique", is a systematic approach used to determine the risk level and to compare different risks and define which threats need to be controlled first. The actors involved in risk assessment are called on to manage different issues related to the choice of the most appropriate methodological approach, the assessment of the adequacy of the existing control measures, the articulation of risk consequence domains, the definition of the impact-consequences, the explanation of risk likelihood scales and the development of a risk matrix. Conclusion: We highlighted a number of recommendations in order to address these issues, especially useful when healthcare organizations provide insufficient guidance on how to use risk matrices as well as what to do in response to the existing criticisms on their use.

10.
World J Plast Surg ; 10(2): 98-102, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307105

RESUMO

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent malignant eyelid tumor, followed by squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous gland carcinoma and malignant melanoma. These eyelid malignancies represent main reason for eyelid reconstruction in ophthalmoplastic surgery which can be challenging. Lower eyelid orbicularis oculi myocutaneous flap was used for reconstructive purpose in four consecutive patients with a full thickness upper eyelid BCC. Digital photographs were taken at baseline, 1 month, 3 and 6 months after surgery to assess clinical outcome. Four patients underwent full thickness upper eyelid reconstruction with a lower eyelid orbicularis oculi myocutaneous flap after BCC radical resection with 3-mm safe margins. Histological subtypes showed tumor complete excision in all cases. No patient showed local recurrence at a mean 12 months follow-up. The high functional-esthetical success rate of the modified Hughes procedure corresponds with the beneficial results, which have been reported in previous publications. None of the treated patients complained about forced temporary closure of eyelid. In all four cases treated, aesthetic and functional outcome were satisfactory.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208964

RESUMO

Gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) are rare diseases occurring in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. They are characterized by the loss of epithelial tubular gland elements, and by the increased expression of neuroendocrine markers. GEP-NENs are subdivided into two histo-pathological types, gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) and gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (GEP-NECs). According to WHO 2017 and 2019 classification criteria are graded and staged in four categories, NET-G1, NET-G2, NET-G3, and NEC-G3. The molecular characterization of these tumors can be fundamental for the identification of new diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of the paralogous 13 HOX genes, normally involved in embryogenic development and frequently deregulated in human cancers, and of the HOX regulating lncRNA HOTAIR in GEP-NENs. The expression of HOX genes is gradually lost in the transition from GEP NET G1 to NET/NEC G3 tumors, while HOTAIR expression, inversely correlated with HOX genes expression and weakly expressed in low-grade GEP NENs, becomes aberrant in NET G3 and NEC G3 categories. Our data highlights their potential role in the molecular stratification of GEP-NENs by suggesting new prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Genes Homeobox , Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Intestinais/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Regulação para Cima
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2118475, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309665

RESUMO

Importance: Although bevacizumab is a standard of care in combination treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), its clinical benefit has been limited. Objective: To determine whether sequential scheduling of bevacizumab administration in combination with chemotherapy improves treatment efficacy in patients with mCRC, in keeping with the tumor vascular normalization hypothesis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This open-label, randomized clinical phase 3 trial was conducted from May 8, 2012, to December 9, 2015, at 3 Italian centers. Patients aged 18 to 75 years with unresectable, previously untreated, or single line-treated mCRC were recruited. Follow-up was completed December 31, 2019, and data were analyzed from February 26 to July 24, 2020. Interventions: Patients received 12 biweekly cycles of standard oxaliplatin-based regimens (modified FOLFOX-6 [levo-folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin]/modified CAPOX [capecitabine and oxaliplatin]) plus bevacizumab administered either on the same day as chemotherapy (standard arm) or 4 days before chemotherapy (experimental arm). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the objective response rate (ORR) measured with Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1. Secondary end points included progression-free survival, overall survival, safety, and quality of life (QOL). Results: Overall, 230 patients (136 men [59.1%]; median age, 62.3 [interquartile range, 53.3-67.6] years) were randomly assigned to the standard arm (n = 115) or the experimental arm (n = 115). The median duration of follow-up was 68.3 (95% CI, 61.0-70.0) months. No difference in ORR (57.4% [95% CI, 47.8%-66.6%] in the standard arm and 56.5% [95% CI, 47.0-65.7] in the experimental arm; P = .89) or progression-free survival (10.5 [95% CI, 9.1-12.3] months in the standard arm and 11.7 [95% CI, 9.9-12.9] months in the experimental arm; P = .15) was observed. However, the median overall survival was 29.8 (95% CI, 22.5-41.1) months in the experimental arm compared with 24.1 (95% CI, 18.6-29.8) months in the standard arm (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.54-0.99; P = .04). Moreover, the experimental arm was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of severe diarrhea (6 [5.3%] vs 19 [16.5%]; P = .006) and nausea (2 [1.8%] vs 8 [7.0%]; P = .05) and improved physical functioning (mean [SD] change from baseline, 0.65 [1.96] vs -7.41 [2.95] at 24 weeks; P = .02), and constipation scores (mean [SD] change from baseline, -17.2 [3.73] vs -0.62 [4.44]; P = .003). Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, sequential administration of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy did not improve ORR, the primary end point. However, the overall survival advantage, fewer adverse effects, and better health-related QOL associated with sequential bevacizumab administration might provide the basis for exploring antiangiogenic combination treatments with innovative perspectives. Trial Registration: EudraCT Identifier: 2011-004997-27; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01718873.

13.
Virchows Arch ; 479(2): 233-246, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255145

RESUMO

The term "biobanking" is often misapplied to any collection of human biological materials (biospecimens) regardless of requirements related to ethical and legal issues or the standardization of different processes involved in tissue collection. A proper definition of biobanks is large collections of biospecimens linked to relevant personal and health information (health records, family history, lifestyle, genetic information) that are held predominantly for use in health and medical research. In addition, the International Organization for Standardization, in illustrating the requirements for biobanking (ISO 20387:2018), stresses the concept of biobanks being legal entities driving the process of acquisition and storage together with some or all of the activities related to collection, preparation, preservation, testing, analysing and distributing defined biological material as well as related information and data. In this review article, we aim to discuss the basic principles of biobanking, spanning from definitions to classification systems, standardization processes and documents, sustainability and ethical and legal requirements. We also deal with emerging specimens that are currently being generated and shaping the so-called next-generation biobanking, and we provide pragmatic examples of cancer-associated biobanking by discussing the process behind the construction of a biobank and the infrastructures supporting the implementation of biobanking in scientific research.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Pesquisa Biomédica , Medicina de Precisão , Manejo de Espécimes , Acreditação , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/classificação , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/ética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/classificação , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Pesquisa Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Medicina de Precisão/classificação , Medicina de Precisão/ética , Medicina de Precisão/normas , Manejo de Espécimes/classificação , Manejo de Espécimes/ética , Manejo de Espécimes/normas , Participação dos Interessados , Terminologia como Assunto
14.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 150, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empagliflozin (EMPA), a selective inhibitor of the sodium glucose co-transporter 2, reduced the risk of hospitalization for heart failure and cardiovascular death in type 2 diabetic patients in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. Recent trials evidenced several cardio-renal benefits of EMPA in non-diabetic patients through the involvement of biochemical pathways that are still to be deeply analysed. We aimed to evaluate the effects of EMPA on myocardial strain of non-diabetic mice treated with doxorubicin (DOXO) through the analysis of NLRP3 inflammasome and MyD88-related pathways resulting in anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic effects. METHODS: Preliminary cellular studies were performed on mouse cardiomyocytes (HL-1 cell line) exposed to doxorubicin alone or combined to EMPA. The following analysis were performed: determination of cell viability (through a modified MTT assay), study of intracellular ROS production, lipid peroxidation (quantifying intracellular malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal), intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Moreover, pro-inflammatory studies were also performed: expression of NLRP3 inflammasome, MyD88 myddosome and p65/NF-κB associated to secretion of cytokines involved in cardiotoxicity (Interleukins 1ß, 8, 6). C57Bl/6 mice were untreated (Sham, n = 6) or treated for 10 days with doxorubicin (DOXO, n = 6), EMPA (EMPA, n = 6) or doxorubicin combined to EMPA (DOXO-EMPA, n = 6). DOXO was injected intraperitoneally. Ferroptosis and xanthine oxidase were studied before and after treatments. Cardiac function studies, including EF, FS and radial/longitudinal strain were analysed through transthoracic echocardiography (Vevo 2100). Cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis were histologically studied through Picrosirius red and TUNEL assay, respectively and quantified through pro-collagen-1α1, MMP-9 and Caspase-3 expression. Tissue NLRP3, MyD88 and cytokines were also quantified before and after treatments through ELISA methods. RESULTS: Cardiomyocytes exposed to doxorubicin increased the intracellular Ca2+ content and expression of several pro-inflammatory markers associated to cell death; co-incubation with EMPA reduced significantly the magnitude of the effects. In preclinical study, EMPA increased EF and FS compared to DOXO groups (p < 0.05), prevented the reduction of radial and longitudinal strain after 10 days of treatment with doxorubicin (RS) 30.3% in EMPA-DOXO vs 15.7% in DOXO mice; LS - 17% in EMPA-DOXO vs - 11.7% in DOXO mice (p < 0.001 for both). Significant reductions in ferroptosis, xanthine oxidase expression, cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis in EMPA associated to DOXO were also seen. A reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, NLRP3, MyD88 and NF-kB in heart, liver and kidneys was also seen in DOXO-EMPA group compared to DOXO (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: EMPA reduced ferroptosis, fibrosis, apoptosis and inflammation in doxorubicin-treated mice through the involvement of NLRP3 and MyD88-related pathways, resulting in significant improvements in cardiac functions. These findings provides the proof of concept for translational studies designed to reduce adverse cardiovascular outcomes in non-diabetic cancer patients treated with doxorubicin.

15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, 45-55% of rectal cancer patients receive preoperative chemo- radio-therapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer (LARC). The idea of our study is to use Electrochemotherapy (ECT) before surgery, in patients with major clinical response after neoadjuvant therapy, to allow for a more conservative surgical approach. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the increase of the complete response rate after neoadjuvant treatment in LARC and to spare organ function due to total mesorectal excision (TME). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a Phase II randomized controlled trial enrolling 70 patients that will be developed in two stages. In the first step, 28 patients will be enrolled: 14 of these will receive ECT for four weeks after neo-adjuvant treatment and then local excision (treatment group) and 14 patients will receive neo-adjuvant treatment and then local excision (control group). If an increase of response rate is observed in the first stage, and/or feasibility/safety is demonstrated, the second stage of the trial will be performed, enrolling an additional 42 patients. The treatment response. in both the control arm and the treatment arm, will be assessed using the histopathological tumor regression grade on tissue specimens after local excision.

16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066146

RESUMO

The understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the dynamic modulation of the tumor microenvironment (TME) has led to the development of innovative treatments for advanced melanoma, including immune checkpoint blockade therapies. These approaches have revolutionized the treatment of melanoma, but are not effective in all patients, resulting in responder and non-responder populations. Physical interactions among immune cells, tumor cells and all the other components of the TME (i.e., cancer-associated fibroblasts, keratinocytes, adipocytes, extracellular matrix, etc.) are essential for effective antitumor immunotherapy, suggesting the need to define an immune score model which can help to predict an efficient immunotherapeutic response. In this study, we performed a multiplex immunostaining of CD3, FOXP3 and GRZB on both primary and unmatched in-transit metastatic melanoma lesions and defined a novel ratio between different lymphocyte subpopulations, demonstrating its potential prognostic role for cancer immunotherapy. The application of the suggested ratio can be useful for the stratification of melanoma patients that may or may not benefit from anti-PD-1 treatment.

17.
Front Oncol ; 11: 680758, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178667

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents the main renal tumors and are highly metastatic. Sunitinib, a recently-approved, multi-targeted Tyrosine Kinases Inhibitor (TKi), prolongs survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors, however a dose related cardiotoxicity was well described. Polydatin (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene-3-ß-d-glucoside) is a monocrystalline compound isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum with consolidated anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, however no studies investigated on its putative cardioprotective and chemosensitizing properties during incubation with sunitinib. We investigated on the effects of polydatin on the oxidative stress, NLRP3 inflammasome and Myd88 expression, highlighting on the production of cytokines and chemokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, CXCL-12 and TGF-ß) during treatment with sunitinib. Exposure of cardiomyocytes and cardiomyoblasts (AC-16 and H9C2 cell lines) and human renal adenocarcinoma cells (769-P and A498) to polydatin combined to plasma-relevant concentrations of sunitinib reduces significantly iROS, MDA and LTB4 compared to only sunitinib-treated cells (P<0.001). In renal cancer cells and cardiomyocytes polydatin reduces expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines involved in myocardial damages and chemoresistance and down-regulates the signaling pathway of NLRP3 inflammasome, MyD88 and NF-κB. Data of the present study, although in vitro, indicate that polydatin, besides reducing oxidative stress, reduces key chemokines involved in cancer cell survival, chemoresistance and cardiac damages of sunitinib through downregulation of NLRP3-MyD88 pathway, applying as a potential nutraceutical agent in preclinical studies of preventive cardio-oncology.

18.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 246, 2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the first complete genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019, more than 550,000 genomes have been submitted into the GISAID database. Sequencing of the SARS-CoV-2 genome might allow identification of variants with increased contagiousness, different clinical patterns and/or different response to vaccines. A highly automated next generation sequencing (NGS)-based method might facilitate an active genomic surveillance of the virus. METHODS: RNA was extracted from 27 nasopharyngeal swabs obtained from citizens of the Italian Campania region in March-April 2020 who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Following viral RNA quantification, sequencing was performed using the Ion AmpliSeq SARS-CoV-2 Research Panel on the Genexus Integrated Sequencer, an automated technology for library preparation and sequencing. The SARS-CoV-2 complete genomes were built using the pipeline SARS-CoV-2 RECoVERY (REconstruction of COronaVirus gEnomes & Rapid analYsis) and analysed by IQ-TREE software. RESULTS: The complete genome (100%) of SARS-CoV-2 was successfully obtained for 21/27 samples. In particular, the complete genome was fully sequenced for all 15 samples with high viral titer (> 200 copies/µl), for the two samples with a viral genome copy number < 200 but greater than 20, and for 4/10 samples with a viral load < 20 viral copies. The complete genome sequences classified into the B.1 and B.1.1 SARS-CoV-2 lineages. In comparison to the reference strain Wuhan-Hu-1, 48 total nucleotide variants were observed with 26 non-synonymous substitutions, 18 synonymous and 4 reported in untranslated regions (UTRs). Ten of the 26 non-synonymous variants were observed in ORF1ab, 7 in S, 1 in ORF3a, 2 in M and 6 in N genes. CONCLUSIONS: The Genexus system resulted successful for SARS-CoV-2 complete genome sequencing, also in cases with low viral copies. The use of this highly automated system might facilitate the standardization of SARS-CoV-2 sequencing protocols and make faster the identification of novel variants during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Itália , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Front Oncol ; 11: 655316, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34123809

RESUMO

Inhibition of angiogenesis has been demonstrated to be an efficacious strategy in treating several tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most important protein with proangiogenic functions and it is overexpressed in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against VEGF, showed a promising activity in combination with etoposide and cisplatin as first-line treatment of patients with extended stage (ES)-SCLC and two randomized studies confirmed that bevacizumab improved PFS, but failed to prolong OS. Instead, disappointing results have been observed with endostar, sunitinib, sorafenib, vandetanib, and thalidomide in combination with chemotherapy in the first-line setting, with sunitinib in the maintenance setting, with sunitinib, cediranib and nintedanib as single agents or ziv-aflibercept in combination with topotecan in second-line setting. Only anlotinib improved OS and PFS as third-line therapy in Chinese patients with SCLC, and it was approved with this indication in China. Future challenges are the evaluation of the role of angiogenesis inhibitors in combination with immune- checkpoint inhibitors and chemotherapy in SCLC patients and the identification of predictive biomarkers of response to both agents.

20.
Transl Oncol ; 14(8): 101131, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034007

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) originates as consequence of multiple genetic alterations. Some of the involved genes have been extensively studied (APC, TP53, KRAS, SMAD4, PIK3CA, MMR genes) in highly heterogeneous and poly-metastatic cohorts. However, about 10% of metastatic CRC patients presents with an indolent oligo-metastatic disease differently from other patients with poly-metastatic and aggressive clinical course. Which are the genetic dynamics underlying the differences between oligo- and poly-metastatic CRC? The understanding of the genetic trajectories (primary→metastatic) of CRC, in patients selected to represent homogenous clinical models, is crucial to make genotype/phenotype correlations and to identify the molecular events pushing the disease towards an increasing malignant phenotype. This information is crucial to plan innovative therapeutic strategies aimed to reverse or inhibit these phenomena. In the present study, we review the genetic evolution of CRC with the intent to give a developmental perspective on the border line between oligo- and poly-metastatic diseases.

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