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Braz J Anesthesiol ; 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407454


INTRODUCTION: Arterial lactate, mixed venous O2 saturation, venous minus arterial CO2 partial pressure (Pv-aCO2) and the ratio between this gradient and the arterial minus venous oxygen content (Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2) were proposed as markers of tissue hypoperfusion and oxygenation. The main goals were to characterize the determinants of Pv-aCO2 and Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2, and the interchangeability of the variables calculated from mixed and central venous samples. METHODS: 35 cardiac surgery patients were included. Variables were measured or calculated: after anesthesia induction (T1), end of surgery (T2), and at 6-8 hours intervals after ICU admission (T3 and T4). RESULTS: Macrohemodynamics was characterized by increased cardiac index and low systemic vascular resistances after surgery (p < 0.05). Hemoglobin, arterial-pH, lactate, and systemic O2 metabolism showed significant changes during the study (p < 0.05). Pv-aCO2 remained high and without changes, Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2 was also high and decreased at T4 (p < 0.05). A significant correlation was observed globally and at each time interval, between Pv-aCO2 or Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2 with factors that may affect the CO2 hemoglobin dissociation. A multilevel linear regression model with Pv-aCO2 and Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2 as outcome variables showed a significant association for Pv-aCO2 with SvO2, and BE (p < 0.05), while Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2 was significantly associated with Hb, SvO2, and BE (p < 0.05) but not with cardiac output. Measurements and calculations from mixed and central venous blood were not interchangeable. CONCLUSIONS: Pv-aCO2 and Pv-aCO2/Ca-vO2 could be influenced by different factors that affect the CO2 dissociation curve, these variables should be considered with caution in cardiac surgery patients. Finally, central venous and mixed values were not interchangeable.

Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1257, 2020 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988341


End-expiratory occlusion test (EEOT) has been proposed as a preload responsiveness test that overcomes several limitations of pulse pressure (PPV) and stroke volume (SVV) variations. We compared the ability of EEOT versus SVV and PPV to predict fluid responsiveness during the increase of the vasomotor tone in a rabbit model of hemorrhage. Ten rabbits were anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated during basal load (BL), after progressive blood withdrawal (BW), and after volume replacement. Other two sets of data were obtained during vasomotor increase by phenylephrine (PHE) infusion in BL and BW. We estimated the change of stroke volume (∆SVEEOT) and aortic flow (∆AoFEEOT) during the EEOT. PPV and SVV were obtained by the variation of beat-to-beat PP and SV, respectively. Baseline PPV, SVV, ∆SVEEOT, and ∆AoFEEOT increased significantly after BW, with a decrease of aortic flow (P < 0.05). PHE induced a significant decrease of PPV and SVV, but without affecting ∆SVEEOT, and ∆AoFEEOT. We conclude that ∆SV and ∆AoF during EEOT kept the ability to predict fluid responsiveness during PHE infusion in a rabbit hemorrhage model. This result may suggest the advantage of EEOT with respect to SVV and PPV in predicting fluid responsiveness during vasomotor tone increase.

Hemorragia/fisiopatologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hidratação/métodos , Hemodinâmica , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Coelhos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Sistema Vasomotor
BMC Anesthesiol ; 17(1): 35, 2017 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28253850


BACKGROUND: Pulse pressure (PPV) and stroke volume (SVV) variations may not be reliable in the setting of pulmonary hypertension and/or right ventricular (RV) failure. We hypothesized that RV afterload increase attenuates SVV and PPV during hypovolemia in a rabbit model of pulmonary embolism (PE) secondary to RV dysfunction. METHODS: Seven anesthetized and mechanically ventilated rabbits were studied during four experimental conditions: normovolemia, blood withdrawal, pulmonary embolism and fluid loading of a colloidal solution. Central venous, RV and left ventricular (LV) pressures, and infra-diaphragmatic aortic blood flow (AoF) and pressure were measured. SV was estimated by the integral of systolic AoF. We analyzed RV and LV function through stroke work output curves. PPV and SVV were obtained by the variation of beat-to-beat PP and SV, respectively. We assessed RV and LV diastolic and systolic function by the time rate of relaxation (tau) and the ratio of the first derivative of ventricular pressure and the highest isovolumic developed pressure (dP/dt/DP), respectively. The vasomotor tone was estimated by the dynamic arterial elastance (Eadyn = PPV/SVV). RESULTS: PPV and SVV increased significantly during hemorrhage and returned to baseline values after PE which was associated to biventricular right-downward of the stroke work curves and a decrease of AoF and SV (P < 0.05). RV systo-diastolic function and LV systolic function were impaired. All the animals were nonresponders after volume expansion. Eadyn did not show any significant change during the different experimental conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The dynamic preload indicators (SVV and PPV) were significantly reduced after a normotensive PE in hypovolemic animals, mainly by the systo-diastolic dysfunction of the RV associated with LV systolic impairment, which makes the animals nonresponsive to volume loading. This normalization of dynamic preload indices may prevent the detrimental consequence of fluid loading.

Hidratação , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipovolemia/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Coelhos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 3(1): 49, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26215813


BACKGROUND: Microcirculation and macrohemodynamics are severely compromised during septic shock. However, the relationship between these two compartments needs to be further investigated. We hypothesized that early resuscitation restores left ventricular (LV) performance and microcirculatory function but fails to prevent metabolic disorders. We studied the effects of an early resuscitation protocol (ERP) on LV pressure/volume loops-derived parameters, sublingual microcirculation, and metabolic alterations during endotoxic shock. METHODS: Twenty-five pigs were randomized into three groups: LPS group: Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS); ERP group: LPS + ERP based on volume expansion, dobutamine, and noradrenaline infusion; Sham group. LV pressure/volume-derived parameters, systemic hemodynamics, sublingual microcirculation, and metabolic profile were assessed at baseline and after completing the resuscitation protocol. RESULTS: LPS significantly decreased LV end-diastolic volume, myocardial contractility, stroke work, and cardiac index (CI). Early resuscitation preserved preload, and myocardial contractility, increased CI and heart rate (p < .05). LPS severely diminished sublingual microvascular flow index (MFI), perfused vascular density (PVD), and the proportion of perfused vessels (PPV), while increased the heterogeneity flow index (HFI) (p < .05). Despite MFI was relatively preserved, MVD, PVD, and HFI were significantly impaired after resuscitation (p < .05). The macro- and microcirculatory changes were associated with increased lactic acidosis and mixed venous O2 saturation when compared to baseline values (p < .05). The scatter plot between mean arterial pressure (MAP) and MFI showed a biphasic relationship, suggesting that the values were within the limits of microvascular autoregulation when MAP was above 71 ± 6 mm Hg (R (2) = 0.63). CONCLUSIONS: Early hemodynamic resuscitation was effective to restore macrohemodynamia and myocardial contractility. Despite MAP and MFI were relatively preserved, the persistent microvascular dysfunction could explain metabolic disorders. The relationship between micro- and systemic hemodynamia and their impact on cellular function and metabolism needs to be further studied during endotoxic shock.

BMC Anesthesiol ; 13(1): 41, 2013 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24215252


BACKGROUND: The use of vasoconstrictor can affect the dynamic indices to predict fluid responsiveness. We investigate the effects of an increase of vascular tone on dynamic variables of fluid responsiveness in a rabbit model of hemorrhage, and to examine the ability of the arterial pressure surrogates dynamic indices to track systolic volume variation (SVV) during hypovolemia under increased vasomotor tone. METHODS: Eighteen anesthetized and mechanically ventilated rabbits were studied during normovolemia (BL) and after blood progressive removal (15 mL/kg, BW). Other two sets of data were obtained during PHE infusion with normovolemia (BL + PHE) and during hypovolemia (BW + PHE). We measured central venous and left ventricular (LV) pressures and infra diaphragmatic aortic blood flow (AoF) and pressure. Pulse pressure variation (PPV), systolic pressure variation (SPV) and SVV were estimated manually by the variation of beat-to-beat PP, SP and SV, respectively. We also calculated PPVapnea as 100 × (PPmax-PPmin)/PP during apnea. The vasomotor tone was estimated by total peripheral resistance (TPR = mean aortic pressure/mean AoF), dynamic arterial elastance (Eadyn = PPV/SVV) and arterial compliance (C = SV/PP). We assessed LV preload by LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). We compared the trending abilities between SVV and pressure surrogate indices using four-quadrant plots and polar plots. RESULTS: Baseline PPV, SPV, PPVapnea, and SVV increased significantly during hemorrhage, with a decrease of AoF (P < 0.05). PHE induced significant TPR and Eadyn increase and C decrease in bled animals, and a further decrease in AoF with a significant decrease of all dynamic indices. There was a significant correlation between SVV and PPV, PPVapnea and SPV in normal vasomotor tone (r2 ≥ 0.5). The concordance rate was 91%, 95% and 76% between SVV and PPV, PPVapnea and SPV, respectively, in accordance with the polar plot analysis. During PHE infusion, there was no correlation between SVV and its surrogates, and both four-quadrant plot and polar plot showed poor trending. CONCLUSION: In this animal model of hemorrhage and increased vasomotor tone induced by phenylephrine the ability of dynamic indices to predict fluid responsiveness seems to be impaired, masking the true fluid loss. Moreover, the arterial pressure surrogates have not the reliable trending ability against SVV.

Anest. analg. reanim ; 19(1): 21-30, ago. 2004. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-463119


Introducción: la realización de una vía venosa central es una importante herramienta de la medicina actual existiendo distintas vías y abordajes. En nuestro medio la utilizada más ampliamente es la vía yugular interna, mediante el abordaje posterior de Brinkman-Costley. En la actualidad ha cobrado cierta popularidad la utilización de los abordajes medios, y dentro de estos el que localiza la vena yugular interna en el triángulo de Sedillot. Objetivo: evaluar la eficacia de la cateterización de la vena yugular interna, utilizando dos abordajes, uno posterior y otro medio, y determinar la frecuencia de complicaciones de estos abordajes. Material y método: es un estudio prospectivo y comparativo; la elección del abordaje fue realizada por el médico actuante y se basó en su preferencia o experiencia previa. Se registró el éxito o la falla en la cateterización de la vena yugular y el número de intentos necesarios para su obtención. Resultados: se evaluaron 62 vías venosas centrales, 34 por el abordaje medio y 28 por el abordaje posterior. Se registró un 88,2 por ciento de éxito para el abordaje medio y 64,2 por ciento para el abordaje medio en el 93,3 por ciento de los pacientes y con el abordaje posterior en el 61,1 por ciento de los pacientes, diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p=0,009). La punción arterial fue la única complicación evidenciada.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cateterismo Venoso Central , Veias Jugulares , Anestesia Local