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1.
Sci Immunol ; 3(30)2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578352

RESUMO

Inherited IL-12Rß1 and TYK2 deficiencies impair both IL-12- and IL-23-dependent IFN-γ immunity and are rare monogenic causes of tuberculosis, each found in less than 1/600,000 individuals. We show that homozygosity for the common TYK2 P1104A allele, which is found in about 1/600 Europeans and between 1/1000 and 1/10,000 individuals in regions other than East Asia, is more frequent in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis from endemic areas than in ethnicity-adjusted controls (P = 8.37 × 10-8; odds ratio, 89.31; 95% CI, 14.7 to 1725). Moreover, the frequency of P1104A in Europeans has decreased, from about 9% to 4.2%, over the past 4000 years, consistent with purging of this variant by endemic tuberculosis. Surprisingly, we also show that TYK2 P1104A impairs cellular responses to IL-23, but not to IFN-α, IL-10, or even IL-12, which, like IL-23, induces IFN-γ via activation of TYK2 and JAK2. Moreover, TYK2 P1104A is properly docked on cytokine receptors and can be phosphorylated by the proximal JAK, but lacks catalytic activity. Last, we show that the catalytic activity of TYK2 is essential for IL-23, but not IL-12, responses in cells expressing wild-type JAK2. In contrast, the catalytic activity of JAK2 is redundant for both IL-12 and IL-23 responses, because the catalytically inactive P1057A JAK2, which is also docked and phosphorylated, rescues signaling in cells expressing wild-type TYK2. In conclusion, homozygosity for the catalytically inactive P1104A missense variant of TYK2 selectively disrupts the induction of IFN-γ by IL-23 and is a common monogenic etiology of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-23/imunologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , TYK2 Quinase/genética , Tuberculose/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Homozigoto , Humanos , Interleucina-23/deficiência , TYK2 Quinase/imunologia
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(34): E8007-E8016, 2018 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072435

RESUMO

Isolated congenital asplenia (ICA) is the only known human developmental defect exclusively affecting a lymphoid organ. In 2013, we showed that private deleterious mutations in the protein-coding region of RPSA, encoding ribosomal protein SA, caused ICA by haploinsufficiency with complete penetrance. We reported seven heterozygous protein-coding mutations in 8 of the 23 kindreds studied, including 6 of the 8 multiplex kindreds. We have since enrolled 33 new kindreds, 5 of which are multiplex. We describe here 11 new heterozygous ICA-causing RPSA protein-coding mutations, and the first two mutations in the 5'-UTR of this gene, which disrupt mRNA splicing. Overall, 40 of the 73 ICA patients (55%) and 23 of the 56 kindreds (41%) carry mutations located in translated or untranslated exons of RPSA. Eleven of the 43 kindreds affected by sporadic disease (26%) carry RPSA mutations, whereas 12 of the 13 multiplex kindreds (92%) carry RPSA mutations. We also report that 6 of 18 (33%) protein-coding mutations and the two (100%) 5'-UTR mutations display incomplete penetrance. Three mutations were identified in two independent kindreds, due to a hotspot or a founder effect. Finally, RPSA ICA-causing mutations were demonstrated to be de novo in 7 of the 23 probands. Mutations in RPSA exons can affect the translated or untranslated regions and can underlie ICA with complete or incomplete penetrance.


Assuntos
Éxons , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Mutação , Penetrância , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Receptores de Laminina/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Baço/anormalidades , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Masculino , Receptores de Laminina/biossíntese , Proteínas Ribossômicas/biossíntese , Baço/metabolismo
3.
J Exp Med ; 215(9): 2289-2310, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068544

RESUMO

Patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) and biallelic null mutations of TMC6 (encoding EVER1) or TMC8 (EVER2) are selectively prone to disseminated skin lesions due to keratinocyte-tropic human ß-papillomaviruses (ß-HPVs), which lack E5 and E8. We describe EV patients homozygous for null mutations of the CIB1 gene encoding calcium- and integrin-binding protein-1 (CIB1). CIB1 is strongly expressed in the skin and cultured keratinocytes of controls but not in those of patients. CIB1 forms a complex with EVER1 and EVER2, and CIB1 proteins are not expressed in EVER1- or EVER2-deficient cells. The known functions of EVER1 and EVER2 in human keratinocytes are not dependent on CIB1, and CIB1 deficiency does not impair keratinocyte adhesion or migration. In keratinocytes, the CIB1 protein interacts with the HPV E5 and E8 proteins encoded by α-HPV16 and γ-HPV4, respectively, suggesting that this protein acts as a restriction factor against HPVs. Collectively, these findings suggest that the disruption of CIB1-EVER1-EVER2-dependent keratinocyte-intrinsic immunity underlies the selective susceptibility to ß-HPVs of EV patients.

4.
J Clin Invest ; 128(9): 3957-3975, 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969437

RESUMO

Biallelic loss-of-function (LOF) mutations of the NCF4 gene, encoding the p40phox subunit of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, have been described in only 1 patient. We report on 24 p40phox-deficient patients from 12 additional families in 8 countries. These patients display 8 different in-frame or out-of-frame mutations of NCF4 that are homozygous in 11 of the families and compound heterozygous in another. When overexpressed in NB4 neutrophil-like cells and EBV-transformed B cells in vitro, the mutant alleles were found to be LOF, with the exception of the p.R58C and c.120_134del alleles, which were hypomorphic. Particle-induced NADPH oxidase activity was severely impaired in the patients' neutrophils, whereas PMA-induced dihydrorhodamine-1,2,3 (DHR) oxidation, which is widely used as a diagnostic test for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), was normal or mildly impaired in the patients. Moreover, the NADPH oxidase activity of EBV-transformed B cells was also severely impaired, whereas that of mononuclear phagocytes was normal. Finally, the killing of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae by neutrophils was conserved in these patients, unlike in patients with CGD. The patients suffer from hyperinflammation and peripheral infections, but they do not have any of the invasive bacterial or fungal infections seen in CGD. Inherited p40phox deficiency underlies a distinctive condition, resembling a mild, atypical form of CGD.

5.
Sci Immunol ; 3(24)2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29907691

RESUMO

Heterozygosity for human signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) dominant-negative (DN) mutations underlies an autosomal dominant form of hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES). We describe patients with an autosomal recessive form of HIES due to loss-of-function mutations of a previously uncharacterized gene, ZNF341 ZNF341 is a transcription factor that resides in the nucleus, where it binds a specific DNA motif present in various genes, including the STAT3 promoter. The patients' cells have low basal levels of STAT3 mRNA and protein. The autoinduction of STAT3 production, activation, and function by STAT3-activating cytokines is strongly impaired. Like patients with STAT3 DN mutations, ZNF341-deficient patients lack T helper 17 (TH17) cells, have an excess of TH2 cells, and have low memory B cells due to the tight dependence of STAT3 activity on ZNF341 in lymphocytes. Their milder extra-hematopoietic manifestations and stronger inflammatory responses reflect the lower ZNF341 dependence of STAT3 activity in other cell types. Human ZNF341 is essential for the STAT3 transcription-dependent autoinduction and sustained activity of STAT3.

6.
Elife ; 72018 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29537367

RESUMO

Most humans are exposed to Tropheryma whipplei (Tw). Whipple's disease (WD) strikes only a small minority of individuals infected with Tw (<0.01%), whereas asymptomatic chronic carriage is more common (<25%). We studied a multiplex kindred, containing four WD patients and five healthy Tw chronic carriers. We hypothesized that WD displays autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance, with age-dependent incomplete penetrance. We identified a single very rare non-synonymous mutation in the four patients: the private R98W variant of IRF4, a transcription factor involved in immunity. The five Tw carriers were younger, and also heterozygous for R98W. We found that R98W was loss-of-function, modified the transcriptome of heterozygous leukocytes following Tw stimulation, and was not dominant-negative. We also found that only six of the other 153 known non-synonymous IRF4 variants were loss-of-function. Finally, we found that IRF4 had evolved under purifying selection. AD IRF4 deficiency can underlie WD by haploinsufficiency, with age-dependent incomplete penetrance.

7.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(3): 278-282, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29589181

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency predisposing congenitally affected individuals to diseases caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine strains and environmental mycobacteria. IL-12p40 deficiency is a genetic etiology of MSMD resulting in impaired IL-12- and IL-23-dependent IFN-γ immunity. Most of the reported patients with IL-12p40 deficiency originate from Saudi Arabia (30 of 52) and carry the recurrent IL12B mutation c.315insA (27 of 30). METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed on three patients from two unrelated kindreds from Saudi Arabia with disseminated disease caused by a BCG vaccine substrain. RESULTS: Genetic analysis revealed a homozygous mutation, p.W60X, in exon 3 of the IL12B gene, resulting in complete IL12p40 deficiency. This mutation is recurrent due to a new founder effect. CONCLUSIONS: This report provides evidence for a second founder effect for recurrent mutations of IL12B in Saudi Arabia.

8.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 34 Suppl 100(5): 43-48, 2016 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27385538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune disease (AID) with a complex genetic etiology. Evidence for a shared pathogenesis across AIDs is given by the well-known pleiotropism of autoimmune genes. Recently, several unbiased approaches have identified an association between polymorphisms of the CD2 gene, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) susceptibility. The objective of this study was to investigate whether CD2 polymorphisms are associated with SSc. METHODS: Two SNPs of CD2, rs624988 and rs798036, were genotyped in a total of 1,786 SSc patients and 2,360 healthy individuals from two European populations (France and Italy). Meta-analyses were performed to assess whether an association exists between CD2 polymorphisms or haplotypes and SSc or its main subtypes. RESULTS: The combined analyses revealed an association between the rs624988 A allele and SSc susceptibility: padj=0.023, OR=1.14 (95%CI 1.04-1.25). Single marker analysis did not reveal any association between rs798036 and SSc. Haplotype analysis identified that the A-T haplotype, previously described in RA, was associated with higher susceptibility for SSc (padj=0.029, OR=1.14, 95%CI 1.04-1.25) and with the positive anti-centromere antibody sub-group of SSc patients (padj=0.009, OR=1.19 95%CI 1.07-1.32). Genotype-mRNA expression correlations revealed that the CD2 risk haplotype was associated with decreased CD2 mRNA expression in SSc patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study establishes CD2 as a new susceptibility factor for SSc, in a European Caucasian population, confirming the sharing of autoimmune risk factors by SSc and RA.


Assuntos
Autoimunidade/genética , Antígenos CD2/genética , Haplótipos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD2/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/etnologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia
9.
Arthritis Rheum ; 65(12): 3202-8, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23983073

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recognition of the well-known pleiotropism of autoimmune genes supports the concept of a shared pathogenesis across autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic sclerosis (SSc). Studies have reproducibly demonstrated an association between susceptibility to RA and polymorphisms of the CCR6 gene, a surface marker for Th17 cells, and the causal variant was recently identified. The present study was thus undertaken to investigate whether CCR6 polymorphisms could also be associated with susceptibility to SSc. METHODS: Twelve tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CCR6, including the known RA-associated SNP rs3093023, were genotyped in a total of 2,411 SSc patients and 7,084 healthy individuals from 3 European populations (France, Italy, and Germany). Meta-analyses of the data were performed to assess whether an association exists between CCR6 polymorphisms and susceptibility to SSc or its main subtypes. Direct sequencing of DNA was performed to ascertain whether the functional dinucleotide polymorphism of CCR6 previously identified in RA (CCR6DNP) was also present in SSc. RESULTS: Combined analyses revealed an association between the rs10946216 SNP and SSc susceptibility (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.05-1.21, adjusted P [P(adj)] = 0.026). The rs3093023 A allele and rs10946216 T allele were in high linkage disequilibrium, and both were found to confer disease susceptibility in the antitopoisomerase-positive subset of SSc patients (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.13-1.42, P(adj) = 1.5 × 10(-3) and OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.17-1.48, P(adj) = 9.0 × 10(-5), respectively, relative to healthy controls). Direct sequencing of the DNA of 78 individuals supported the hypothesis that the regulatory dinucleotide CCR6DNP could be the causal variant in SSc. CONCLUSION: The results of this study establish CCR6 as a new susceptibility factor for antitopoisomerase-positive SSc, as demonstrated in 3 European Caucasian populations, confirming the notion that SSc and RA could conceivably share autoimmune risk alleles. The results also suggest a potential role of the interleukin-17 pathway in SSc.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/genética , DNA Topoisomerases/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Receptores CCR6/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia
10.
PLoS One ; 7(10): e45685, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23077494

RESUMO

Inferring the structure of populations has many applications for genetic research. In addition to providing information for evolutionary studies, it can be used to account for the bias induced by population stratification in association studies. To this end, many algorithms have been proposed to cluster individuals into genetically homogeneous sub-populations. The parametric algorithms, such as Structure, are very popular but their underlying complexity and their high computational cost led to the development of faster parametric alternatives such as Admixture. Alternatives to these methods are the non-parametric approaches. Among this category, AWclust has proven efficient but fails to properly identify population structure for complex datasets. We present in this article a new clustering algorithm called Spectral Hierarchical clustering for the Inference of Population Structure (SHIPS), based on a divisive hierarchical clustering strategy, allowing a progressive investigation of population structure. This method takes genetic data as input to cluster individuals into homogeneous sub-populations and with the use of the gap statistic estimates the optimal number of such sub-populations. SHIPS was applied to a set of simulated discrete and admixed datasets and to real SNP datasets, that are data from the HapMap and Pan-Asian SNP consortium. The programs Structure, Admixture, AWclust and PCAclust were also investigated in a comparison study. SHIPS and the parametric approach Structure were the most accurate when applied to simulated datasets both in terms of individual assignments and estimation of the correct number of clusters. The analysis of the results on the real datasets highlighted that the clusterings of SHIPS were the more consistent with the population labels or those produced by the Admixture program. The performances of SHIPS when applied to SNP data, along with its relatively low computational cost and its ease of use make this method a promising solution to infer fine-scale genetic patterns.


Assuntos
Análise por Conglomerados , Grupos Populacionais , Algoritmos , Haplótipos , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
11.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 71(11): 1900-3, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22896741

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has emerged as a major mortality prognostic factor. Mutations of transforming growth factor beta (TGFß) receptor genes strongly contribute to idiopathic and familial PAH. OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic bases of SSc-PAH, we combined direct sequencing and genotyping of candidate genes encoding TGFß receptor family members. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TGFß receptor genes, BMPR2, ALK1, TGFR2 and ENG, were sequenced in 10 SSc-PAH patients, nine SSc and seven controls. In addition, 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of these four candidate genes were tested for association in a first set of 824 French Caucasian SSc patients (including 54 SSc-PAH) and 939 controls. The replication set consisted of 1516 European SSc (including 219 SSc-PAH) and 3129 controls from the European League Against Rheumatism Scleroderma Trials and Research group network. RESULTS: No mutation was identified by direct sequencing. However, two repertoried SNP, ENG rs35400405 and ALK1 rs2277382, were found in SSc-PAH patients only. The genotyping of 22 SNP including the latter showed that only rs2277382 was associated with SSc-PAH (p=0.0066, OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.24 to 3.65). Nevertheless, this was not replicated with the following result in combined analysis: p=0.123, OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.07. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the lack of association between these TGFß receptor gene polymorphisms and SSc-PAH using both sequencing and genotyping methods.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento Transformadores beta/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/patologia
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 888: 213-33, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22665284

RESUMO

Recent advances in Molecular Biology and improvements in microarray and sequencing technologies have led biologists toward high-throughput genomic studies. These studies aim at finding associations between genetic markers and a phenotype and involve conducting many statistical tests on these markers. Such Please confirm the changes in the sentence "Such a wide..." a wide investigation of the genome not only renders genomic studies quite attractive but also lead to a major shortcoming. That is, among the markers detected as associated with the phenotype, a nonnegligible proportion is not in reality (false-positives) and also true associations can be missed (false-negatives). A main cause of these spurious associations is due to the multiple-testing problem, inherent to conducting numerous statistical tests. Several approaches exist to work around this issue. These multiple-testing adjustments aim at defining new statistical confidence measures that are controlled to guarantee that the outcomes of the tests are pertinent.The most natural correction was introduced by Bonferroni and aims at controlling the family-wise error-rate (FWER) that is the probability of having at least one false-positive. Another approach is based on the false-discovery-rate (FDR) and considers the proportion of significant results that are expected to be false-positives. Finally, the local-FDR focuses on the actual probability for a marker of being associated or not with the phenotype. These strategies are widely used but one has to be careful about when and how to apply them. We propose in this chapter a discussion on the multiple-testing issue and on the main approaches to take it into account. We aim at providing a theoretical and intuitive definition of these concepts along with practical advises to guide researchers in choosing the more appropriate multiple-testing procedure corresponding to the purposes of their studies.


Assuntos
Marcadores Genéticos , Genômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Reações Falso-Negativas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Probabilidade
13.
J Rheumatol ; 39(5): 997-1003, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22422496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Independent replication with large cohorts and metaanalysis of genetic associations are necessary to validate genetic susceptibility factors. The known tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 4 gene (TNFSF4) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk locus has been found to be associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc) in 2 studies, but with discrepancies between them for genotype-phenotype correlation. Our objective was to validate TNFSF4 association with SSc and determine the subset with the higher risk. METHODS: Known SLE and SSc TNFSF4 susceptibility variants (rs2205960, rs1234317, rs12039904, rs10912580, and rs844648) were genotyped in 1031 patients with SSc and 1014 controls of French white ancestry. Genotype-phenotype association analysis and meta analysis of available data were performed, providing a population study of 4989 patients with SSc and 4661 controls, all of European white ancestry. RESULTS: Allelic and genotypic associations were observed for the 5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with the subset of patients with SSc who are positive for anticentromere antibodies (ACA) and only a trend for association with SSc and limited cutaneous SSc. Rs2205960 exhibited the strongest allelic association in ACA+ patients with SSc [p = 0.0015; OR 1.37 (1.12-1.66)], with significant intra-cohort association when compared to patients with SSc positive for ACA. Metaanalysis confirmed overall association with SSc but also raised preferential association with the ACA+ subset and strongest effect with rs2205960 [T allele p = 0.00013; OR 1.33 (1.15-1.54) and TT genotype p = 0.00046; OR 2.02 (1.36-2.98)]. CONCLUSION: We confirm TNFSF4 as an SSc susceptibility gene and rs2205960 as a putative causal variant with preferential association in the ACA+ SSc subphenotype.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Ligante OX40/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Adulto , Centrômero/genética , Centrômero/imunologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ligante OX40/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia
14.
PLoS One ; 6(12): e28845, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22216125

RESUMO

Genome-Wide Association Studies are powerful tools to detect genetic variants associated with diseases. Their results have, however, been questioned, in part because of the bias induced by population stratification. This is a consequence of systematic differences in allele frequencies due to the difference in sample ancestries that can lead to both false positive or false negative findings. Many strategies are available to account for stratification but their performances differ, for instance according to the type of population structure, the disease susceptibility locus minor allele frequency, the degree of sampling imbalanced, or the sample size. We focus on the type of population structure and propose a comparison of the most commonly used methods to deal with stratification that are the Genomic Control, Principal Component based methods such as implemented in Eigenstrat, adjusted Regressions and Meta-Analyses strategies. Our assessment of the methods is based on a large simulation study, involving several scenarios corresponding to many types of population structures. We focused on both false positive rate and power to determine which methods perform the best. Our analysis showed that if there is no population structure, none of the tests led to a bias nor decreased the power except for the Meta-Analyses. When the population is stratified, adjusted Logistic Regressions and Eigenstrat are the best solutions to account for stratification even though only the Logistic Regressions are able to constantly maintain correct false positive rates. This study provides more details about these methods. Their advantages and limitations in different stratification scenarios are highlighted in order to propose practical guidelines to account for population stratification in Genome-Wide Association Studies.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Frequência do Gene , Humanos
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