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1.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: While daily hydration is best assessed in 24-h urine sample, spot sample is often used by health care professionals and researchers due to its practicality. However, urine output is subject to circadian variation, with urine being more concentrated in the morning. It has been demonstrated that afternoon spot urine samples are most likely to provide equivalent urine concentration to 24-h urine samples in adults. The aim of the present study was to examine whether urine osmolality (UOsm) assessed from a spot urine sample in specific time-windows was equivalent to 24-h UOsm in free-living healthy children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Among 541 healthy children (age: 3-13 years, female: 45%, 77% non-Hispanic white, BMI:17.7 ± 4.0 kg m-2), UOsm at specific time-windows [morning (0600-1159), early afternoon (1200-1559), late afternoon (1600-1959), evening (2000-2359), overnight (2400-0559), and first morning] was compared with UOsm from the corresponding pooled 24-h urine sample using an equivalence test. RESULTS: Late afternoon (1600-1959) spot urine sample UOsm value was equivalent to the 24-h UOsm value in children (P < 0.05; mean difference: 62 mmol kg-1; 95% CI: 45-78 mmol kg-1). The overall diagnostic ability of urine osmolality assessed at late afternoon (1600-1959) to diagnose elevated urine osmolality on the 24-h sample was good for both cutoffs of 800 mmol kg-1 [area under the curve (AUC): 87.4%; sensitivity: 72.6%; specificity: 90.5%; threshold: 814 mmol kg-1] and 500 mmol kg-1 (AUC: 83.5%; sensitivity: 75.0%; specificity: 80.0%; threshold: 633 mmol kg-1). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that in free-living healthy children, 24-h urine concentration may be approximated from a late afternoon spot urine sample. This data will have practical implication for health care professionals and researchers.

2.
J Nutr ; 149(12): 2255-2264, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydration effects on cognition remain understudied in children. This is concerning since a large proportion of US children exhibit insufficient hydration. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of water intake on urinary markers of hydration and cognition among preadolescents. METHODS: A 3-intervention crossover design was used among 9- to 11-y-olds [n = 75 (43 males, 32 females); 58.2 ± 28.5 BMI percentile]. Participants maintained their water intake [ad libitum (AL)] or consumed high (2.5 L/d) or low (0.5 L/d) water for 4 d. The primary outcomes were performance on cognitive tasks requiring inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility assessed using a modified flanker, go/no-go, and color-shape switch tasks, respectively. Secondary outcomes included urine hydration indices [i.e., color, urine specific gravity (USG), osmolality] assessed using 24-h urine collected during day 4 of each intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to assess intervention effects. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in hydration across all 3 interventions. Urine color during the low intervention [median (IQR): 6 (2)] was greater than during AL [5 (2)], and both were greater than during the high intervention [18 (0)] (all P ≤ 0.01). Similarly, osmolality [low (mean ± SD): 912 ± 199 mOsmol/kg, AL: 790 ± 257.0 mOsmol/kg, high: 260 ± 115 mOsmol/kg] and USG [low (mean ± SD): 1.023 ± 0.005, AL: 1.020 ± 0.007, high: 1.005 ± 0.004] during the low intervention were greater during AL, and both were greater than during the high intervention (all P ≤ 0.01). USG and osmolality AL values were related to switch task measures (ß: 0.21 to -0.31, P < 0.05). Benefits of the high intervention were observed during the switch task, whereby participants exhibited 34% lower working memory cost relative to the low intervention. No significant changes in cognition were observed for the flanker and go/no-go tasks. CONCLUSIONS: The water intervention improved urinary markers of hydration and had selective benefits during task switching. Furthermore, children's cognitive flexibility selectively benefits from greater habitual hydration and water intake. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02816450.

3.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 74 Suppl 3: 11-18, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203294

RESUMO

In children, maintaining adequate fluid intake and hydration is important for physiological reasons and for the adoption of healthy, sustainable drinking habits. In the Liq.In7 cross-sectional surveys involving 6,469 children (4-17 years) from 13 countries, 60% of children did not meet the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) adequate intake for water from fluids. Beyond fluid quantity, the quality of what children drink is important for health. In these surveys, the contribution of sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit juices to total fluid intake (TFI) in children exceeded that of water in 6 out of 13 countries. To assess the adequacy of children's fluid intake, urinary biomarkers of hydration such as urine osmolality, urine specific gravity, and urine color may be used. To date, while there are no widely accepted specific threshold values for urine concentration to define adequate hydration in children, the available literature suggests that many children have highly concentrated urine, indicating insufficient fluid intake. This is worrisome since studies have demonstrated a relationship between low fluid intake or insufficient hydration and cognitive performance in children. Furthermore, results of the Liq.In7 surveys showed that at school - where children spend a significant amount of time and require optimal cognitive performance - children drink only 14% of their TFI. Consequently, it is pertinent to better understand the barriers to drinking water at school and encourage the promotion of water intake through multicomponent interventions that combine educational, environmental, and behavioral aspects to support adequate hydration as well as optimal cognition in children.

4.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 72(3): 420-427, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29238038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Children consume various fluids to meet dietary water intake needs. However, the contribution of different fluid types on hydration is unclear. The purpose of this study was to develop fluid intake patterns and examine their association with hydration, as indicated by 24-h urine osmolality. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Two hundred ten (105 girls) healthy children (height: 1.49 ± 0.13 m, weight: 43.4 ± 12.6 kg, body fat: 25.2 ± 7.8%) recorded their fluid intake for two consecutive days, and collected their urine for 24-h during the 2nd day, while conducting their normal daily activities. Urine samples were analyzed for specific gravity and osmolality. Factor analysis with principal components method was applied to extract dietary patterns from six fluid groups. Linear regression analysis evaluated the associations between the extracted dietary patterns and hydration based on 24-h urine osmolality. RESULTS: The analysis revealed the following six components: 1, characterized by consumption of milk and fresh juice, but not packaged juice; 2, by regular soda and other drinks, but not water; 3, by fresh juice and other drinks; 4, by packaged juice, but not regular soda; 5, by water and milk; and 6, by fresh juice. Component 5 was negatively correlated with urine osmolality (P = 0.001) indicating better hydration, whereas component 2 was positively correlated with urine osmolality (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A drinking pattern based on water and milk was associated with better hydration, as indicated by lower urine osmolality, whereas drinking regular soda and other drinks but not water was associated with inferior hydration.


Assuntos
Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Água Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Desidratação/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leite , Concentração Osmolar , Gravidade Específica , Urinálise , Água
5.
Eur J Nutr ; 57(5): 1883-1890, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28578535

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Inter-individual variation in median plasma copeptin is associated with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus, progression of chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular events. In this study, we examined whether 24-h urine osmolality was associated with plasma copeptin and whether increasing daily water intake could impact circulating plasma copeptin. METHODS: This trial was a prospective study conducted at a single investigating center. Eighty-two healthy adults (age 23.6 ± 2.9 years, BMI 22.2 ± 1.5 kg/m2, 50% female) were stratified based upon habitual daily fluid intake volumes: arm A (50-80% of EFSA dietary reference values), arm B (81-120%), and arm C (121-200%). Following a baseline visit, arms A and B increased their water intake to match arm C for a period of 6 consecutive weeks. RESULTS: At baseline, plasma copeptin was positively and significantly associated with 24-h urine osmolality (p = 0.002) and 24-h urine specific gravity (p = 0.003) but not with plasma osmolality (p = 0.18), 24-h urine creatinine (p = 0.09), and total fluid intake (p = 0.52). Over the 6-week follow-up, copeptin decreased significantly from 5.18 (3.3;7.4) to 3.90 (2.7;5.7) pmol/L (p = 0.012), while urine osmolality and urine specific gravity decreased from 591 ± 206 to 364 ± 117 mOsm/kg (p < 0.001) and from 1.016 ± 0.005 to 1.010 ± 0.004 (p < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: At baseline, circulating levels of copeptin were positively associated with 24-h urine concentration in healthy young subjects with various fluid intakes. Moreover, this study shows, for the first time, that increased water intake over 6 weeks results in an attenuation of circulating copeptin. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02044679.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Glicopeptídeos/urina , Concentração Osmolar , Urinálise , Adulto , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Appetite ; 116: 205-214, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28433776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of three interventions to increase the plain water consumption of children with unhealthy drinking habits, with an innovative approach combining the three layers of Installation Theory: embodied competences, affordances and social regulation. METHODS: 334 preschool children and their carers were allocated to three interventions: Control (control): no intervention, Information (info): online coaching sessions on water health benefits aiming at modifying embodied competences (knowledge), Information + Water Affordance (info + w): the same plus home delivery of small bottles of water. After three months, half of the info and info + w subjects were allocated to Social Regulation (+social) (on-line discussion forum) or no further intervention (-social). Intake of plain water and all other fluid types of the children were recorded by the carers 6 times over a year using an online 7-day fluid-specific dietary record. RESULTS: Over 1 year, all groups significantly increased daily water consumption by 3.0-7.8 times (+118 to +222 mL). Info + w + social and Info-social generated the highest increase in plain water intake after one year compared to baseline, by 7.8 times (+216 mL) and 6.7 times (+222 mL) respectively; both significantly exceeded the control (3.0 times, +118 mL), whilst the effect of info + w-social (5.0 times, +158 mL) and info + social (5.3 times, +198 mL) did not differ from that of control. All groups saw a decrease of sweetened beverages intake, again with info + w + social generating the largest decrease (-27%; -172 mL). No changes in other fluids or total fluid intake were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Sustainable increased water consumption can be achieved in children with unhealthy drinking habits by influencing representations, changing material affordances, and providing social regulation. Combining the three provided the strongest effect as predicted by Installation Theory.


Assuntos
Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Líquidos , Comportamento Social , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Registros de Dieta , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Tamanho da Amostra , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Br J Nutr ; 116(2): 360-74, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27198187

RESUMO

Dietary mycoprotein decreases energy intake in lean individuals. The effects in overweight individuals are unclear, and the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of mycoprotein on energy intake, appetite regulation, and the metabolic phenotype in overweight and obese volunteers. In two randomised-controlled trials, fifty-five volunteers (age: 31 (95 % CI 27, 35) years), BMI: 28·0 (95 % CI 27·3, 28·7) kg/m2) consumed a test meal containing low (44 g), medium (88 g) or high (132 g) mycoprotein or isoenergetic chicken meals. Visual analogue scales and blood samples were collected to measure appetite, glucose, insulin, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Ad libitum energy intake was assessed after 3 h in part A (n 36). Gastric emptying by the paracetamol method, resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were recorded in part B (n 14). Metabonomics was used to compare plasma and urine samples in response to the test meals. Mycoprotein reduced energy intake by 10 % (280 kJ (67 kcal)) compared with chicken at the high content (P=0·009). All mycoprotein meals reduced insulin concentrations compared with chicken (incremental AUClow (IAUClow): -8 %, IAUCmedium: -12 %, IAUChigh: -21 %, P=0·004). There was no significant difference in glucose, PYY, GLP-1, gastric emptying rate and energy expenditure. Following chicken intake, paracetamol-glucuronide was positively associated with fullness. After mycoprotein, creatinine and the deamination product of isoleucine, α-keto-ß-methyl-N-valerate, were inversely related to fullness, whereas the ketone body, ß-hydroxybutyrate, was positively associated. In conclusion, mycoprotein reduces energy intake and insulin release in overweight volunteers. The mechanism does not involve changes in PYY and GLP-1. The metabonomics analysis may bring new understanding to the appetite regulatory properties of food.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Fúngicas/farmacologia , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Obesidade , Adulto , Animais , Apetite/fisiologia , Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Dipeptídeos/sangue , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Proteínas Fúngicas/uso terapêutico , Fusarium/química , Esvaziamento Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Aves Domésticas , Saciação/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
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