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1.
World J Surg ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The extent to which obesity and genetics determine postoperative complications is incompletely understood. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study using two population cohorts with electronic health record (EHR) data. The first included 736,726 adults with body mass index (BMI) recorded between 1990 and 2017 at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. The second cohort consisted of 65,174 individuals from 12 institutions contributing EHR and genome-wide genotyping data to the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. Pairwise logistic regression analyses were used to measure the association of BMI categories with postoperative complications derived from International Classification of Disease-9 codes, including postoperative infection, incisional hernia, and intestinal obstruction. A genetic risk score was constructed from 97 obesity-risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms for a Mendelian randomization study to determine the association of genetic risk of obesity on postoperative complications. Logistic regression analyses were adjusted for sex, age, site, and race/principal components. RESULTS: Individuals with overweight or obese BMI (≥25 kg/m2) had increased risk of incisional hernia (odds ratio [OR] 1.7-5.5, p < 3.1 × 10-20), and people with obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) had increased risk of postoperative infection (OR 1.2-2.3, p < 2.5 × 10-5). In the eMERGE cohort, genetically predicted BMI was associated with incisional hernia (OR 2.1 [95% CI 1.8-2.5], p = 1.4 × 10-6) and postoperative infection (OR 1.6 [95% CI 1.4-1.9], p = 3.1 × 10-6). Association findings were similar after limitation of the cohorts to those who underwent abdominal procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and Mendelian randomization studies suggest that obesity, as measured by BMI, is associated with the development of postoperative incisional hernia and infection.

2.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578528

RESUMO

Elevated serum urate levels cause gout and correlate with cardiometabolic diseases via poorly understood mechanisms. We performed a trans-ancestry genome-wide association study of serum urate in 457,690 individuals, identifying 183 loci (147 previously unknown) that improve the prediction of gout in an independent cohort of 334,880 individuals. Serum urate showed significant genetic correlations with many cardiometabolic traits, with genetic causality analyses supporting a substantial role for pleiotropy. Enrichment analysis, fine-mapping of urate-associated loci and colocalization with gene expression in 47 tissues implicated the kidney and liver as the main target organs and prioritized potentially causal genes and variants, including the transcriptional master regulators in the liver and kidney, HNF1A and HNF4A. Experimental validation showed that HNF4A transactivated the promoter of ABCG2, encoding a major urate transporter, in kidney cells, and that HNF4A p.Thr139Ile is a functional variant. Transcriptional coregulation within and across organs may be a general mechanism underlying the observed pleiotropy between urate and cardiometabolic traits.

3.
Diabetes Care ; 42(9): 1784-1791, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)-associated genetic variants and examine their implications for glycemic status evaluated by HbA1c in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos with diverse genetic ancestries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of HbA1c in 9,636 U.S. Hispanics/Latinos without diabetes from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, followed by a replication among 4,729 U.S. Hispanics/Latinos from three independent studies. RESULTS: Our GWAS and replication analyses showed 10 previously known and novel loci associated with HbA1c at genome-wide significance levels (P < 5.0 × 10-8). In particular, two African ancestry-specific variants, HBB-rs334 and G6PD-rs1050828, which are causal mutations for sickle cell disease and G6PD deficiency, respectively, had ∼10 times larger effect sizes on HbA1c levels (ß = -0.31% [-3.4 mmol/mol]) and -0.35% [-3.8 mmol/mol] per minor allele, respectively) compared with other HbA1c-associated variants (0.03-0.04% [0.3-0.4 mmol/mol] per allele). A novel Amerindian ancestry-specific variant, HBM-rs145546625, was associated with HbA1c and hematologic traits but not with fasting glucose. The prevalence of hyperglycemia (prediabetes and diabetes) defined using fasting glucose or oral glucose tolerance test 2-h glucose was similar between carriers of HBB-rs334 or G6PD-rs1050828 HbA1c-lowering alleles and noncarriers, whereas the prevalence of hyperglycemia defined using HbA1c was significantly lower in carriers than in noncarriers (12.2% vs. 28.4%, P < 0.001). After recalibration of the HbA1c level taking HBB-rs334 and G6PD-rs1050828 into account, the prevalence of hyperglycemia in carriers was similar to noncarriers (31.3% vs. 28.4%, P = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: This study in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos found several ancestry-specific alleles associated with HbA1c through erythrocyte-related rather than glycemic-related pathways. The potential influences of these nonglycemic-related variants need to be considered when the HbA1c test is performed.

4.
Nat Genet ; 51(6): 957-972, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152163

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is responsible for a public health burden with multi-systemic complications. Through trans-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and independent replication (n = 1,046,070), we identified 264 associated loci (166 new). Of these, 147 were likely to be relevant for kidney function on the basis of associations with the alternative kidney function marker blood urea nitrogen (n = 416,178). Pathway and enrichment analyses, including mouse models with renal phenotypes, support the kidney as the main target organ. A genetic risk score for lower eGFR was associated with clinically diagnosed CKD in 452,264 independent individuals. Colocalization analyses of associations with eGFR among 783,978 European-ancestry individuals and gene expression across 46 human tissues, including tubulo-interstitial and glomerular kidney compartments, identified 17 genes differentially expressed in kidney. Fine-mapping highlighted missense driver variants in 11 genes and kidney-specific regulatory variants. These results provide a comprehensive priority list of molecular targets for translational research.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Testes de Função Renal , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Uromodulina/urina
5.
Nature ; 570(7762): 514-518, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217584

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have laid the foundation for investigations into the biology of complex traits, drug development and clinical guidelines. However, the majority of discovery efforts are based on data from populations of European ancestry1-3. In light of the differential genetic architecture that is known to exist between populations, bias in representation can exacerbate existing disease and healthcare disparities. Critical variants may be missed if they have a low frequency or are completely absent in European populations, especially as the field shifts its attention towards rare variants, which are more likely to be population-specific4-10. Additionally, effect sizes and their derived risk prediction scores derived in one population may not accurately extrapolate to other populations11,12. Here we demonstrate the value of diverse, multi-ethnic participants in large-scale genomic studies. The Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study conducted a GWAS of 26 clinical and behavioural phenotypes in 49,839 non-European individuals. Using strategies tailored for analysis of multi-ethnic and admixed populations, we describe a framework for analysing diverse populations, identify 27 novel loci and 38 secondary signals at known loci, as well as replicate 1,444 GWAS catalogue associations across these traits. Our data show evidence of effect-size heterogeneity across ancestries for published GWAS associations, substantial benefits for fine-mapping using diverse cohorts and insights into clinical implications. In the United States-where minority populations have a disproportionately higher burden of chronic conditions13-the lack of representation of diverse populations in genetic research will result in inequitable access to precision medicine for those with the highest burden of disease. We strongly advocate for continued, large genome-wide efforts in diverse populations to maximize genetic discovery and reduce health disparities.

6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African Americans (AAs) and Hispanic/Latinos (HLs) have higher risk of obesity than European Americans, possibly due to differences in environment and lifestyle, but also reflecting differences in genetic background. OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into factors contributing to BMI (in kg/m2) and obesity risk (BMI ≥ 30) among ancestry groups, we investigate the role of self-reported ancestry, proportion of genetic African ancestry, and country of birth in 6368 self-identified AA and 7569 HL participants of the New York-based BioMe Biobank. METHODS: AAs and HLs are admixed populations that trace their genetic ancestry to the Americas, Africa, and Europe. The proportion of African ancestry (PAA), quantified using ADMIXTURE, was higher among self-reported AA (median: 87%; IQR: 79-92%) than among HL (26%; 15-41%) participants. Approximately 18% of AA and 59% of HL participants were non-US-born. RESULTS: Because of significant differences between sexes (PPAA*sex interaction = 4.8 × 10-22), we considered women and men separately. Among women, country of birth and genetic ancestry contributed independently to BMI. US-born women had a BMI 1.99 higher than those born abroad (P = 7.7 × 10-25). Every 10% increase in PAA was associated with a BMI 0.29 higher (P = 7.1 × 10-10). After accounting for PAA and country of birth, the contribution of self-reported ancestry was small (P = 0.046). The contribution of PAA to higher BMI was significantly more pronounced among US-born (0.35/10%PAA, P = 0.003) than among non-US-born (0.26/10%PAA, P = 0.01) women (PPAA*sex interaction = 0.004). In contrast, among men, only US-born status influenced BMI. US-born men had a BMI 1.33 higher than non-US-born men, whereas PAA and self-reported ancestry were not associated with BMI. Associations with obesity risk were similar to those observed for BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Being US-born is associated with a substantially higher BMI and risk of obesity in both men and women. Genetic ancestry, but not self-reported ancestry, is associated with obesity susceptibility, but only among US-born women in this New York-based population.

7.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 452-469, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778226

RESUMO

Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, with 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on exome arrays in up to 344,369 individuals from five major ancestries (discovery) and 132,177 European-ancestry individuals (validation). We identified 15 common (minor allele frequency, MAF ≥5%) and nine low-frequency or rare (MAF <5%) coding novel variants. Pathway/gene set enrichment analyses identified lipid particle, adiponectin, abnormal white adipose tissue physiology and bone development and morphology as important contributors to fat distribution, while cross-trait associations highlight cardiometabolic traits. In functional follow-up analyses, specifically in Drosophila RNAi-knockdowns, we observed a significant increase in the total body triglyceride levels for two genes (DNAH10 and PLXND1). We implicate novel genes in fat distribution, stressing the importance of interrogating low-frequency and protein-coding variants.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Homeostase/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Proteínas/genética , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Drosophila/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 29, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604766

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects ~10% of the global population, with considerable ethnic differences in prevalence and aetiology. We assemble genome-wide association studies of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function that defines CKD, in 312,468 individuals of diverse ancestry. We identify 127 distinct association signals with homogeneous effects on eGFR across ancestries and enrichment in genomic annotations including kidney-specific histone modifications. Fine-mapping reveals 40 high-confidence variants driving eGFR associations and highlights putative causal genes with cell-type specific expression in glomerulus, and in proximal and distal nephron. Mendelian randomisation supports causal effects of eGFR on overall and cause-specific CKD, kidney stone formation, diastolic blood pressure and hypertension. These results define novel molecular mechanisms and putative causal genes for eGFR, offering insight into clinical outcomes and routes to CKD treatment development.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Hipertensão/genética , Cálculos Renais/genética , Rim/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Código das Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Cálculos Renais/etnologia , Cálculos Renais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
9.
Hum Genet ; 137(10): 847-862, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30317457

RESUMO

Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a complex disease with a major genetic contribution. Its prevalence varies greatly among ethnic groups, and is up to five times more frequent in black African populations compared to Europeans. So far, worldwide efforts to elucidate the genetic complexity of POAG in African populations has been limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study in 1113 POAG cases and 1826 controls from Tanzanian, South African and African American study samples. Apart from confirming evidence of association at TXNRD2 (rs16984299; OR[T] 1.20; P = 0.003), we found that a genetic risk score combining the effects of the 15 previously reported POAG loci was significantly associated with POAG in our samples (OR 1.56; 95% CI 1.26-1.93; P = 4.79 × 10-5). By genome-wide association testing we identified a novel candidate locus, rs141186647, harboring EXOC4 (OR[A] 0.48; P = 3.75 × 10-8), a gene transcribing a component of the exocyst complex involved in vesicle transport. The low frequency and high degree of genetic heterogeneity at this region hampered validation of this finding in predominantly West-African replication sets. Our results suggest that established genetic risk factors play a role in African POAG, however, they do not explain the higher disease load. The high heterogeneity within Africans remains a challenge to identify the genetic commonalities for POAG in this ethnicity, and demands studies of extremely large size.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Tiorredoxina Redutase 2/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1505-1513, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297969

RESUMO

We expanded GWAS discovery for type 2 diabetes (T2D) by combining data from 898,130 European-descent individuals (9% cases), after imputation to high-density reference panels. With these data, we (i) extend the inventory of T2D-risk variants (243 loci, 135 newly implicated in T2D predisposition, comprising 403 distinct association signals); (ii) enrich discovery of lower-frequency risk alleles (80 index variants with minor allele frequency <5%, 14 with estimated allelic odds ratio >2); (iii) substantially improve fine-mapping of causal variants (at 51 signals, one variant accounted for >80% posterior probability of association (PPA)); (iv) extend fine-mapping through integration of tissue-specific epigenomic information (islet regulatory annotations extend the number of variants with PPA >80% to 73); (v) highlight validated therapeutic targets (18 genes with associations attributable to coding variants); and (vi) demonstrate enhanced potential for clinical translation (genome-wide chip heritability explains 18% of T2D risk; individuals in the extremes of a T2D polygenic risk score differ more than ninefold in prevalence).

11.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200486, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044860

RESUMO

Current knowledge of the genetic architecture of key reproductive events across the female life course is largely based on association studies of European descent women. The relevance of known loci for age at menarche (AAM) and age at natural menopause (ANM) in diverse populations remains unclear. We investigated 32 AAM and 14 ANM previously-identified loci and sought to identify novel loci in a trans-ethnic array-wide study of 196,483 SNPs on the MetaboChip (Illumina, Inc.). A total of 45,364 women of diverse ancestries (African, Hispanic/Latina, Asian American and American Indian/Alaskan Native) in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study were included in cross-sectional analyses of AAM and ANM. Within each study we conducted a linear regression of SNP associations with self-reported or medical record-derived AAM or ANM (in years), adjusting for birth year, population stratification, and center/region, as appropriate, and meta-analyzed results across studies using multiple meta-analytic techniques. For both AAM and ANM, we observed more directionally consistent associations with the previously reported risk alleles than expected by chance (p-valuesbinomial≤0.01). Eight densely genotyped reproductive loci generalized significantly to at least one non-European population. We identified one trans-ethnic array-wide SNP association with AAM and two significant associations with ANM, which have not been described previously. Additionally, we observed evidence of independent secondary signals at three of six AAM trans-ethnic loci. Our findings support the transferability of reproductive trait loci discovered in European women to women of other race/ethnicities and indicate the presence of additional trans-ethnic associations both at both novel and established loci. These findings suggest the benefit of including diverse populations in future studies of the genetic architecture of female growth and development.

13.
Kidney Int ; 93(6): 1409-1416, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685497

RESUMO

G1/G2 variants in the Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene are associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in people with African ancestry. Plasma biomarkers may have utility for risk stratification in APOL1 high-risk individuals of African ancestry. To evaluate this, we measured tumor necrosis factor receptor 1/2 (TNFR1/2) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM1) in baseline plasma specimens from individuals of African ancestry with high-risk APOL1 genotype. Biomarker association with a composite renal outcome of ESRD or 40% sustained decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was then determined and then assessed as improvement in area under curve. Among the 498 participants, the median age was 56 years, 67.7% were female, and the baseline eGFR was 83.3 ml/min/1.73 m2 with 80 reaching outcome over 5.9 years. TNFR1, TNFR2, and KIM1 at enrollment were independently associated with renal outcome continuously (adjusted hazard ratio 2.0 [95% confidence interval 1.3-3.1]; 1.5 [1.2-1.9]; and 1.6 [1.3-1.9] per doubling in levels, respectively) or by tertiles. The area under the curve significantly improved from 0.75 with the clinical model to 0.79 with the biomarker-enhanced model. The event rate was 40% with all 3 biomarkers elevated (adjusted odds ratio of 5.3 (2.3-12.0) vs. 17% (adjusted odds ratio 1.8 [0.9-3.6] with 1 or 2 elevated and 7% with no biomarkers elevated. Thus, plasma concentrations of TNFR1, TNFR2, and KIM1 are independently associated with renal outcome and improve discrimination or reclassification of African ancestry individuals with a high-risk APOL1 genotype and preserve renal function. Elevation of all markers had higher risk of outcome and can assist with better clinical prediction and improved clinical trial efficiency by enriching event rates.

14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(4): 1380-1392, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29325163

RESUMO

Context: Vitamin D inadequacy is common in the adult population of the United States. Although the genetic determinants underlying vitamin D inadequacy have been studied in people of European ancestry, less is known about populations with Hispanic or African ancestry. Objective: The Trans-Ethnic Evaluation of Vitamin D (TRANSCEN-D) genomewide association study (GWAS) consortium was assembled to replicate genetic associations with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations from the Study of Underlying Genetic Determinants of Vitamin D and Highly Related Traits (SUNLIGHT) meta-analyses of European ancestry and to identify genetic variants related to vitamin D concentrations in African and Hispanic ancestries. Design: Ancestry-specific (Hispanic and African) and transethnic (Hispanic, African, and European) meta-analyses were performed with Meta-Analysis Helper software (METAL). Patients or Other Participants: In total, 8541 African American and 3485 Hispanic American (from North America) participants from 12 cohorts and 16,124 European participants from SUNLIGHT were included in the study. Main Outcome Measures: Blood concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured for all participants. Results: Ancestry-specific analyses in African and Hispanic Americans replicated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GC (2 and 4 SNPs, respectively). An SNP (rs79666294) near the KIF4B gene was identified in the African American cohort. Transethnic evaluation replicated GC and DHCR7 region SNPs. Additionally, the transethnic analyses revealed SNPs rs719700 and rs1410656 near the ANO6/ARID2 and HTR2A genes, respectively. Conclusions: Ancestry-specific and transethnic GWASs of 25(OH)D confirmed findings in GC and DHCR7 for African and Hispanic American samples and revealed findings near KIF4B, ANO6/ARID2, and HTR2A. The biological mechanisms that link these regions with 25(OH)D metabolism warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etnologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/genética , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 103-115, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29290336

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia and a major risk factor for stroke, heart failure, and premature death. The pathogenesis of AF remains poorly understood, which contributes to the current lack of highly effective treatments. To understand the genetic variation and biology underlying AF, we undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 6,337 AF individuals and 61,607 AF-free individuals from Norway, including replication in an additional 30,679 AF individuals and 278,895 AF-free individuals. Through genotyping and dense imputation mapping from whole-genome sequencing, we tested almost nine million genetic variants across the genome and identified seven risk loci, including two novel loci. One novel locus (lead single-nucleotide variant [SNV] rs12614435; p = 6.76 × 10-18) comprised intronic and several highly correlated missense variants situated in the I-, A-, and M-bands of titin, which is the largest protein in humans and responsible for the passive elasticity of heart and skeletal muscle. The other novel locus (lead SNV rs56202902; p = 1.54 × 10-11) covered a large, gene-dense chromosome 1 region that has previously been linked to cardiac conduction. Pathway and functional enrichment analyses suggested that many AF-associated genetic variants act through a mechanism of impaired muscle cell differentiation and tissue formation during fetal heart development.

16.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 20(4): 448-457, 2018 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28520984

RESUMO

Introduction: Genetic variants associated with nicotine dependence have previously been identified, primarily in European-ancestry populations. No genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been reported for smoking behaviors in Hispanics/Latinos in the United States and Latin America, who are of mixed ancestry with European, African, and American Indigenous components. Methods: We examined genetic associations with smoking behaviors in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) (N = 12 741 with smoking data, 5119 ever-smokers), using ~2.3 million genotyped variants imputed to the 1000 Genomes Project phase 3. Mixed logistic regression models accounted for population structure, sampling, relatedness, sex, and age. Results: The known region of CHRNA5, which encodes the α5 cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit, was associated with heavy smoking at genome-wide significance (p ≤ 5 × 10-8) in a comparison of 1929 ever-smokers reporting cigarettes per day (CPD) > 10 versus 3156 reporting CPD ≤ 10. The functional variant rs16969968 in CHRNA5 had a p value of 2.20 × 10-7 and odds ratio (OR) of 1.32 for the minor allele (A); its minor allele frequency was 0.22 overall and similar across Hispanic/Latino background groups (Central American = 0.17; South American = 0.19; Mexican = 0.18; Puerto Rican = 0.22; Cuban = 0.29; Dominican = 0.19). CHRNA4 on chromosome 20 attained p < 10-4, supporting prior findings in non-Hispanics. For nondaily smoking, which is prevalent in Hispanic/Latino smokers, compared to daily smoking, loci on chromosomes 2 and 4 achieved genome-wide significance; replication attempts were limited by small Hispanic/Latino sample sizes. Conclusions: Associations of nicotinic receptor gene variants with smoking, first reported in non-Hispanic European-ancestry populations, generalized to Hispanics/Latinos despite different patterns of smoking behavior. Implications: We conducted the first large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) of smoking behavior in a US Hispanic/Latino cohort, and the first GWAS of daily/nondaily smoking in any population. Results show that the region of the nicotinic receptor subunit gene CHRNA5, which in non-Hispanic European-ancestry smokers has been associated with heavy smoking as well as cessation and treatment efficacy, is also significantly associated with heavy smoking in this Hispanic/Latino cohort. The results are an important addition to understanding the impact of genetic variants in understudied Hispanic/Latino smokers.

17.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 744, 2017 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28963451

RESUMO

There are few examples of robust associations between rare copy number variants (CNVs) and complex continuous human traits. Here we present a large-scale CNV association meta-analysis on anthropometric traits in up to 191,161 adult samples from 26 cohorts. The study reveals five CNV associations at 1q21.1, 3q29, 7q11.23, 11p14.2, and 18q21.32 and confirms two known loci at 16p11.2 and 22q11.21, implicating at least one anthropometric trait. The discovered CNVs are recurrent and rare (0.01-0.2%), with large effects on height (>2.4 cm), weight (>5 kg), and body mass index (BMI) (>3.5 kg/m2). Burden analysis shows a 0.41 cm decrease in height, a 0.003 increase in waist-to-hip ratio and increase in BMI by 0.14 kg/m2 for each Mb of total deletion burden (P = 2.5 × 10-10, 6.0 × 10-5, and 2.9 × 10-3). Our study provides evidence that the same genes (e.g., MC4R, FIBIN, and FMO5) harbor both common and rare variants affecting body size and that anthropometric traits share genetic loci with developmental and psychiatric disorders.Individual SNPs have small effects on anthropometric traits, yet the impact of CNVs has remained largely unknown. Here, Kutalik and co-workers perform a large-scale genome-wide meta-analysis of structural variation and find rare CNVs associated with height, weight and BMI with large effect sizes.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 18/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Relação Cintura-Quadril
18.
Pharmacogenomics ; 18(15): 1381-1386, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28982267

RESUMO

For almost 50 years, the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai has continually invested in genetics and genomics, facilitating a healthy ecosystem that provides widespread support for the ongoing programs in translational pharmacogenomics. These programs can be broadly cataloged into discovery, education, clinical implementation and testing, which are collaboratively accomplished by multiple departments, institutes, laboratories, companies and colleagues. Focus areas have included drug response association studies and allele discovery, multiethnic pharmacogenomics, personalized genotyping and survey-based education programs, pre-emptive clinical testing implementation and novel assay development. This overview summarizes the current state of translational pharmacogenomics at Mount Sinai, including a future outlook on the forthcoming expansions in overall support, research and clinical programs, genomic technology infrastructure and the participating faculty.


Assuntos
Farmacogenética/educação , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/educação , Alelos , Genoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos
19.
Nat Genet ; 49(12): 1758-1766, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29083408

RESUMO

We screened variants on an exome-focused genotyping array in >300,000 participants (replication in >280,000 participants) and identified 444 independent variants in 250 loci significantly associated with total cholesterol (TC), high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and/or triglycerides (TG). At two loci (JAK2 and A1CF), experimental analysis in mice showed lipid changes consistent with the human data. We also found that: (i) beta-thalassemia trait carriers displayed lower TC and were protected from coronary artery disease (CAD); (ii) excluding the CETP locus, there was not a predictable relationship between plasma HDL-C and risk for age-related macular degeneration; (iii) only some mechanisms of lowering LDL-C appeared to increase risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D); and (iv) TG-lowering alleles involved in hepatic production of TG-rich lipoproteins (TM6SF2 and PNPLA3) tracked with higher liver fat, higher risk for T2D, and lower risk for CAD, whereas TG-lowering alleles involved in peripheral lipolysis (LPL and ANGPTL4) had no effect on liver fat but decreased risks for both T2D and CAD.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Variação Genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/sangue , Degeneração Macular/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
20.
Elife ; 62017 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28895531

RESUMO

Achieving confidence in the causality of a disease locus is a complex task that often requires supporting data from both statistical genetics and clinical genomics. Here we describe a combined approach to identify and characterize a genetic disorder that leverages distantly related patients in a health system and population-scale mapping. We utilize genomic data to uncover components of distant pedigrees, in the absence of recorded pedigree information, in the multi-ethnic BioMe biobank in New York City. By linking to medical records, we discover a locus associated with both elevated genetic relatedness and extreme short stature. We link the gene, COL27A1, with a little-known genetic disease, previously thought to be rare and recessive. We demonstrate that disease manifests in both heterozygotes and homozygotes, indicating a common collagen disorder impacting up to 2% of individuals of Puerto Rican ancestry, leading to a better understanding of the continuum of complex and Mendelian disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Colágeno/epidemiologia , Doenças do Colágeno/genética , Colágenos Fibrilares/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Linhagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Hispano-Americanos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Família Multigênica , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/genética , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Cidade de Nova Iorque/etnologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
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