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1.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing availability of competing biosimilar alternatives makes it challenging to make treatment decisions. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the comparative efficacy and safety of ultra-long-/long-/intermediate-acting insulin products and biosimilar insulin compared to human/animal insulin in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and grey literature were searched from inception to March 27, 2019. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental studies, and cohort studies of adults with T1DM receiving ultra-long-/long-/intermediate-acting insulin, compared to each other, as well as biosimilar insulin compared to human/animal insulin were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently screened studies, abstracted data, and appraised risk-of-bias. Pairwise meta-analyses and network meta-analyses (NMA) were conducted. Summary effect measures were mean differences (MD) and odds ratios (OR). RESULTS: We included 65 unique studies examining 14,200 patients with T1DM. Both ultra-long-acting and long-acting insulin were superior to intermediate-acting insulin in reducing A1c, FPG, weight gain, and the incidence of major, serious, or nocturnal hypoglycemia. For fasting blood glucose, long-acting once a day (od) was superior to long-acting twice a day (bid) (MD - 0.44, 95% CI: - 0.81 to - 0.06) and ultra-long-acting od was superior to long-acting bid (MD - 0.73, 95% CI - 1.36 to - 0.11). For weight change, long-acting od was inferior to long-acting bid (MD 0.58, 95% CI: 0.05 to 1.10) and long-acting bid was superior to long-action biosimilar od (MD - 0.90, 95% CI: - 1.67 to - 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Our results can be used to tailor insulin treatment according to the desired results of patients and clinicians and inform strategies to establish a competitive clinical market, address systemic barriers, expand the pool of potential suppliers, and favor insulin price reduction. PROSPERO REGISTRATION: CRD42017077051.

2.
JBI Evid Synth ; 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This scoping review aims to compare strategies for measuring prescription medication switching with pharmacy claims data, with a focus on psychotropic vs non-psychotropic medications. INTRODUCTION: Medication switching (ie, the replacement of one medication for another) is common and occurs due to several factors (such as adverse effects to a specific medication). In pharmacoepidemiology studies that use pharmacy claims data, it is important to identify and account for switches; however, due to data limitations and lack of a methodological standard, this can be challenging. The aim of this scoping review is to describe how studies have previously measured medication switching with pharmacy claims data in order to create a repository of common strategies and highlight areas for future research. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review will include studies that have used pharmacy claims data to measure medication switching as their primary independent or dependent variable. Studies conducted at the individual level (ie, not ecological), published between January 1, 1980, and October 31, 2020, and investigating orally administered, non-anti-infective medications will be considered. No age, population, or context restrictions are specified as inclusion criteria. METHODS: JBI methodology and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews were used for this protocol. MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase (Ovid), Central (Cochrane Library), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), and Google Scholar will be searched with the assistance of a health sciences research librarian. Two reviewers will independently screen titles, abstracts, and full-text articles. Strategies for measuring medication switching will be narratively described and summarized overall and by broad medication class.

3.
Int J Drug Policy ; 87: 102993, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aiming to reducing overdose mortality, over 40 supervised drug consumption services (SCS) presently operate in Canada. Arguments against SCS include the potential for increased non-fatal overdoses mediated by risk compensation. This study estimates associations between SCS use and recent non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional baseline data collected between November 2018 and March 2020 from a cohort of adult PWID in Toronto, Canada. Recent non-fatal overdose was self-reported over the previous six months. The primary exposure was frequency of SCS use, self-reported as the proportion of injections performed at an SCS (all or most [75-100%], some [26-74%], few [≤25%], or none) in the previous six months. The prevalence of recent overdose was compared between all unique pairs of groups based on their frequency of SCS use and expressed as covariate-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) estimated using modified Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among 701 PWID (median [IQR] age, 40 [33 to 49]; 64.3% cisgender men; 56.8% injecting daily), most reported SCS use (all/most, 26.2%; some, 30.9%; few, 29.4%) versus no use (13.5%), with 38.6% reporting a recent overdose. From adjusted regression analyses, more frequent SCS use was not statistically significantly associated with overdose when compared to either no SCS use or less frequent use. Associations between SCS use frequency and overdose were notably smaller among SCS clients compared to associations between SCS clients and non-users (e.g., all/most versus none: PR, 1.43 [95% CI, 0.93 to 2.21]; all/most versus some: PR, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.75 to 1.17]; all/most versus few: PR, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.89 to 1.48]). CONCLUSION: Findings did not indicate statistically significant associations between SCS use frequency and recent non-fatal overdose, particularly among SCS clients who may be more comparable. Nevertheless, overdose was common, underscoring the need to prevent non-fatal overdose and associated morbidity.

4.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(11): e18981, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on high-quality evidence, guidelines recommend the long-term use of secondary prevention medications post-myocardial infarction (MI) to avoid recurrent cardiovascular events and death. Unfortunately, discontinuation of recommended medications post-MI is common. Observational evidence suggests that prescriptions covering a longer duration at discharge from hospital are associated with greater long-term medication adherence. The following is a proposal for the first interventional study to evaluate the impact of longer prescription duration at discharge post-MI on long-term medication adherence. OBJECTIVE: The overarching goal of this study is to reduce morbidity and mortality among post-MI patients through improved long-term cardiac medication adherence. The specific objectives include the following. First, we will assess whether long-term cardiac medication adherence improves among elderly, post-MI patients following the implementation of (1) standardized discharge prescription forms with 90-day prescriptions and 3 repeats for recommended cardiac medication classes, in combination with education and (2) education alone compared to (3) usual care. Second, we will assess the cost implications of prolonged initial discharge prescriptions compared with usual care. Third, we will compare clinical outcomes between longer (>60 days) versus shorter prescription durations. Fourth, we will collect baseline information to inform a multicenter interventional study. METHODS: We will conduct a quasiexperimental, interrupted time series design to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted intervention to implement longer duration prescriptions versus usual care on long-term cardiac medication adherence among post-MI patients. Intervention groups and their corresponding settings include: (1) intervention group 1: 1 cardiac center and 1 noncardiac hospital allocated to receive standardized discharge prescription forms supporting the dispensation of 90 days' worth of cardiac medications with 3 repeats, coupled with education; (2) intervention group 2: 4 sites (including 1 cardiac center) allocated to receive education only; and (3) control group: all remaining hospitals within the province that did not receive an intervention (ie, usual care). Administrative databases will be used to measure all outcomes. Adherence to 4 classes of cardiac medications - statins, beta blockers, angiotensin system inhibitors, and secondary antiplatelets (ie, prasugrel, clopidogrel, or ticagrelor) - will be assessed. RESULTS: Enrollment began in September 2017, and results are expected to be analyzed in late 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The results have the potential to redefine best practices regarding discharge prescribing policies for patients post-MI. A policy of standardized maximum-duration prescriptions at the time of discharge post-MI is a simple intervention that has the potential to significantly improve long-term medication adherence, thus decreasing cardiac morbidity and mortality. If effective, this low-cost intervention to implement longer duration prescriptions post-MI could be easily scaled. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03257579; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03257579. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/18981.

5.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 33(12): 1481-1489, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between appropriate use criteria for transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and clinical outcomes is unknown for patients with valvular heart disease (VHD). The aim of this study was to identify the association of TTE appropriateness with downstream cardiac tests and clinical outcomes in patients with VHD over 365 days. METHODS: A subset of 2,297 patients with VHD across six Ontario academic hospitals was selected from the Echo WISELY (Will Inappropriate Scenarios for Echocardiography Lessen Significantly) trial and linked to administrative databases. Each patient's index TTE was classified as "rarely appropriate" (rA) versus "appropriate" (comprising "appropriate" and "may be appropriate" TTE according to the 2011 appropriate use criteria). Overall, 431 of 452 patients with rA TTE were matched 1:1 with patients with appropriate TTE using propensity scores to account for measured confounding. RESULTS: Matched patients with rA TTE were less likely to undergo repeat TTE (relative risk, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.33-0.66) or cardiac catheterization (relative risk, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.16-0.47) at 90 days compared with patients with appropriate TTE. rA TTE was significantly associated with a decreased hazard of aortic valve intervention (hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.14-0.42), all-cause hospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.34-0.57), and death (hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.15-0.66) over 365 days of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with appropriate TTE for VHD were more likely to undergo subsequent cardiac testing within 90 days and valve intervention within 1 year than those with a rA TTE. The 2011 appropriate use criteria for TTE have important clinical implications for outcomes in patient with VHD.

6.
Health Psychol ; 39(12): 1048-1061, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A randomized trial informed by the Health Action Process Approach evaluated interventions to improve cardiac rehabilitation completion following myocardial infarction. We investigated indirect effects of the interventions on completion via targeted constructs. METHODS: In this theory-based process evaluation, participants in all 3 trial arms (usual care; mailouts; mailouts plus telephone support) completed a questionnaire 12 months after their myocardial infarction assessing intention, goal priority, outcome expectancies, risk perception, self-efficacy, social support, action planning, and coping planning. Consecutive sampling was used until the target sample size (167 per trial arm) was met. Cardiac rehabilitation completion was self-reported at the same time point. We used multiple regression mediation models to explore indirect effects. RESULTS: In total, 594 participants completed the cardiac rehabilitation questionnaire; 588 were analyzed (6 excluded due to missing data). For mailouts alone, there were no significant indirect effects. There were small indirect effects of mailouts plus telephone support on intention via goal priority, outcome expectancies, and self-efficacy, with a negative effect via severity risk perception. There were also small indirect effects on cardiac rehabilitation completion via self-efficacy and action planning. CONCLUSIONS: Findings help explain the trial results, suggesting that mailouts plus telephone support increased the likelihood of completing cardiac rehabilitation by enhancing self-efficacy and action planning, and increased intention by enhancing goal priority, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancies, with an unintended consequence of a negative effect via risk perceptions. Conducting theory-based process evaluations alongside trials of behavior change interventions can clarify mechanisms of action, which can inform efforts to refine interventions and to replicate and generalize findings to other jurisdictions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

7.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(7): 973-983, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511668

RESUMO

Importance: The association of low-value testing with downstream care and clinical outcomes among primary care outpatients is unknown to date. Objective: To assess the association of low-value testing with subsequent care among low-risk primary care outpatients undergoing an annual health examination (AHE). Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based retrospective cohort study used administrative health care claims from Ontario, Canada, for primary care outpatients undergoing an AHE between April 1, 2012, and March 31, 2016, to identify individuals who could be placed into one (or more) of the following 3 cohorts: adult patients (18 years or older) at low risk for cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, adult patients at low risk for cardiovascular disease, and female patients (aged 13-20 years or older than 69 years) at low risk for cervical cancer. The dates of analysis were June 3 to September 12, 2019. Exposures: Low-value screening tests were defined per cohort as (1) a chest radiograph within 7 days, (2) an electrocardiogram (ECG) within 30 days, or (3) a Papanicolaou test within 7 days after an AHE. Main Outcomes and Measures: Subsequent specialist visits, diagnostic tests, and procedures within 90 days after a low-value test (if the patient had a chest radiograph, ECG, or Papanicolaou test) or end of the exposure observation window (if not tested). Results: Included in the chest radiograph, ECG, and Papanicolaou test cohorts of propensity score-matched pairs were 43 532 patients (mean [SD] age, 47.5 [14.4] years; 38.5% female), 245 686 patients (mean [SD] age, 49.9 [13.7] years; 51.1% female), and 29 194 patients (mean [SD] age, 45.5 [27.1] years; 100% female), respectively. At 90 days, chest radiographs in low-risk patients were associated with an additional 0.87 (95% CI, 0.69-1.05) and 1.96 (95% CI, 1.71-2.22) patients having an outpatient pulmonology visit or an abdominal or thoracic computed tomography scan per 100 patients, respectively, and ECGs in low-risk patients were associated with an additional 1.92 (95% CI, 1.82-2.02), 5.49 (95% CI, 5.33-5.65), and 4.46 (95% CI, 4.31-4.61) patients having an outpatient cardiologist visit, a transthoracic echocardiogram, or a cardiac stress test per 100 patients, respectively. At 180 days, Papanicolaou testing in low-risk patients was associated with an additional 1.31 (95% CI, 0.84-1.78), 52.8 (95% CI, 51.9-53.6), and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.66-1.01) patients having an outpatient gynecology visit, a follow-up Papanicolaou test, or colposcopy per 100 patients, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: Observed associations in this population-based cohort study suggest that testing in low-risk patients as part of an AHE increases the likelihood of subsequent specialist visits, diagnostic tests, and procedures.

8.
BMJ ; 369: m1731, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test a scalable health system intervention to improve long term adherence to secondary prevention treatments among patients who have had a recent myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Three arm, pragmatic randomised controlled trial with blinded outcome assessment. SETTING: Nine cardiac centres in Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 2632 patients with obstructive coronary artery disease after a myocardial infarction, identified from a centralised cardiac registry. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomised 1:1:1 to receive usual care, five mail-outs developed through a user centred design process, or mail-outs plus phone calls. The phone calls were delivered first by an interactive automated system to screen for non-adherence to treatment. Trained lay health workers followed up as necessary. Interventions were coordinated centrally but delivered from each patient's hospital site. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Co-primary outcomes were completion of cardiac rehabilitation and adherence to recommended medication. Data were collected by blinded assessors through patient report and from administrative health databases at 12 months. RESULTS: 2632 patients (mean age 66, 71% male) were randomised: 878 to the full intervention (mail plus phone calls), 878 to mail only, and 876 to usual care. Of the respondents, 174 (27%) of 643 in the usual care group, 200 (32%) of 628 in the mail only group, and 196 (37%) of 531 allocated to the full intervention completed cardiac rehabilitation (adjusted odds ratio 1.55, 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.03). In the mail plus phone group, 11.7%, 6.0%, 14.4%, 32.9%, and 35.0% reported adherence to 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 drug classes after one year, respectively, in comparison with 12.5%, 6.8%, 13.6%, 30.2%, and 36.8% in the mail only group, and 12.2%, 8.4%, 13.1%, 30.3%, and 36.1% in the usual care group, respectively (mail only v usual care, odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 1.19; full intervention v usual care, 0.99, 0.82 to 1.20). CONCLUSIONS: Scalable interventions delivered by mail plus phone can increase completion of cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction but not adherence to medication. More intensive interventions should be tested to improve adherence to medication and to evaluate the association between attendance at cardiac rehabilitation and adherence to medication. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02382731, registered 9 March 2015 before any patient enrolment.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária/estatística & dados numéricos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/reabilitação , Ontário , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Serviços Postais , Qualidade de Vida , Sistemas de Alerta , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Telefone , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 212: 107983, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the prevalence and harms of incarceration among persons who inject drugs (PWID) and their role in injection drug use initiation, we aimed to investigate whether recent incarceration influences the likelihood PWID assist others in their first-ever injection. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of PWID in Vancouver, Canada who had their PReventing Injecting by Modifying Existing Responses (PRIMER) baseline visit between December 2014 and May 2017, reported never providing injection initiation assistance previously, and had ≥1 follow-up visit. The primary outcome, provision of injection initiation assistance, was defined via self-report as helping anybody inject for the first time in the past six months. The primary exposure was recent incarceration, i.e., self-report of being jailed, imprisoned or detained in the past six months. Participants were assessed biannually until November 2017, drop-out, or their first report of the primary outcome. RESULTS: 1,199 PWID (62.1% male; mean (SD) age, 44.4 (12.3) years) were included in our study. Across 4,171 follow-up visits, 67 participants (5.6%) reported providing injection initiation assistance. The proportion of participants reporting recent incarceration varied between 2.4% to 5.1% per follow-up visit. Based on a multivariable discrete-time proportional hazards regression analysis, recent incarceration was associated with an increased risk of providing injection initiation assistance during the same six-month period (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.19 to 5.86). CONCLUSIONS: The observed association between recent incarceration and risk of providing injection initiation assistance suggests that incarceration could be contributing to the expansion of injection drug use practices within vulnerable populations over time.

10.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(2): e15424, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is associated with increased health risks. Primary care providers (PCPs) are well positioned to support increased physical activity (PA) levels through screening and provision of PA prescriptions. However, PCP counseling on PA is not common. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the feasibility of implementing an electronic health (eHealth) tool to support PA counseling by PCPs and estimate intervention effectiveness on patients' PA levels. METHODS: A pragmatic pilot study was conducted using a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial design. The study was conducted at a single primary care clinic, with 4 pre-existing PCP teams. Adult patients who had a periodic health review (PHR) scheduled during the study period were invited to participate. The eHealth tool involved an electronic survey sent to participants before their PHR via an email or a tablet; data were used to automatically produce tailored resources and a PA prescription in the electronic medical record of participants in the intervention arm. Participants assigned to the control arm received usual care from their PCP. Feasibility was assessed by the proportion of completed surveys and patient-reported acceptability and fidelity measures. The primary effectiveness outcome was patient-reported PA at 4 months post-PHR, measured as metabolic equivalent of task (MET) minutes per week. Secondary outcomes assessed determinants of PA, including self-efficacy and intention to change based on the Health Action Process Approach behavior change theory. RESULTS: A total of 1028 patients receiving care from 34 PCPs were invited to participate and 530 (51.55%) consented (intervention [n=296] and control [n=234]). Of the participants who completed a process evaluation, almost half (88/178, 49.4%) stated they received a PA prescription, with only 42 receiving the full intervention including tailored resources from their PCP. A cluster-level linear regression analysis yielded a non-statistically significant positive difference in MET-minutes reported per week at follow-up between intervention and control conditions (mean difference 1027; 95% CI -155 to 2209; P=.09). No statistically significant differences were observed for secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that it is feasible to build an eHealth tool that screens and provides tailored resources for PA in a primary care setting but suboptimal intervention fidelity suggests greater work must be done to address PCP barriers to resource distribution. Participant responses to the primary effectiveness outcome (MET-minutes) were highly variable, reflecting a need for more robust measures of PA in future trials to address limitations in patient-reported data. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03181295; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03181295.


Assuntos
Eletrônica/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
11.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(4): 524-531, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040158

RESUMO

Importance: Evidence comparing the consequences of Choosing Wisely recommendations across health systems or with the consequences of recommendations plus policy change is lacking. Objectives: To compare changes in the use of 2 low-value laboratory tests after the release of Choosing Wisely recommendations across 3 health care jurisdictions and changes associated with a related policy change. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was a population-based interrupted time series of adult patients (aged 18-64 years) who had primary care visits between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2015, or established hypothyroidism between January 1, 2012, and June 30, 2015, across 3 health care delivery jurisdictions: Ontario, Canada; the US Veterans Health Administration; and the US employer-sponsored insurance market. Data analysis was performed from March 21, 2018, to October 31, 2019. Exposures: A December 2010 payment policy change that eliminated reimbursement of vitamin D screening in Ontario, Canada, and the subsequent release of Choosing Wisely recommendations against low-value use of vitamin D tests in February 2013 and triiodothyronine tests in October 2013 in the United States and both tests in October 2014 in Canada. Main Outcomes and Measures: Relative marginal effects (RMEs) comparing low-value testing rates after the release of Choosing Wisely recommendations with rates expected based on prerelease trends and the associated change in low-value vitamin D testing after the 2010 payment policy change in Ontario, Canada. Results: Of 54 223 448 total persons, 28 504 576 (52.6%) were female, with 17 895 458 persons (33.0%) aged 18 to 34 years, 11 101 985 (20.5%) aged 35 to 44 years, and 25 226 005 (46.5%) aged 45 to 64 years. The December 2010 policy eliminating reimbursement for low-value vitamin D screening in Ontario, Canada, was associated with a 92.7% (95% CI, 92.4%-93.0%) relative reduction in such screening. Corresponding Choosing Wisely recommendations were associated with smaller reductions: 4.5% (95% CI, 2.6%-6.3%) in Ontario, 13.8% (95% CI, 11.8%-15.9%) for US Veterans Health Administration, and 14.0% (95% CI, 12.8%-15.2%) for US employer-sponsored insurance. In contrast, low-value use of triiodothyronine testing did not change significantly in Ontario, Canada (RME, 0.3%; 95% CI, -1.4% to 2.0%) or the US Veterans Health Administration (RME, 0.7%; 95% CI, -4.7% to 6.4%) and increased (RME, 3.0%; 95% CI, 1.6%-4.4%) for US employer-sponsored insurance. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, marginal reductions in the use of 2 low-value laboratory tests were associated with the release of related Choosing Wisely recommendations but a greater reduction in low-value vitamin D screening was associated with a previous payment policy change implemented in Ontario, Canada. These findings suggest that recommendations alone may be insufficient to significantly reduce use of low-value services and that pairing recommendations with policy changes may be more effective.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/economia , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estados Unidos
12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(1): e013360, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870231

RESUMO

Background There is little understanding of whether a physician's tendency to order an inappropriate cardiac service is associated with the use of other cardiac services and clinical outcomes in their patients with heart failure (HF). Methods and Results We conducted a secondary analysis of 35 Ontario-based cardiologists who participated in the control arm of the Echo WISELY (Will Inappropriate Scenarios for Echocardiography Lessen Significantly) trial. Transthoracic echocardiograms, ordered during the trial, were classified as rarely appropriate (rA), appropriate, or maybe appropriate on the basis of the 2011 appropriate use criteria. Cardiologists were grouped into tertiles of rA transthoracic echocardiogram ordering frequency: low ordering (bottom tertile), n=11; moderate ordering, n=12; or high ordering (top tertile), n=12. The main outcomes were measures of cardiac service use, including cardiology-related physician visits, tests, and medications. Among 1677 patients with heart failure and an outpatient visit to 1 of 35 cardiologists, we found no significant association between rA transthoracic echocardiogram ordering frequency (by tertile) and cardiac testing use, although patients of cardiologists in the high ordering group had fewer physician visits, on average, than patients seen by low ordering cardiologists. In addition, patients of cardiologists in the highest rA ordering tertile had significantly lower odds of receiving potentially effective interventions, such as ß blockers (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.89), than the low ordering group. Conclusions Although patients of cardiologists who frequently order rA transthoracic echocardiograms do not appear more (or less) likely to have subsequent cardiac tests, these patients have fewer follow-up visits and lower odds of receiving evidence-based medications. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02038101.

13.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(11): e006123, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between ordering frequency of rarely appropriate transthoracic echocardiograms on healthcare utilization and patient outcomes in coronary artery disease (CAD) is not known. Our objective was to investigate practice patterns of cardiologists who order a high frequency of low-value transthoracic echocardiograms in patients with CAD and whether practice behavior influences patient outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective cohort of outpatient CAD patients was accrued by identifying patients with at least 1 visit to 1 of 35 Ontario-based cardiologists in the EchoWISELY randomized clinical trial (Will Inappropriate Scenarios for Echocardiography Lessen Significantly) control group. The main outcomes of interest were patient-level receipt of diagnostic tests, physician visits, medication prescriptions, and clinical outcomes at 1 year. Our cohort consisted of 3966 patients with CAD (mean [SD] age, 67.8 [12.0] years; 72% men), with an outpatient visit to 1 of 35 eligible cardiologists, stratified into 3 ordering tertiles. Patients of cardiologists in the top ordering tertile of rarely appropriate transthoracic echocardiograms had significantly lower odds of receiving the following services at 1 year compared with patients in the low ordering group: cholesterol assessment (odds ratio [OR], 0.77 [95% CI, 0.65-0.91]); hemoglobin A1c assessment (OR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.66-0.94]); ß-blocker prescription (OR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.55-0.90]); and aldosterone receptor antagonist prescription (OR, 0.46 [95% CI, 0.22-0.98]). Patients of high ordering cardiologists had greater odds of all-cause mortality at 1 year (OR, 1.54 [95% CI, 1.04-2.28]), although all other outcomes were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CAD seen by cardiologist who ordered a high rate of rarely appropriate transthoracic echocardiograms were less likely to receive potentially high-value screening tests and evidence-based medications than low ordering cardiologists. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02038101.


Assuntos
Cardiologistas/tendências , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia/tendências , Recursos em Saúde/tendências , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 446, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Through the Choosing Wisely Canada (CWC) campaign, national medical specialty societies have released hundreds of recommendations against health care services that are unnecessary, i.e. present little to no benefit or cause avoidable harm. Despite growing interest in unnecessary care both within Canada and internationally, prior research has typically avoided taking a national or even multi-jurisdictional approach in measuring the extent of the issue. This study estimates use of three unnecessary services identified by CWC recommendations across multiple Canadian jurisdictions. METHODS: Two retrospective cohort studies were conducted using administrative health care data collected between fiscal years 2011/12 and 2012/13 to respectively quantify use of 1) diagnostic imaging (spinal X-ray, CT or MRI) among Albertan patients following a visit for lower back pain and 2) cardiac tests (electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, stress test, or transthoracic echocardiogram) prior to low-risk surgical procedures in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Ontario. A cross-sectional study of the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey was also conducted to estimate 3) the proportion of females aged 40-49 that reported having a routine mammogram in the past two years. RESULTS: Use of unnecessary care was relatively frequent across all three services and jurisdiction measured: 30.7% of Albertan patients had diagnostic imaging within six months of their initial visit for lower back pain; a cardiac test preceded 17.9 to 35.5% of low-risk surgical procedures across Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Ontario; and 22.2% of Canadian women aged 40-49 at average-risk for breast cancer reported having a routine screening mammogram in the past two years. CONCLUSIONS: The use of potentially unnecessary care appears to be common in Canada. This investigation provides methodology to facilitate future measurement efforts that may incorporate additional jurisdictions and/or unnecessary services.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico por imagem , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Desnecessários , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Sobremedicalização , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Desnecessários/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Healthc Policy ; 14(4): 39-51, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322113

RESUMO

Policies have been put in place internationally to reduce the overuse of certain medications that have a high risk of harm, such as sedative-hypnotic drugs for insomnia or opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. We explore and compare the outcomes of policies aimed at deprescribing sedative-hypnotic medication in community-dwelling older adults. Prescription monitoring policies led to the highest rate of discontinuation but triggered inappropriate substitutions. Financial deterrents through insurance scheme delistings increased patient out-of-pocket spending and had minimal impact. Pay-for-performance incentives to prescribers proved ineffective. Rescheduling alprazolam to a controlled substance raised the street drug price of the drug and shifted use to other benzodiazepines, causing similar rates of overdose deaths. Driving safety policies and jurisdiction-wide educational campaigns promoting non-drug alternatives appear most promising for achieving intended outcomes and avoiding unintended harms. Sustainable change should be supported with direct-to-patient education and improved access to non-drug therapy, with an emphasis on evaluating both intended and unintended consequences of any deprescribing-oriented policy.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Desprescrições , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(6): e10838, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Web-based self-directed mental health applications are rapidly emerging to address health service gaps and unmet needs for information and support. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if a multicomponent, moderated Web-based mental health application could benefit individuals with mental health symptoms severe enough to warrant specialized mental health care. METHODS: A multicenter, pragmatic randomized controlled trial was conducted across several outpatient mental health programs affiliated with 3 hospital programs in Ontario, Canada. Individuals referred to or receiving treatment, aged 16 years or older, with access to the internet and an email address, and having the ability to navigate a Web-based mental health application were eligible. A total of 812 participants were randomized 2:1 to receive immediate (immediate treatment group, ITG) or delayed (delayed treatment group, DTG) access for 3 months to the Big White Wall (BWW), a multicomponent Web-based mental health intervention based in the United Kingdom and New Zealand. The primary outcome was the total score on the Recovery Assessment Scale, revised (RAS-r) which measures mental health recovery. Secondary outcomes were total scores on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 item (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-7 item (GAD-7), the EuroQOL 5-dimension quality of life questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L), and the Community Integration Questionnaire. An exploratory analysis examined the association between actual BWW use (categorized into quartiles) and outcomes among study completers. RESULTS: Intervention participants achieved small, statistically significant increases in adjusted RAS-r score (4.97 points, 95% CI 2.90 to 7.05), and decreases in PHQ-9 score (-1.83 points, 95% CI -2.85 to -0.82) and GAD-7 score (-1.55 points, 95% CI -2.42 to -0.70). Follow-up was achieved for 55% (446/812) at 3 months, 48% (260/542) of ITG participants and 69% (186/270) of DTG participants. Only 58% (312/542) of ITG participants logged on more than once. Some higher BWW user groups had significantly greater improvements in PHQ-9 and GAD-7 relative to the lowest use group. CONCLUSIONS: The Web-based application may be beneficial; however, many participants did not engage in an ongoing way. This has implications for patient selection and engagement as well as delivery and funding structures for similar Web-based interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02896894; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02896894 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/78LIpnuRO).


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/normas , Adulto , Cromonar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 32(5): 667-673.e4, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between appropriate use criteria and echocardiographic findings in patients with chronic cardiovascular diseases is unknown. METHODS: As a substudy of the Echo WISELY (Will Inappropriate Scenarios for Echocardiography Lessen Significantly) trial, 9,230 transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) examinations from six Ontario academic hospitals were linked to a registry of echocardiographic findings. The TTE studies were rated appropriate), rarely appropriate, or may be appropriate according to the 2011 appropriate use criteria. TTE findings of appropriately ordered examinations were compared with those of rarely appropriate examinations for specific disease subsets, including heart failure and valvular heart disease. RESULTS: There were 7,574, 1,087, and 569 TTE examinations ordered for appropriate, rarely appropriate, and may be appropriate indications, and of the 7,574 appropriate studies, 6,399 were ordered for specific indications and 1,175 for general indications. TTE examinations ordered for general indications had lower rates of left ventricular dysfunction (19.6% vs 9.1%, P < .001) and moderate to severe aortic stenosis (15.5% vs 2.6%, P < .001). Of the 2,395 TTE examinations ordered for patients with heart failure, appropriately ordered studies were more likely to result in left ventricular segmental abnormality (37.0% vs 24.9%, P = .012) but similar rates of right ventricular dilatation (15.4% vs 14.7%, P = .79), right ventricular dysfunction (14.8% vs 11.3%, P = .22), and moderate to severe mitral regurgitation (12.1% vs 9.2%, P = .35). Of the 2,859 studies ordered to assess valvular heart disease, appropriately ordered studies were significantly more likely to find moderate to severe valvular pathology, including aortic stenosis (30.4% vs 24.6%, P = .008), aortic regurgitation (8.9% vs 1.6%, P < .001), mitral stenosis (6.7% vs 3.1%, P = .002), and mitral regurgitation (16.1% vs 6.1%, P < .001), but similar rates of tricuspid regurgitation (11.2% vs 13.0%, P = .60). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, appropriately ordered TTE examinations for heart failure and valvular heart disease were significantly more likely to have abnormal findings than rarely appropriate examinations. TTE studies ordered for general indications had fewer, although still a significant proportion, of abnormalities compared with studies ordered for specific indications.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário , Sistema de Registros
19.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(1): e10321, 2019 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has put pressure on health systems to appropriately manage these patients, there have been a growing number of mobile apps designed to improve the self-management of diabetes. One such app, BlueStar, has been shown to significantly reduce hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in small studies and is the first app in the United States to receive Food and Drug Administration approval as a mobile prescription therapy. However, the impact of the app across real-world population among different clinical sites and health systems remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to conduct a pragmatic randomized controlled trial of the BlueStar mobile app to determine if app usage leads to improved HbA1c levels among diverse participants in real-life clinical contexts. We hypothesized that this mobile app would improve self-management and HbA1c levels compared with controls. METHODS: The study consisted of a multicenter pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Overall, 110 participants randomized to the immediate treatment group (ITG) received the intervention for 6 months, and 113 participants randomized to the wait-list control (WLC) group received usual care for the first 3 months and then received the intervention for 3 months. The primary outcome was glucose control measured by HbA1c levels at 3 months. Secondary outcomes assessed intervention impact on patient self-management, experience of care, and self-reported health utilization using validated scales, including the Problem Areas in Diabetes, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities, and the EuroQol-5D. Intervention usage data were collected directly from the app. RESULTS: The results of an analysis of covariance controlling for baseline HbA1c levels did not show evidence of intervention impact on HbA1c levels at 3 months (mean difference [ITG-WLC] -0.42, 95% CI -1.05 to 0.21; P=.19). Similarly, there was no intervention effect on secondary outcomes measuring diabetes self-efficacy, quality of life, and health care utilization behaviors. An exploratory analysis of 57 ITG participants investigating the impact of app usage on HbA1c levels showed that each additional day of app use corresponded with a 0.016-point decrease in participants' 3-month HbA1c levels (95% CI -0.03 to -0.003). App usage varied significantly by site, as participants from 1 site logged in to the app a median of 36 days over 14 weeks (interquartile range [IQR] 10.5-124); those at another site used the app significantly less (median 9; IQR 6-51). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed no difference between intervention and control arms for the primary clinical outcome of glycemic control measured by HbA1c levels. Although there was low usage of the app among participants, results indicate contextual factors, particularly site, had a significant impact on overall usage. Future research into the patient and site-specific factors that increase app utilization are needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02813343; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02813343 (Archived by WebCite at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02813343).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Autogestão/métodos , Adulto , Automonitorização da Glicemia/métodos , Automonitorização da Glicemia/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Autogestão/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 39, 2019 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Web-based mental health applications may be beneficial, but adoption is often low leaving optimal implementation and payment models unclear. This study examined which users were interested in extended access to a web-based application beyond an initial 3-month trial period and evaluated if an additional 3 months of access was beneficial. METHODS: This study was a concealed extension of a multi-center, pragmatic randomized controlled trial that assessed the benefit of 3 months of access to the Big White Wall (BWW), an anonymous web-based moderated, multi-component mental health application offering self-directed activities and peer support. Trial participants were 16 years of age or older, recruited from hospital-affiliated mental health programs. Participants who received access to the intervention in the main trial and completed 3-month outcome assessments were offered participation. We compared those who were and were not interested in an extension of the intervention, and re-randomized consenting participants 1:1 to receive extended access or not over the subsequent 3 months. Use of the intervention was monitored in the extension group and outcomes were measured at 3 months after re-randomization in both groups. The primary outcome was mental health recovery as assessed by total score on the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS-r), as in the main trial. Linear mixed models were used to examine the time by group interaction to assess for differences in responses over the 3-month extension study. RESULTS: Of 233 main trial participants who responded, 119 (51.1%) indicated an interest in receiving extended BWW access. Those who were interested had significantly higher baseline anxiety symptoms compared to those who were not interested. Of the 119, 112 were re-randomized (55 to extended access, 57 to discontinuation). Only 21 of the 55 extended access participants (38.2%) used the intervention during the extension period. Change in RAS-r scores over time was not significantly different between groups (time by group, F(1,77) = 1.02; P = .31). CONCLUSIONS: Only half of eligible participants were interested in extended access to the intervention with decreasing use over time, and no evidence of added benefit. These findings have implications for implementation and payment models for this type of web-based mental health intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02896894 . Registered retrospectively on September 12, 2016.


Assuntos
Internet/tendências , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/tendências , Saúde Mental/tendências , Participação do Paciente/tendências , Terapia Assistida por Computador/tendências , Adulto , Aconselhamento/métodos , Aconselhamento/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
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