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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806126

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the link between psychological, behavioral, and social factors and survival in patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal cancer. METHODS: A cohort of gastrointestinal cancer patients were administered a battery of questionnaires that assessed trauma, depression, social support, sleep, diet, exercise, quality of life, tobacco and alcohol use, pain, and fatigue. Analyses included Pearson's correlations, analyses of variance, Kaplan Meier survival, and Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Of the 568 patients, the majority were male (57.9%) and Caucasian (91.9%), with a mean age of 61 (S.D. = 10.7). The level of perceived social support was comparable to patients with other medical conditions. Sociodemographic predictors of social support included the number of years of education (r = 0.109, p = 0.05), marital status (F(6,387) = 5.465, p ≤ 0.001), and whether the patients' income met the family's basic needs (F(1,377) = 25.531, p < 0.001). Univariate analyses revealed that older age (p < 0.001), male gender (p = 0.007), being black (p = 0.005), diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (p = 0.046), higher body mass index (p = 0.022), larger tumor size (p = 0.032), initial treatment including chemotherapy rather than surgery (p < 0.001), and lower level of perceived social support (p = 0.037) were associated with poorer survival. Using multivariate Cox regression and adjusting for all factors found to be significant in univariate survival analyses, older age (p = 0.024) and lower perceived social support (HR = 0.441, 95% CI = 0.233, 0.833; p = 0.012) were the factors that remained significantly associated with poorer survival. CONCLUSION: There are several biological and psychosocial factors that predict cancer mortality. Social support appears to be a robust factor affecting mortality in gastrointestinal cancer patients.

2.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a predictive model of oncologic outcomes for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) undergoing resection after neoadjuvant or induction chemotherapy use. BACKGROUND: Early recurrence following surgical resection for PDAC is common. The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to resection may increase the likelihood of long-term systemic disease control. Accurately characterizing an individual's likely oncologic outcome in the perioperative setting remains challenging. METHODS: Data from patients with PDAC who received chemotherapy prior to pancreatectomy at a single high-volume institution between 2007-2018 were captured in a prospectively collected database. Core clinicopathologic data were reviewed for accuracy and survival data were abstracted from the electronic medical record and national databases. Cox-proportional regressions were used to model outcomes and develop an interactive prognostic tool for clinical decision-making. RESULTS: A total of 581 patients were included with a median OS and RFS of 29.5 (26.5-32.5) and 16.6 (15.8-17.5) months, respectively. Multivariable analysis demonstrates OS and RFS were associated with type of chemotherapeutic used and the number of chemotherapy cycles received preoperatively. Additional factors contributing to survival models included: tumor grade, histopathologic response to therapy, nodal status, and administration of adjuvant chemotherapy. The models were validated using an iterative bootstrap method and with randomized cohort splitting. The models were well calibrated with concordance indices of 0.68 and 0.65 for the final OS and RFS models, respectively. CONCLUSION: We developed an intuitive and dynamic decision-making tool that can be useful in estimating OS, RFS and location-specific disease recurrence rates. This prognostic tool may add value to patient care in discussing the benefits associated with surgical resection for PDAC.

3.
J Surg Res ; 261: 58-66, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical risk calculators (SRCs) have been developed for estimation of postoperative complications but do not directly inform decision-making. Decision curve analysis (DCA) is a method for evaluating prediction models, measuring their utility in guiding decisions. We aimed to analyze the utility of SRCs to guide both preoperative and postoperative management of patients undergoing hepatopancreaticobiliary surgery by using DCA. METHODS: A single-institution, retrospective review of patients undergoing hepatopancreaticobiliary operations between 2015 and 2017 was performed. Estimation of postoperative complications was conducted using the American College of Surgeons SRC [ACS-SRC] and the Predictive OpTimal Trees in Emergency Surgery Risk (POTTER) calculator; risks were compared with observed outcomes. DCA was used to model optimal patient selection for risk prevention strategies and to compare the relative performance of the ACS-SRC and POTTER calculators. RESULTS: A total of 994 patients were included in the analysis. C-statistics for the ACS-SRC prediction of 12 postoperative complications ranged from 0.546 to 0.782. DCA revealed that an ACS-SRC-guided readmission prevention intervention, when compared with an all-or-none approach, yielded a superior net benefit for patients with estimated risk between 5% and 20%. Comparison of SRCs for venous thromboembolism intervention demonstrated superiority of the ACS-SRC for thresholds for intervention between 2% and 4% with the POTTER calculator performing superiorly between 4% and 8% estimated risk. CONCLUSIONS: SRCs can be used not only to predict complication risk but also to guide risk prevention strategies. This methodology should be incorporated into external validations of future risk calculators and can be applied for institution-specific quality improvement initiatives to improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
4.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773624

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to quantify the risk of incarceration of incisional hernias. BACKGROUND: Operative repair is the definitive treatment for incisional ventral hernias but is often deferred if the perceived risk of elective operation is elevated secondary to comorbid conditions. The risk of incarceration during nonoperative management (NOM) factors into shared decision making by patient and surgeon; however, the incidence of acute incarceration remains largely unknown. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of adult patients with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision or Tenth Revision diagnosis of incisional hernia was conducted from 2010 to 2017 in 15 hospitals of a single healthcare system. The primary outcome was incarceration necessitating emergent operation. The secondary outcome was 30-, 90-, and 365-day mortality. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine independent predictors of incarceration. RESULTS: Among 30,998 patients with an incisional hernia (mean age 58.1 ±â€Š15.9 years; 52.7% female), 23,022 (78.1%) underwent NOM of whom 540 (2.3%) experienced incarceration, yielding a 1- and 5-year cumulative incidence of 1.24% and 2.59%, respectively. Independent variables associated with incarceration included: age older than 40 years, female sex, current smoker, body mass index 30 or greater, and a hernia-related inpatient admission. All-cause mortality rates at 30, 90, and 365 days were significantly higher in the incarceration group at 7.2%, 10%, and 14% versus 1.1%, 2.3%, and 5.3% in patients undergoing successful NOM, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Incarceration is an uncommon complication of NOM but is associated with a significant risk of death. Tailored decision making for elective repair and considering the aforementioned risk factors for incarceration provides an initial step toward mitigating the excess morbidity and mortality of an incarceration event.

5.
Clin Transplant ; 34(2): e13770, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829462

RESUMO

Transplantation of kidneys from deceased donors with acute kidney injury (AKI) can expand the donor pool. We investigated the effect of donor AKI on renal function and chronic changes on protocol biopsies at 1-year post-transplant. Donor AKI was defined according to Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. Between 2013 and 2017, 333 kidneys were transplanted and subsequently biopsied after 1 year. Fifty-three kidneys from AKI donors (AKIN stage I n = 42, stage II n = 8, stage III n = 3) were compared to 280 kidneys from non-AKI donors. At 1-year follow-up, patient and graft survival were comparable. Donor AKI was not predictive of IFTA (Banff interstitial fibrosis plus tubular atrophy scores) at 1-year post-transplant biopsy (2.10 ± 1.28 in AKI, 2.09 ± 1.22 in non-AKI, P = .95). Donor AKI was also not associated with progression of IFTA from 3 to 12 months (P = .69), or inferior glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, P = .94). In a multivariate analysis, the odds of IFTA >2 were comparable between AKI and non-AKI groups. In conclusion, the transplantation of kidneys from donors with predominantly stage I AKI results in comparable function and degree of fibrosis on protocol biopsies 1-year post-transplant. Selected grafts from donors with AKI are a valuable tool for expanding the donor pool for kidney transplantation.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Função Retardada do Enxerto , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Aloenxertos , Função Retardada do Enxerto/etiologia , Fibrose , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Rim , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doadores de Tecidos
6.
HPB (Oxford) ; 22(2): 265-274, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The primary aim of this study was to assess if patients with potentially resectable ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) of the head of the pancreas would choose a Whipple procedure versus palliative chemotherapy. METHODS: A cohort of adults with radiological resectable PDAC was enrolled at a tertiary Canadian teaching hospital. Participants were informed about treatment options, expected outcomes, and adverse events using data from the most recent scientific literature. Probability trade-off (PTO) was used to elicit treatment preferences. RESULTS: Surgery was preferred by all participants except one (96.7% vs. 3.3%; P = 0.0001). For 90% of participants preferring surgery, the main reason was the hope of being cured (P = 0.001). If the risk of perioperative mortality was higher than 57%, the risk of perioperative morbidity higher than 85% and the survival benefit was less than 4 months, half of the participants preferred palliative chemotherapy. The likelihood of needing blood transfusions, the length of hospital stay, and long-term consequences such as diabetes or pancreatic exocrine insufficiency were negligible concerns to participants. CONCLUSIONS: Informed patients with early-stage PDAC prefer resection over palliative chemotherapy. The dominating factor influencing their decision is the hope of a cure that overshadow the risks of complications, mortality and recurrent disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Preferência do Paciente , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Canadá , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/psicologia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia , Prognóstico , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
HPB (Oxford) ; 20(12): 1181-1188, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Risk Analysis Index (RAI) for frailty is a rapid survey for comorbidities and performance status, which predicts mortality after general surgery. We aimed to validate the RAI in predicting outcomes after hepatopancreatobiliary surgery. METHODS: Associations of RAI, determined in 162 patients prior to undergoing hepatopancreatobiliary surgery, with prospectively collected 30-day post-operative outcomes were analyzed with multivariate logistic and linear regression. RESULTS: Patients (age 62 ± 14, 51% female) had a median RAI of 7, range 0-25. With every unit increase in RAI, length of stay increased by 5% (95% CI: 2-7%), odds of ICU admission increased by 10% (0-20%), ICU length of stay increased by 21% (9-34%), and odds of discharge to a nursing facility increased by 8% (0-17%) (all P < 0.05). Particularly in patients who suffered a first post-operative complication, RAI was associated with additional complications (1.6 unit increase in Comprehensive Complication Index per unit increase in RAI, P = 0.002). In a direct comparison in a subset of 74 patients, RAI and the ACS-NSQIP Risk Calculator performed comparably in predicting outcomes. CONCLUSION: While RAI and ACS-NSQIP Risk Calculator comparatively predicted short-term outcomes after HPB surgery, RAI has been specifically designed to identify frail patients who can potentially benefit from preoperative prehabilitation interventions.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Biliar/efeitos adversos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/complicações , Hepatectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatectomia/efeitos adversos , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 25(12): 3427-3435, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043318

RESUMO

AIM: To identify factors associated with refusal of surgery in patients with early-stage pancreatic cancer and estimate the impact of this decision on survival. METHODS: Using the National Cancer Data Base, 26,358 patients were identified with potentially resectable tumors (pretreatment clinical stage I: T1 or T2 N0M0). Multivariate models were employed to identify factors predicting failure to undergo surgery and assess the impact on survival. RESULTS: Of early-stage patients who were recommended surgery, 7.8% (N = 992) refused surgery for resectable early-stage pancreatic cancer. On multivariable analysis, patients were more likely to refuse surgery if they were older [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.19], female (OR = 1.52; 95% CI 1.33-1.73), African American (vs White, OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.37-2.34), on Medicare/Medicaid (vs private, OR = 2.75; 95% CI 1.54-4.92) or had higher Charlson-Deyo score (2 vs 0, OR = 1.33; 95% CI 1.03-1.72). Patients were also significantly more likely to refuse surgery if they were seen at a center that is not an academic/research program (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.6-2.27). Patients who were recommended surgery but refused had significantly worse survival than those with stage I who received surgery [median survival 6.8 vs 24 months, Cox hazard ratio (HR) 3.41; 95% CI 3.12-3.60]. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of patients refusing surgery for operable early-stage pancreatic cancer has been decreasing in the last decade but remains a significant issue that affects survival. Disparities in refusal of surgery are independently associated with several variables including gender, race, and insurance. To mitigate national disparities in surgical care, future studies should focus on exploring potential reasons for refusal and developing communication interventions.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Pancreatectomia/psicologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etnologia , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/etnologia , /psicologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/psicologia
9.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 29(7): 912-919.e2, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843996

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the US nationwide experience with transarterial radioembolization (TARE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the years 2003-2012 and the prognostic factors associated with overall survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study from the National Cancer Database included 110,139 adult patients with HCC between 2003 and 2012, of whom 1,222 received TARE. Primary outcome of interest was mortality after treatment. Univariate and multivariate analyses for factors predicting mortality were performed for 961 patients treated between 2003 and 2011. Overall survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: There was a steady increase in utilization of TARE in the past decade. Most patients were white men with median age of 64 years. Of those patients, 67% received treatment at an academic institution, 42% were American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I or II, and 10% had metastatic disease at the time of treatment. Median overall survival was 13.3 months. Overall survival varied by patient and tumor characteristics. Female patients with tumors < 5 cm or stage I or II disease benefited the most from treatment. Outcomes were the same across all age groups. Patients who were African American or had metastatic disease tended to have worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Use of TARE in patients with HCC has been increasing. Several factors are significantly associated with a less favorable outcome after TARE, including male sex, large tumors, and extrahepatic disease. These data can be used for designing future radioembolization trials.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/radioterapia , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/radioterapia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etnologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/secundário , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Bases de Dados Factuais , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Embolização Terapêutica/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etnologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral , Estados Unidos
10.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 19(12): 1366-1371, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28994182

RESUMO

This comparative cross-sectional study examines the association between traffic congestion and elevation of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure levels among a convenience sample of 310 drivers. Data collection took place during a gas station pause at a fixed time of day. Higher average systolic (142 vs 123 mm Hg) and diastolic (87 vs 78 mm Hg) blood pressures were detected among drivers exposed to traffic congestion compared with those who were not exposed (P<.001), while controlling for body mass index, age, sex, pack-year smoking, driving hours per week, and occupational driving. Moreover, among persons exposed to traffic congestion, longer exposure time was associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms of the significant association between elevated blood pressure and traffic congestion.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Hipertensão , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/etiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Líbano , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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