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2.
Respir Care ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic increased the number of patients needing invasive mechanical ventilation, either through an endotracheal tube or through a tracheostomy. Tracheomalacia is a rare but potentially severe complication of mechanical ventilation, which can significantly complicate the weaning process. The aim of this study was to describe the strategies of airway management in mechanically ventilated patients with respiratory failure due to SARS-CoV-2, the incidence of severe tracheomalacia, and investigate the factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center study was performed in an Italian teaching hospital. All adult subjects admitted to the ICU between February 24, 2020, and June 30, 2020, treated with invasive mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure caused by SARS-CoV-2 were included. Clinical data were collected on the day of ICU admission, whereas information regarding airway management was collected daily. RESULTS: A total of 151 subjects were included in the study. On admission, ARDS severity was mild in 21%, moderate in 62%, and severe in 17% of the cases, with an overall mortality of 40%. A tracheostomy was performed in 73 (48%), open surgical technique in 54 (74%), and percutaneous Ciaglia technique in 19 (26%). Subjects who had a tracheostomy performed had, compared to the other subjects, a longer duration of mechanical ventilation and longer ICU and hospital stay. Tracheomalacia was diagnosed in 8 (5%). The factors associated with tracheomalacia were female sex, obesity, and tracheostomy. CONCLUSIONS: In our population, approximately 50% of subjects with ARDS due to SARS-CoV-2 were tracheostomized. Tracheostomized subjects had a longer ICU and hospital stay. In our population, 5% were diagnosed with tracheomalacia. This percentage is 10 times higher than what is reported in available literature, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood.

3.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 19(1): 31, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular complications of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) are known to be associated with poor outcome. A small number of case series and reports have described cases of myocarditis and ischaemic events, however, knowledge on the aetiology of acute cardiac failure in SARS-CoV2 remains limited. We describe the occurrence and risk stratification imaging correlates of 'takotsubo' stress cardiomyopathy presenting in a patient with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the intensive care unit. An intubated 53-year old patient with COVID19 suffered acute haemodynamic collapse in the intensive care unit, and was thus investigated with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECG) and serial troponins and blood tests, and eventually coronary angiography due to clinical suspicion of ischaemic aetiology. Echocardiography revealed a reduced ejection fraction, with evident extensive apical akinesia spanning multiple coronary territories. Troponins and NT-proBNP were elevated, and ECG revealed ST elevation: coronary angiography was thus performed. This revealed no significant coronary stenosis. Repeat echocardiography performed within the following week revealed a substantial recovery of ejection fraction and wall motion abnormalities. Despite requirement of a prolonged ICU stay, the patient now remains clinically stable, and is on spontaneous breathing. CONCLUSION: This case report presents a case of takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy occurring in a critically unwell patient with COVID19 in the intensive care setting. Stress cardiomyopathy may be an acute cardiovascular complication of COVID-19 infection. In the COVID19 critical care setting, urgent bedside echocardiography is an important tool for initial clinical assessment of patients suffering haemodynamic compromise.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 155, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The surge of critically ill patients due to the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) overwhelmed critical care capacity in areas of northern Italy. Anesthesia machines have been used as alternatives to traditional ICU mechanical ventilators. However, the outcomes for patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure cared for with Anesthesia Machines is currently unknow. We hypothesized that COVID-19 patients receiving care with Anesthesia Machines would have worse outcomes compared to standard practice. METHODS: We designed a retrospective study of patients admitted with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis at a large tertiary urban hospital in northern Italy. Two care units were included: a 27-bed standard ICU and a 15-bed temporary unit emergently opened in an operating room setting. Intubated patients assigned to Anesthesia Machines (AM group) were compared to a control cohort treated with standard mechanical ventilators (ICU-VENT group). Outcomes were assessed at 60-day follow-up. A multivariable Cox regression analysis of risk factors between survivors and non-survivors was conducted to determine the adjusted risk of death for patients assigned to AM group. RESULTS: Complete daily data from 89 mechanically ventilated patients consecutively admitted to the two units were analyzed. Seventeen patients were included in the AM group, whereas 72 were in the ICU-VENT group. Disease severity and intensity of treatment were comparable between the two groups. The 60-day mortality was significantly higher in the AM group compared to the ICU-vent group (12/17 vs. 27/72, 70.6% vs. 37.5%, respectively, p = 0.016). Allocation to AM group was associated with a significantly increased risk of death after adjusting for covariates (HR 4.05, 95% CI: 1.75-9.33, p = 0.001). Several incidents and complications were reported with Anesthesia Machine care, raising safety concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that care associated with the use of Anesthesia Machines is inadequate to provide long-term critical care to patients with COVID-19. Added safety risks must be considered if no other option is available to treat severely ill patients during the ongoing pandemic. CLINICAL TRIAL NUMBER: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Anestesiologia/instrumentação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Am Heart J ; 233: 39-47, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a systemic disorder associated with dismal short-term prognosis. Given its time-dependent nature, mechanical circulatory support may improve survival. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) had gained widespread use because of the easiness to implant and the low rate of complications; however, a randomized trial failed to demonstrate benefit on mortality in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. Acute decompensated heart failure with cardiogenic shock (ADHF-CS) represents a growing resource-intensive scenario with scant data and indications on the best management. However, a few data suggest a potential benefit of IABP in this setting. We present the design of a study aimed at addressing this research gap. METHODS AND DESIGN: The Altshock-2 trial is a prospective, randomized, multicenter, open-label study with blinded adjudicated evaluation of outcomes. Patients with ADHF-CS will be randomized to early IABP implantation or to vasoactive treatments. The primary end point will be 60 days patients' survival or successful bridge to heart replacement therapy. The key secondary end point will be 60-day overall survival; 60-day need for renal replacement therapy; in-hospital maximum inotropic score, maximum duration of inotropic/vasopressor therapy, and maximum sequential organ failure assessment score. Safety end points will be in-hospital occurrence of bleeding events (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium >3), vascular access complications and systemic (noncerebral) embolism. The sample size for the study is 200 patients. IMPLICATIONS: The Altshock-2 trial will provide evidence on whether IABP should be implanted early in ADHF-CS patients to improve their clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Coração Auxiliar , Balão Intra-Aórtico , Choque Cardiogênico/cirurgia , Doença Aguda , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Tamanho da Amostra , Choque Cardiogênico/complicações , Choque Cardiogênico/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Tempo
7.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886428

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with cardiac injury have an increased risk of mortality. It remains to be determined the mechanism of cardiac injury and the identification of specific conditions that affect the heart during COVID-19. We present the case of a 76-year-old woman with COVID-19 pneumonia that developed a takotsubo syndrome (TTS). Although the patient presented normal left ventricular ejection fraction and normal levels of troponin on admission, after 16 days in intensive care unit due to respiratory distress, she suddenly developed cardiogenic shock. Shock occurred few hours after a spontaneous breathing trial through her tracheostomy. Bed-side echocardiographic revealed apical ballooning promptly supporting the diagnosis of TTS. She was successfully treated with deep sedation and low dosage of epinephrine. The relevance of this case is that TTS can occur in the late phase of COVID-19. Awareness of late TTS and bed-side echocardiographic evaluation can lead to prompt identification and treatment.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876469

RESUMO

Rationale: Obesity is characterized by elevated pleural pressure (PPL) and worsening atelectasis during mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Objectives: To determine the effects of lung recruitment maneuver (LRM) in the presence of elevated PPL on hemodynamics, left and right ventricular pressures and pulmonary vascular resistance. We hypothesized that elevated PPL protects the cardiovascular system against high airway pressures and prevents lung overdistension. Methods: First, an interventional crossover trial in adult subjects with ARDS and BMI ≥35 kg/m2 (n=21) was performed to explore the hemodynamic consequences of LRM. Second, cardiovascular function was studied during low/high PEEPs in a model of swine with ARDS and high PPL (n=9) versus healthy swine with normal PPL (n=6). Measurements and Main Results: Subjects with ARDS and obesity (BMI=57±12 kg/m2), following LRM, required an increase in PEEP of 8[7, 10] cmH2O above traditional ARDSnet settings to improve lung function, oxygenation and ventilation/perfusion matching, without impairment of hemodynamics or right heart function. ARDS swine with high PPL demonstrated unchanged transmural left ventricle pressure and systemic blood pressure after LRM protocol. Pulmonary artery hypertension decreased 8[13, 4] mmHg, as did vascular resistance 1.5[2.2, 0.9] WU, and transmural right ventricle pressure 10[15, 6] mmHg during exhalation. LRM and PEEP decreased pulmonary vascular resistance and normalized ventilation/perfusion ratio. Conclusions: High airway pressure is required to recruit lung atelectasis in patients with ARDS and class III obesity but causes minimal overdistension. Additionally, patients with ARDS and class III obesity tolerate hemodynamically LRM with high airway pressure.

9.
J Infect ; 81(4): e11-e17, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the novel SARS-CoV-2 pandemic occurred, no specific treatment was yet available. Inflammatory response secondary to viral infection might be the driver of severe diseases. We report the safety and efficacy (in terms of overall survival and hospital discharge) of the anti-IL6 tocilizumab (TCZ) in subjects with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective, single-center analysis included all the patients consecutively admitted to our Hospital with severe or critical COVID-19 who started TCZ treatment from March 13th to April 03rd, 2020. A 1:2 matching to patients not treated with TCZ was performed according to age, sex, severity of disease, P/F, Charlson Comorbidity Index and length of time between symptoms onset and hospital admittance. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests to compare the groups were applied. Kaplan Meier probability curves and Cox regression models for survival, hospital discharge and orotracheal intubation were used. RESULTS: Seventy-four patients treated with TCZ were matched with 148 matched controls. They were mainly males (81.5%), Caucasian (82.0%) and with a median age of 59 years. The majority (69.8%) showed critical stage COVID-19 disease. TCZ use was associated with a better overall survival (HR 0.499 [95% CI 0.262-0.952], p = 0.035) compared to controls but with a longer hospital stay (HR 1.658 [95% CI 1.088-2.524], p = 0.019) mainly due to biochemical, respiratory and infectious adverse events. DISCUSSION: TCZ use resulted potentially effective on COVID-19 in terms of overall survival. Caution is warranted given the potential occurrence of adverse events. FINANCIAL SUPPORT: Some of the tocilizumab doses used in the subjects included in this analysis were provided by the "Multicenter study on the efficacy and tolerability of tocilizumab in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia" (EudraCT Number: 2020-001110-38) supported by the Italian National Agency for Drugs (AIFA). No specific funding support was planned for study design, data collection and analysis and manuscript writing of this paper.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , COVID-19 , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497572

RESUMO

Acute myocarditis (AM), a recent-onset inflammation of the heart, has heterogeneous clinical presentations, varying from minor symptoms to high-risk cardiac conditions with severe heart failure, refractory arrhythmias, and cardiogenic shock. AM is moving from being a definitive diagnosis based on histological evidence of inflammatory infiltrates on cardiac tissue to a working diagnosis supported by high sensitivity troponin increase in association with specific cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) findings. Though experts still diverge between those advocating for histological definition versus those supporting a mainly clinical definition of myocarditis, in the real-world practice the diagnosis of AM has undoubtedly shifted from being mainly biopsy-based to solely CMRI-based in most of clinical scenarios. It is thus important to clearly define selected settings where EMB is a must, as information derived from histology is essential for an optimal management. As in other medical conditions, a risk-based approach should be promoted in order to identify the most severe AM cases requiring appropriate bundles of care, including early recognition, transfer to tertiary centers, aggressive circulatory supports with inotropes and mechanical devices, histologic confirmation and eventual immunosuppressive therapy. Despite improvements in recognition and treatment of AM, including a broader use of promising mechanical circulatory supports, severe forms of AM are still burdened by dismal outcomes. This review is focused on recent clinical studies and registries that shed new insights on AM. Attention will be paid to contemporary outcomes and predictors of prognosis, the emerging entity of immune checkpoint inhibitors-associated myocarditis, updated CMRI diagnostic criteria, new data on the use of temporary mechanical circulatory supports in fulminant myocarditis. The role of viruses as etiologic agents will be reviewed and a brief update on pediatric AM is also provided. Finally, we summarize a risk-based approach to AM, based on available evidence and clinical experience.

14.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 22(5): e13334, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449235

RESUMO

Although immunosuppressed patients may be more prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection with atypical presentation, long-term immunosuppression therapy may provide some sort of protection for severe clinical complications of COVID-19. The interaction between immunosuppression and new antiviral drugs in the treatment of transplanted patients contracting COVID-19 has not yet been fully investigated. Moreover, data regarding the optimal management of these patients are still very limited. We report a case of the successful recovery from severe COVID-19 of a kidney-transplanted patient treated with hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, steroid, and tocilizumab.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/terapia , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Vis Exp ; (148)2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282890

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharide, also known as endotoxin, is a fundamental component of gram-negative bacteria and plays a crucial role in the development of sepsis and septic shock. The early identification of an infectious process that is rapidly evolving to a critical illness might prompt a quicker and more intensive treatment, thereby potentially leading to better patient outcomes. The Endotoxin Activity (EA) assay can be used at the bedside as a reliable biomarker of systemic endotoxemia. The detection of elevated endotoxin activity levels has been repeatedly shown to be associated with an increased disease severity in patients with sepsis and septic shock. The assay is quick and easy to perform. Briefly, after sampling, an aliquot of whole blood is mixed with an anti-endotoxin antibody and with added LPS. Endotoxin activity is measured as the relative oxidative burst of primed neutrophils as detected by chemioluminescence. The assay's output is expressed on a scale from 0 (absent) to 1 (maximal) and categorized as "low" (<0.4 units), "intermediate" (0.4-0.59 units), or "high" (≥0.6 units). The detailed methodology and rationale for the implementation of the EA assay are reported in this manuscript.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Estado Terminal , Endotoxemia/sangue , Endotoxemia/diagnóstico , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Choque Séptico/sangue
18.
Circulation ; 136(6): 529-545, 2017 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28576783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous reports have suggested that despite their dramatic presentation, patients with fulminant myocarditis (FM) might have better outcome than those with acute nonfulminant myocarditis (NFM). In this retrospective study, we report outcome and changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in a large cohort of patients with FM compared with patients with NFM. METHODS: The study population consists of 187 consecutive patients admitted between May 2001 and November 2016 with a diagnosis of acute myocarditis (onset of symptoms <1 month) of whom 55 required inotropes and/or mechanical circulatory support (FM) and the remaining 132 were hemodynamically stable (NFM). We also performed a subanalysis in 130 adult patients with acute viral myocarditis and viral prodrome within 2 weeks from the onset, which includes 34 with FM and 96 with NFM. Patients with giant-cell myocarditis, eosinophilic myocarditis, or cardiac sarcoidosis and those <15 years of age were excluded from the subanalysis. RESULTS: In the whole population (n=187), the rate of in-hospital death or heart transplantation was 25.5% versus 0% in FM versus NFM, respectively (P<0.0001). Long-term heart transplantation-free survival at 9 years was lower in FM than NFM (64.5% versus 100%, log-rank P<0.0001). Despite greater improvement in LVEF during hospitalization in FM versus NFM forms (median, 32% [interquartile range, 20%-40%] versus 3% [0%-10%], respectively; P<0.0001), the proportion of patients with LVEF <55% at last follow-up was higher in FM versus NFM (29% versus 9%; relative risk, 3.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-7.64, P=0.003). Similar results for survival and changes in LVEF in FM versus NFM were observed in the subgroup (n=130) with viral myocarditis. None of the patients with NFM and LVEF ≥55% at discharge had a significant decrease in LVEF at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with FM have an increased mortality and need for heart transplantation compared with those with NFM. From a functional viewpoint, patients with FM have a more severely impaired LVEF at admission that, despite steep improvement during hospitalization, remains lower than that in patients with NFM at long-term follow-up. These findings also hold true when only the viral forms are considered and are different from previous studies showing better prognosis in FM.


Assuntos
Miocardite/diagnóstico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Transplante de Coração , Coração Auxiliar , Hemodinâmica , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Miocardite/mortalidade , Miocardite/terapia , Miocárdio/patologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Crit Care ; 41: 124-129, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28525777

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To measure the prevalence of elevated Endotoxin Activity (EA) in a large cohort of patients with Septic Shock (SS), and to assess its value as an early indicator of Gram-Negative (GN) infection, disease severity, and patient risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult patients were enrolled in this observational study if an EA determination was obtained within 24-h from SS onset. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were collected. In-hospital follow-up was also conducted. RESULTS: A high prevalence of endotoxemia was observed in the 107 subjects included, with 82% of patients showing either intermediate (≥0.4 units), or high (≥0.6) EA. Patients with positive cultures for GNs showed a higher mean EA (0.63±0.18 vs. 0.53±0.22; p<0.05). However, the test showed poor accuracy in the identification of GN bacteria as SS causative agents. Significantly higher lactate concentration (p=0.006), SOFA (p=0.04) and inotropic score (p=0.006) were observed in patients with endotoxemia. However, higher EA levels neither influenced mortality, nor length of stay. CONCLUSIONS: Early after SS onset, patients showed a high prevalence of endotoxemia, particularly those infected with GN bacteria. The EA assay might be a useful marker of disease severity. The complexity of such patients, however, limits EA accuracy in identifying GN sepsis and predicting outcome.


Assuntos
Endotoxemia/epidemiologia , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Choque Séptico/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Bacteriemia/complicações , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Endotoxemia/microbiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Choque Séptico/microbiologia , Choque Séptico/mortalidade
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