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1.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 3422-3429, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283032

RESUMO

Multiphase reactions of halide ions in aqueous solutions exposed to the atmosphere initiate the formation of molecular halogen compounds in the gas phase. Their photolysis leads to halogen atoms, which are catalytic sinks for ozone, making these processes relevant for the regional and global tropospheric ozone budget. The affinity of halide ions in aqueous solution for the liquid-gas interface, which may influence their reactivity with gaseous species, has been debated. Our study focuses on the surface properties of the bromide ion and its oxidation products. In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy carried out on a liquid jet combined with classical and first-principles molecular dynamics calculations was used to investigate the interfacial depth profile of bromide, hypobromite, hypobromous acid, and bromate. The simulated core electron binding energies support the experimentally observed values, which follow a correlation with bromine oxidation state for the anion series. Bromide ions are homogeneously distributed in the solution. Hypobromous acid, a key species in the multiphase cycling of bromine, is the only species showing surface propensity, which suggests a more important role of the interface in multiphase bromine chemistry than thought so far.

2.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6164, 2018 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670155

RESUMO

The heterogeneous radiolysis of organic molecules in clays is a matter of considerable interest in astrochemistry and environmental sciences. However, little is known about the effects of highly ionizing soft X-rays. By combining monochromatized synchrotron source irradiation with in situ Near Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (in the mbar range), and using the synoptic view encompassing both the gas and condensed phases, we found the water and pyridine pressure conditions under which pyridine is decomposed in the presence of synthetic Sr2+-hydroxyhectorite. The formation of a pyridine/water/Sr2+ complex, detected from the Sr 3d and N 1s core-level binding energies, likely presents a favorable situation for the radiolytic breaking of the O-H bond of water molecules adsorbed in the clay and the subsequent decomposition of the molecule. However, decomposition stops when the pyridine pressure exceeds a critical value. This observation can be related to a change in the nature of the active radical species with the pyridine loading. This highlights the fact that the destruction of the molecule is not entirely determined by the properties of the host material, but also by the inserted organic species. The physical and chemical causes of the present observations are discussed.

3.
Nanoscale ; 10(14): 6566-6580, 2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29577122

RESUMO

The investigation of nanocatalysts under ambient pressure by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy gives access to a wealth of information on their chemical state under reaction conditions. Considering the paradigmatic CO oxidation reaction, a strong synergistic effect on CO catalytic oxidation was recently observed on a partly dewetted ZnO(0001)/Pt(111) single crystal surface. In order to bridge the material gap, we have examined whether this inverse metal/oxide catalytic effect could be transposed on supported ZnPt nanocatalysts deposited on rutile TiO2(110). Synchrotron radiation near-ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS) operated at 1 mbar of O2 : CO mixture (4 : 1) was used at a temperature range between room temperature and 450 K. To tackle the complexity of the problem, we have also studied the catalytic activity of nanoparticles (NPs) of the same size, consisting of pure Pt and Zn nanoparticles (NPs), for which, moreover, NAP-XPS studies are a novelty. The comparative approach shows that the CO oxidation process is markedly different for the pure Pt and pure Zn NPs. For pure Pt NPs, CO poisoned the metallic surfaces at low temperature at the onset of CO2 evolution. In contrast, the pure Zn NPs first oxidize into ZnO, and trap carbonates at low temperature. Then they start to release CO2 in the gas phase, at a critical temperature, while continuously producing it. The pure Zn NPs are also immune to support encapsulation. The bimetallic nanoparticle borrows some of its characteristics from its two parent metals. In fact, the ZnPt NP, although produced by the sequential deposition of platinum and zinc, is platinum-terminated below the temperature onset of CO oxidation and poisoned by CO. Above the CO oxidation onset, the nanoparticle becomes Zn-rich with a ZnO shell. Pure Pt and ZnPt NPs present a very similar activity towards CO oxidation, in contrast with what is reported in a single crystal study. The present study demonstrates the effectiveness of NAP-XPS in the study of complex catalytic processes at work on nanocatalysts under near-ambient pressures, and highlights once more the difficulty of transposing single crystal surface observations to the case of nanoobjects.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(36): 30992-31004, 2017 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28805058

RESUMO

2,2',6,6'-Tetraphenyl-4,4'-dipyranylidene (DIPO-Ph4) was grown by vacuum deposition on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. The films were characterized by atomic force microscopy as well as synchrotron radiation UV and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to gain an insight into the material growth and to better understand the electronic properties of the ITO/DIPO-Ph4 interface. To interpret our spectroscopic data, we consider the formation of cationic DIPO-Ph4 at the ITO interface owing to a charge transfer from the organic layer to the substrate. Ionization energy DFT calculations of the neutral and cationic species substantiate this hypothesis. Finally, we present the energetic diagram of the ITO/DIPO-Ph4 system, and we discuss the application of this interface in various technologically relevant systems, as a hole-injector in OLEDs or as a hole-collector interfacial layer adjacent to the prototypical OPV layer P3HT:PCBM.

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