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1.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649528
2.
Br J Sports Med ; 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619128

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether high responsiveness or low responsiveness to exercise training aggregates in the same individuals across seven cardiometabolic traits. METHODS: A total of 564 adults (29.2% black, 53.7% female) from the HERITAGE family study completed a 20-week endurance training programme (at 55%-75% of participants' maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)) with VO2max, per cent body fat, visceral adipose tissue, fasting levels of insulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, small low-density lipoprotein particles and inflammatory marker GlycA measured before and after training. For each exercise response trait, we created ethnicity-specific, sex-specific and generation-specific quintiles. High responses were defined as those within the 20th percentile representing the favourable end of the response trait distribution, low responses were defined as the 20th percentile from the least favourable end, and the remaining were labelled as average responses. RESULTS: Only one individual had universally high or low responses for all seven cardiometabolic traits. Almost half (49%) of the cohort had at least one high response and one low response across the seven traits. About 24% had at least one high response but no low responses, 24% had one or more low responses but no high responses, and 2.5% had average responses across all traits. CONCLUSIONS: Interindividual variation in exercise responses was evident in all the traits we investigated, and responsiveness did not aggregate consistently in the same individuals. While adherence to an exercise prescription is known to produce health benefits, targeted risk factors may not improve.

3.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 52(11): 2303-2309, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064405

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We designed the study to determine whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup, sequence, and heteroplasmy differed between individuals previously characterized as low (LR) or high responders (HR) as defined by their maximal oxygen uptake response to a standardized aerobic exercise training program. METHODS: DNA was isolated from whole blood in subjects from the HERITAGE Family Study that were determined to be either HR (n = 15) or LR (n = 15). mtDNA was amplified by long-range polymerase chain reaction, then tagged with Nextera libraries and sequenced on a MiSeq instrument. RESULTS: Different mtDNA haplogroup subtypes were found in HR and LR individuals. Compared with HR subjects, significantly more LR subjects had variants in 13 sites, including 7 in hypervariable (HV) regions: HV2 (G185A: 0 vs 6, P = 0.02; G228A: 0 vs 5, P = 0.04; C295T: 0 vs 6; P = 0.04), HV3 (C462T: 0 vs 5, P = 0.04; T489C: 0 vs 5; P = 0.04), and HV1 (C16068T: 0 vs 6, P = 0.02; T16125C: 0 vs 6, P = 0.02). Remaining variants were in protein coding genes, mtND1 (1 vs 8, P = 0.02), mtND3 (A10397G: 0 vs 5, P = 0.04), mtND4 (A11250G: 1 vs 8, P = 0.02), mtND5 (G13707A: 0 vs 5, P = 0.04), and mtCYTB (T14797C: 0 vs 5, P = 0.04; C15451A: 1 vs 8, P = 0.02). Average total numbers of heteroplasmies (P = 0.83) and frequency of heteroplasmies (P = 0.05) were similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide specific sites across the mitochondrial genome that may be related to maximal oxygen uptake trainability.

4.
Nat Metab ; 2(9): 796-798, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943784
5.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(5): 460-465, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sequence variation at chromosome 9p21.3 accounts for 20% of myocardial infarctions (MIs) in several populations. Whereas the risk conferred by the 9p21.3 locus appears to act independently of traditional risk factors, studies suggest that the association between 9p21.3 and MI is modified by glucose homeostasis and lifestyle. We examined if the 9p21.3 variant rs1333049, along with the previously identified predictor fasting insulin, modifies the preventive effect of bariatric surgery on MI incidence. METHODS: rs1333049 was genotyped in 1852 patients treated by bariatric surgery and 1803 controls given usual care in the SOS study (Swedish Obese Subjects). MI incidence was determined using national registers. Median follow-up was 21 years (interquartile range 18-24 years). RESULTS: Overall, 366 MIs occurred during follow-up. Among rs1333049 risk-allele carriers (CC+GC), the incidence of MI was reduced in the surgery group compared with the control group (hazard ratio=0.72 [95% CI, 0.57-0.92], P=0.008). By contrast, noncarriers (GG) showed no significant differences in MI incidence between the treatment groups (hazard ratio=1.28 [0.86-1.90], P=0.227; interaction between treatment and the risk-allele P=0.016). In addition, carriers with higher fasting insulin (above the median [17 mmol/L]) experienced significantly higher MI incidence than carriers with lower fasting insulin (hazard ratio=0.58 [0.42-0.78], P<0.001, interaction P=0.031). CONCLUSIONS: In the SOS cohort, patients with the chromosome 9p21.3 rs1333049 risk allele together with high fasting insulin levels benefitted from bariatric surgery in terms of reduced incidence of MI. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01479452.

6.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694364

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: According to current guidelines, the intensity of health-enhancing aerobic exercise should be prescribed using a percentage of heart rate reserve (%HRR), which is considered to be more closely associated (showing a 1:1 relation) with the percentage of oxygen uptake reserve (%V[Combining Dot Above]O2R) rather than with the percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (%V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) during incremental exercise. However, the associations between %HRR and %V[Combining Dot Above]O2R and between %HRR and %V[Combining Dot Above]O2max are under debate; hence, their actual relationships were investigated in this study. METHODS: Data from each stage of a maximal incremental exercise test performed by 737 healthy and physically inactive participants of the HERITAGE Family Study were screened and filtered, then used to calculate the individual linear regressions (ILR) between %HRR and either %V[Combining Dot Above]O2R or %V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. For each relationship, the mean slope and intercept of the ILRs were compared to 1 and 0 (i.e., the identity line), respectively, using one-sample t-tests. The individual root mean square errors (RMSE) of the actual vs. the 1:1 predicted %HRR were calculated for both relationships and compared using a paired-sample t-test. RESULTS: The mean slopes (%HRR-%V[Combining Dot Above]O2R: 0.972±0.189; %HRR-%V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 1.096±0.216) and intercepts (%HRR-%V[Combining Dot Above]O2R: 8.855±16.022; %HRR-%V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: -3.616±18.993) of both relationships were significantly different from 1 and 0, respectively, with high inter-individual variability. The average RMSEs were high and revealed that the %HRR-%V[Combining Dot Above]O2max relationship was more similar to the identity line (p<0.001) than the %HRR-%V[Combining Dot Above]O2R relationship (7.78±4.49% vs. 9.25±5.54%). CONCLUSIONS: Since both relationships are different from the identity line and using a single equation may not be appropriate to predict exercise intensity at the individual level, a re-thinking of the relationships between the intensity variables may be necessary to ensure that the most suitable health-enhancing aerobic exercise intensity is prescribed.

7.
Obes Rev ; 21(9): e13040, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515127

RESUMO

This systematic review has examined more than 300 original papers dealing with the biology of overfeeding. Studies have varied from 1 day to 6 months. Overfeeding produced weight gain in adolescents, adult men and women and in older men. In longer term studies, there was a clear and highly significant relationship between energy ingested and weight gain and fat storage with limited individual differences. There is some evidence for a contribution of a genetic component to this response variability. The response to overfeeding was affected by the baseline state of the groups being compared: those with insulin resistance versus insulin sensitivity; those prone to obesity versus those resistant to obesity; and those with metabolically abnormal obesity versus those with metabolically normal obesity. Dietary components, such as total fat, polyunsaturated fat and carbohydrate influenced the patterns of adipose tissue distribution as did the history of low or normal birth weight. Overfeeding affected the endocrine system with increased circulating concentrations of insulin and triiodothyronine frequently present. Growth hormone, in contrast, was rapidly suppressed. Changes in plasma lipids were influenced by diet, exercise and the magnitude of weight gain. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle morphology and metabolism are substantially altered by chronic overfeeding.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230815, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379818

RESUMO

Smoking is a potentially causal behavioral risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but not all smokers develop T2D. It is unknown whether genetic factors partially explain this variation. We performed genome-environment-wide interaction studies to identify loci exhibiting potential interaction with baseline smoking status (ever vs. never) on incident T2D and fasting glucose (FG). Analyses were performed in participants of European (EA) and African ancestry (AA) separately. Discovery analyses were conducted using genotype data from the 50,000-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ITMAT-Broad-CARe (IBC) array in 5 cohorts from from the Candidate Gene Association Resource Consortium (n = 23,189). Replication was performed in up to 16 studies from the Cohorts for Heart Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 74,584). In meta-analysis of discovery and replication estimates, 5 SNPs met at least one criterion for potential interaction with smoking on incident T2D at p<1x10-7 (adjusted for multiple hypothesis-testing with the IBC array). Two SNPs had significant joint effects in the overall model and significant main effects only in one smoking stratum: rs140637 (FBN1) in AA individuals had a significant main effect only among smokers, and rs1444261 (closest gene C2orf63) in EA individuals had a significant main effect only among nonsmokers. Three additional SNPs were identified as having potential interaction by exhibiting a significant main effects only in smokers: rs1801232 (CUBN) in AA individuals, rs12243326 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals, and rs4132670 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals. No SNP met significance for potential interaction with smoking on baseline FG. The identification of these loci provides evidence for genetic interactions with smoking exposure that may explain some of the heterogeneity in the association between smoking and T2D.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Jejum/sangue , Genótipo , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
9.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(3): 40-48, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913407

RESUMO

Importance: Obesity is a major determinant of disease burden worldwide. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) have been posited as key predictors of obesity. How a PRS can be translated to the clinical encounter (especially in the context of fitness, activity, and parental history of overweight) remains unclear. Objective: To quantify the relative importance of a PRS, fitness, activity, parental history of overweight, and body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) in young adulthood on BMI trends over 25 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based prospective cohort study at 4 US centers included white individuals and black individuals with assessments of polygenic risk of obesity, fitness, activity, and BMI in young adulthood (in their 20s) and up to 25 years of follow-up. Data collected between March 1985 and August 2011 were analyzed from April 25, 2019, to September 29, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Body mass index at the initial visit and 25 years later. Results: This study evaluated an obesity PRS from a recently reported study of 1608 white individuals (848 women [52.7%]) and 909 black individuals (548 women [60.3%]) across the United States. At baseline (year 0), mean (SD) overall BMI was 24.2 (4.5), which increased to 29.6 (6.9) at year 25. Among white individuals, the PRS (combined with age, sex, self-reported parental history of overweight, and principal components of ancestry) explained 11.9% (at year 0) and 13.6% (at year 25) of variation in BMI. Although the addition of fitness increased the explanatory capability of the model (24.0% variance at baseline and up to 18.1% variance in BMI at year 25), baseline BMI in young adulthood was the strongest factor, explaining 52.3% of BMI in midlife in combination with age, sex, and self-reported parental history of overweight. Accordingly, models that included baseline BMI (especially BMI surveillance over time) were better in predicting BMI at year 25 compared with the PRS. In fully adjusted models, the effect sizes for fitness and the PRS on BMI were comparable in opposing directions. The added explanatory capacity of the PRS among black individuals was lower than among white individuals. Among white individuals, addition of baseline BMI and surveillance of BMI over time was associated with improved precision of predicted BMI at year 25 (mean error in predicted BMI 0 kg/m2 [95% CI, -11.4 to 11.4] to 0 kg/m2 [95% CI, -8.5 to 8.5] for baseline BMI and mean error 0 kg/m2 [95% CI, -5.3 to 5.3] for BMI surveillance). Conclusions and Relevance: Cardiorespiratory fitness in young adulthood and a PRS are modestly associated with midlife BMI, although future BMI is associated with BMI in young adulthood. Fitness has a comparable association with future BMI as does the PRS. Caution should be exercised in the widespread use of polygenic risk for obesity prevention in adults, and close clinical surveillance and fitness may have prime roles in limiting the adverse consequences of elevated BMI on health.

10.
Nat Med ; 25(12): 1851-1857, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792462

RESUMO

Proteins are effector molecules that mediate the functions of genes1,2 and modulate comorbidities3-10, behaviors and drug treatments11. They represent an enormous potential resource for personalized, systemic and data-driven diagnosis, prevention, monitoring and treatment. However, the concept of using plasma proteins for individualized health assessment across many health conditions simultaneously has not been tested. Here, we show that plasma protein expression patterns strongly encode for multiple different health states, future disease risks and lifestyle behaviors. We developed and validated protein-phenotype models for 11 different health indicators: liver fat, kidney filtration, percentage body fat, visceral fat mass, lean body mass, cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, diabetes risk and primary cardiovascular event risk. The analyses were prospectively planned, documented and executed at scale on archived samples and clinical data, with a total of ~85 million protein measurements in 16,894 participants. Our proof-of-concept study demonstrates that protein expression patterns reliably encode for many different health issues, and that large-scale protein scanning12-16 coupled with machine learning is viable for the development and future simultaneous delivery of multiple measures of health. We anticipate that, with further validation and the addition of more protein-phenotype models, this approach could enable a single-source, individualized so-called liquid health check.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Composição Corporal/genética , Exercício Físico , Medicina de Precisão , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Estilo de Vida , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
11.
Front Genet ; 10: 994, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649740

RESUMO

Background and aims: Obesity is a major health problem worldwide. Given the heterogeneous obesity phenotype, an optimal obesity stratification would improve clinical management. Since obesity has a strong genetic component, we aimed to develop a polygenic risk score (PRS) to stratify obesity according to the genetic background of the individuals. Methods: A total of 231 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) significantly associated to body mass index (BMI) from 21 genome-wide association studies were genotyped or imputed in 881 subjects from the Quebec Family Study (QFS). The population was randomly split into discovery (80%; n = 704) and validation (20%; n = 177) samples with similar obesity (BMI ≥ 30) prevalence (27.8% and 28.2%, respectively). Family-based associations with obesity were tested for every SNP in the discovery sample and a weighed and continuous PRS231 was constructed. Generalized linear mixed effects models were used to test the association of PRS231 with obesity in the QFS discovery sample and validated in the QFS replication sample. Furthermore, the Fatty Acid Sensor (FAS) Study (n = 141; 27.7% obesity prevalence) was used as an independent sample to replicate the results. Results: The linear trend test demonstrated a significant association of PRS231 with obesity in the QFS discovery sample (ORtrend = 1.19 [95% CI, 1.14-1.24]; P = 2.0x10-16). We also found that the obesity prevalence was significantly greater in the higher PRS231 quintiles compared to the lowest quintile. Significant and consistent results were obtained in the QFS validation sample for both the linear trend test (ORtrend = 1.16 [95% CI, 1.07-1.26]; P = 6.7x10-4), and obesity prevalence across quintiles. These results were partially replicated in the FAS sample (ORtrend = 1.12 [95% CI, 1.02-1.24]; P = 2.2x10-2). PRS231 explained 7.5%, 3.2%, and 1.2% of BMI variance in QFS discovery, QFS validation, and FAS samples, respectively. Conclusions: These results revealed that genetic background in the form of a 231 BMI-associated PRS has a significant impact on obesity, but a limited potential to accurately stratify it. Further studies are encouraged on larger populations.

13.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(7): 636-643, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166569

RESUMO

Importance: Metabolic responses to exercise training are variable. Metabolite profiling may aid in the clinical assessment of an individual's responsiveness to exercise interventions. Objective: To investigate the association between a novel circulating biomarker of hepatic fat, dimethylguanidino valeric acid (DMGV), and metabolic health traits before and after 20 weeks of endurance exercise training. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study involved cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of the Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study, a 20-week, single-arm endurance exercise clinical trial performed in multiple centers between 1993 and 1997. White participants with sedentary lifestyles who were free of cardiometabolic disease were included. Metabolomic tests were performed using a liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry method on plasma samples collected before and after exercise training in the HERITAGE study. Metabolomics and data analysis were performed from August 2017 to May 2018. Exposures: Plasma DMGV levels. Main Outcome and Measures: The association between DMGV levels and measures of body composition, plasma lipids, insulin, and glucose homeostasis before and after exercise training. Results: Among the 439 participants included in analyses from HERITAGE, the mean (SD) age was 36 (15) years, 228 (51.9%) were female, and the median (interquartile range) body mass index was 25 (22-28). Baseline levels of DMGV were positively associated with body fat percentage, abdominal visceral fat, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, and inversely associated with insulin sensitivity, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein size, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (range of ß coefficients, 0.17-0.46 [SEs, 0.026-0.050]; all P < .001, after adjusting for age and sex). After adjusting for age, sex, and baseline traits, baseline DMGV levels were positively associated with changes in small high-density lipoprotein particles (ß, 0.14 [95% CI, 0.05-0.23]) and inversely associated with changes in medium and total high-density lipoprotein particles (ß, -0.15 [95% CI, -0.24 to -0.05] and -0.19 [95% CI, -0.28 to -0.10], respectively), apolipoprotein A1 (ß, -0.14 [95% CI, -0.23 to -0.05]), and insulin sensitivity (ß, -0.13; P = 3.0 × 10-3) after exercise training. Conclusions and Relevance: Dimethylguanidino valeric acid is an early marker of cardiometabolic dysfunction that is associated with attenuated improvements in lipid traits and insulin sensitivity after exercise training. Levels of DMGV may identify individuals who require additional therapies beyond guideline-directed exercise to improve their metabolic health.


Assuntos
Treino Aeróbico/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Guanidinas/metabolismo , Cetoácidos/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Comportamento Sedentário
14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(5): 1310-1318, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the relationship between protein intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes are conflicting. OBJECTIVE: We studied prospective associations between the intake of total, plant-based, and animal protein and the risk of pre-diabetes and diabetes in 4 population-based studies included in the PREVIEW project. METHODS: Analyses were conducted with the use of data from 3 European cohorts and 1 Canadian cohort, including 78,851 participants. Protein intake was assessed through the use of harmonized data from food-frequency questionnaires or 3-d dietary records. Cohort-specific incidence ratios (IRs) were estimated for pre-diabetes and diabetes, adjusting for general characteristics, lifestyle and dietary factors, disease history, and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference; results were pooled based on a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Higher total protein intake (g · kg-1 · d-1) was associated with lower incidences of pre-diabetes and diabetes (pooled IRs: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.87 and 0.49; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.83, respectively); plant-based protein intake was the main determinant (pooled IRs: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.86 and 0.53; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.76, respectively). Substituting 2 energy percentage (E%) protein at the expense of carbohydrates revealed increased risks of pre-diabetes and diabetes (pooled IRs: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.07 and 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.18, respectively). Except for the associations between intakes of total protein and plant-based protein (g · kg-1 · d-1) and diabetes, all other associations became nonsignificant after adjustment for BMI and waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS: Higher protein intake (g · kg-1 · d-1) was associated with a lower risk of pre-diabetes and diabetes. Associations were substantially attenuated after adjustments for BMI and waist circumference, which demonstrates a crucial role for adiposity and may account for previous conflicting findings. This study was registered at ISRCTN as ISRCTN31174892.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Proteínas na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Estado Pré-Diabético/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Canadá , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Registros de Dieta , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/uso terapêutico , Estado Pré-Diabético/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7527, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101833

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of regular exercise on the abundance of targeted circulating microRNAs (miRNAs). The present analysis examined 20 previously sedentary adults from the HERITAGE Family Study who completed 20 weeks of endurance exercise training. The expression of 53 miRNAs related to cardiovascular disease were measured in serum collected at baseline and post-training by performing RT-qPCR on the Human Cardiovascular Disease miRNA array (Qiagen, Germany). The effect of regular exercise on circulating miRNAs was assessed using paired t-tests of baseline and post-training expression levels. A false discovery rate threshold of 5% was used to determine significance. Regular exercise resulted in significantly decreased mean serum expression of nine miRNAs (miR-486-5p, let-7b-5p, miR-29c-3p, let-7e-5p, miR-93-5p, miR-7-5p, miR-25-3p, miR-92a-3p, and miR-29b-3p; fold change range: 0.64-83, p = 0.0002-0.01) and increased mean expression of five miRNAs (miR-142-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-126-3p, miR-146a-5p, and miR-27b-3p; fold change range: 1.41-3.60, p = 0.001-0.006). Enrichment analysis found that these 14 miRNAs target genes related to over 345 different biological pathways. These results provide further evidence of the effects of regular exercise on the circulating miRNA profile.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares/genética , MicroRNA Circulante/sangue , MicroRNA Circulante/genética , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Treino Aeróbico , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resistência Física/genética , Transcriptoma
16.
Br J Sports Med ; 53(18): 1141-1153, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862704

RESUMO

There is evidence from human twin and family studies as well as mouse and rat selection experiments that there are considerable interindividual differences in the response of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and other cardiometabolic traits to a given exercise programme dose. We developed this consensus statement on exercise response variability following a symposium dedicated to this topic. There is strong evidence from both animal and human studies that exercise training doses lead to variable responses. A genetic component contributes to exercise training response variability.In this consensus statement, we (1) briefly review the literature on exercise response variability and the various sources of variations in CRF response to an exercise programme, (2) introduce the key research designs and corresponding statistical models with an emphasis on randomised controlled designs with or without multiple pretests and post-tests, crossover designs and repeated measures designs, (3) discuss advantages and disadvantages of multiple methods of categorising exercise response levels-a topic that is of particular interest for personalised exercise medicine and (4) outline approaches that may identify determinants and modifiers of CRF exercise response. We also summarise gaps in knowledge and recommend future research to better understand exercise response variability.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Medicina de Precisão , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Projetos de Pesquisa
17.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212115, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have begun to identify the molecular determinants of inter-individual variability of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in response to exercise training programs. However, we still have an incomplete picture of the molecular mechanisms underlying trainability in response to exercise training. OBJECTIVE: We investigated baseline serum and skeletal muscle metabolomics profile and its associations with maximal power output (MPO) gains in response to 8-week of continuous endurance training (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs matched for total units of exercise performed (the TIMES study). METHODS: Eighty healthy sedentary young adult males were randomized to one of three groups and 70 were defined as completers (> 90% of sessions): ET (n = 30), HIIT (n = 30) and control (CO, n = 10). For the CO, participants were asked to not exercise for 8 weeks. Serum and skeletal muscle samples were analyzed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The targeted screens yielded 43 serum and 70 muscle reproducible metabolites (intraclass > 0.75; coefficient of variation < 25%). Associations of baseline metabolites with MPO trainability were explored within each training program via three analytical strategies: (1) correlations with gains in MPO; (2) differences between high and low responders to ET and HIIT; and (3) metabolites contributions to the most significant pathways related to gains in MPO. The significance level was set at P < 0.01 or false discovery rate of 0.1. RESULTS: The exercise programs generated similar gains in MPO (ET = 21.4 ± 8.0%; HIIT = 24.3 ± 8.5%). MPO associated baseline metabolites supported by all three levels of evidence were: serum glycerol, muscle alanine, proline, threonine, creatinine, AMP and pyruvate for ET, and serum lysine, phenylalanine, creatine, and muscle glycolate for HIIT. The most common pathways suggested by the metabolite profiles were aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. CONCLUSION: We suggest that MPO gains in both programs are potentially associated with metabolites indicative of baseline amino acid and translation processes with additional evidence for carbohydrate metabolism in ET.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Treino Aeróbico , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Treino Aeróbico/métodos , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Metabolômica , Músculo Esquelético/química , Adulto Jovem
18.
Atherosclerosis ; 282: 37-44, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High concentrations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) triglycerides have been associated with prevalent angiographic coronary artery disease. The present analysis was designed to investigate the association of LDL triglycerides with cardiovascular mortality and to explore possible mechanisms that may link LDL triglycerides to cardiovascular risk. METHODS: LDL triglycerides were measured in 3140 participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. They were prospectively followed for cardiovascular mortality (median duration 9.9 years). Genome wide association data for LDL triglycerides were available for 2900 LURIC participants. Genetic data and measurements of hepatic lipase activity were available for 478 participants of the HERITAGE Family study. Genome wide association data for cardiovascular disease were available for 184,305 participants of the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium. RESULTS: There was a continuous positive association between LDL triglycerides and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio for 5th vs. 1st quintile = 2.53, p < 0.001) and this association was similar in males and females. Genome wide association analysis in LURIC revealed that LDL triglycerides were strongly associated with variation in the hepatic lipase region (p < 10-15 for rs1800588 and rs10468017). The LDL triglyceride raising alleles in rs1800588 and rs10468017 were associated with low hepatic lipase activity in HERITAGE and increased cardiovascular risk in CARDIoGRAMplusC4D. Two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis (HERITAGE and CARDIoGRAMplusC4D) using rs1800588 and rs10468017 as instrumental variable suggested that low hepatic lipase activity may cause increased cardiovascular risk (p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: Low hepatic lipase activity may link high LDL triglycerides to increased cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Lipase/genética , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Idoso , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
19.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 126(5): 1292-1314, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605401

RESUMO

Intrinsic cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is defined as the level of CRF in the sedentary state. There are large individual differences in intrinsic CRF among sedentary adults. The physiology of variability in CRF has received much attention, but little is known about the genetic and molecular mechanisms that impact intrinsic CRF. These issues were explored in the present study by interrogating intrinsic CRF-associated DNA sequence variation and skeletal muscle gene expression data from the HERITAGE Family Study through an integrative bioinformatics guided approach. A combined analytic strategy involving genetic association, pathway enrichment, tissue-specific network structure, cis-regulatory genome effects, and expression quantitative trait loci was used to select and rank genes through a variation-adjusted weighted ranking scheme. Prioritized genes were further interrogated for corroborative evidence from knockout mouse phenotypes and relevant physiological traits from the HERITAGE cohort. The mean intrinsic V̇o2max was 33.1 ml O2·kg-1·min-1 (SD = 8.8) for the sample of 493 sedentary adults. Suggestive evidence was found for gene loci related to cardiovascular physiology (ATE1, CASQ2, NOTO, and SGCG), hematopoiesis (PICALM, SSB, CA9, and CASQ2), skeletal muscle phenotypes (SGCG, DMRT2, ADARB1, and CASQ2), and metabolism (ATE1, PICALM, RAB11FIP5, GBA2, SGCG, PRADC1, ARL6IP5, and CASQ2). Supportive evidence for a role of several of these loci was uncovered via association between DNA variants and muscle gene expression levels with exercise cardiovascular and muscle physiological traits. This initial effort to define the underlying molecular substrates of intrinsic CRF warrants further studies based on appropriate cohorts and study designs, complemented by functional investigations. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Intrinsic cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is measured in the sedentary state and is highly variable among sedentary adults. The physiology of variability in intrinsic cardiorespiratory fitness has received much attention, but little is known about the genetic and molecular mechanisms that impact intrinsic CRF. These issues were explored computationally in the present study, with further corroborative evidence obtained from analysis of phenotype data from knockout mouse models and human cardiovascular and skeletal muscle measurements.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica/genética , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto Jovem
20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 24(12): 1920-1932, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988085

RESUMO

Macronutrient intake, the proportion of calories consumed from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, is an important risk factor for metabolic diseases with significant familial aggregation. Previous studies have identified two genetic loci for macronutrient intake, but incomplete coverage of genetic variation and modest sample sizes have hindered the discovery of additional loci. Here, we expanded the genetic landscape of macronutrient intake, identifying 12 suggestively significant loci (P < 1 × 10-6) associated with intake of any macronutrient in 91,114 European ancestry participants. Four loci replicated and reached genome-wide significance in a combined meta-analysis including 123,659 European descent participants, unraveling two novel loci; a common variant in RARB locus for carbohydrate intake and a rare variant in DRAM1 locus for protein intake, and corroborating earlier FGF21 and FTO findings. In additional analysis of 144,770 participants from the UK Biobank, all identified associations from the two-stage analysis were confirmed except for DRAM1. Identified loci might have implications in brain and adipose tissue biology and have clinical impact in obesity-related phenotypes. Our findings provide new insight into biological functions related to macronutrient intake.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Cardiopatias/genética , Nutrientes , Idoso , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Ingestão de Energia/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/genética
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