Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 21
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











Intervalo de ano
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099294

RESUMO

Many metal nanoparticles are reported to have intrinsic enzyme-like activities and offer great potential in chemical and biomedical applications. In this study, PtCu alloy nanoparticles (NPs), synthesized through hydrothermal treatment of Cu2+ and Pt2+ in an aqueous solution, were evaluated for ferroxidase-like and antibacterial activity. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and colorimetric methods were used to demonstrate that PtCu NPs exhibited strong ferroxidase-like activity in a weakly acidic environment and that this activity was not affected by the presence of most other ions, except silver. Based on the color reaction of salicylic acid in the presence of Fe3+, we tested the ferroxidase-like activity of PtCu NPs to specifically detect Fe2+ in a solution of an oral iron supplement and compared these results with data acquired from atomic absorption spectroscopy and the phenanthroline colorimetric method. The results showed that the newly developed PtCu NPs detection method was equivalent to or better than the other two methods used for Fe2+ detection. The antibacterial experiments showed that PtCu NPs have strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Herein, we demonstrate that the peroxidase-like activity of PtCu NPs can catalyze H2O2 and generate hydroxyl radicals, which may elucidate the antibacterial activity of the PtCu NPs against S. aureus and E. coli. These results showed that PtCu NPs exhibited both ferroxidase- and peroxidase-like activity and that they may serve as convenient and efficient NPs for the detection of Fe2+ and for antibacterial applications.

2.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 54, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nanomaterials that exhibit intrinsic enzyme-like characteristics have shown great promise as potential antibacterial agents. However, many of them exhibit inefficient antibacterial activity and biosafety problems that limit their usefulness. The development of new nanomaterials with good biocompatibility and rapid bactericidal effects is therefore highly desirable. Here, we show a new type of terbium oxide nanoparticles (Tb4O7 NPs) with intrinsic oxidase-like activity for in vitro and in vivo antibacterial application. RESULTS: We find that Tb4O7 NPs can quickly oxidize a series of organic substrates in the absence of hydrogen peroxide. The oxidase-like capacity of Tb4O7 NPs allows these NPs to consume antioxidant biomolecules and generate reactive oxygen species to disable bacteria in vitro. Moreover, the in vivo experiments showed that Tb4O7 NPs are efficacious in wound-healing and are protective of normal tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal that Tb4O7 NPs have intrinsic oxidase-like activity and show effective antibacterial ability both in vitro and in vivo. These findings demonstrate that Tb4O7 NPs are effective antibacterial agents and may have a potential application in wound healing.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Escherichia coli , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Óxidos/química , Oxirredutases/química , Staphylococcus aureus , Térbio/química , Cicatrização , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Sobrevivência Celular , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemólise , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óxidos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Térbio/farmacologia
3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(5): 4858-4866, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628779

RESUMO

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets have received considerable interest due to their superior physicochemical performances to graphene nanosheets. As the lateral size and layer thickness decrease, the formed MoS2 quantum dots (QDs) show more promise as photocatalysts, endowing them with potential antimicrobial properties under environmental conditions. However, studies on the antibacterial photodynamic therapy of MoS2 QDs have rarely been reported. Here, we show that MoS2 QDs more effectively promote the creation and separation of electron-hole pair than MoS2 nanosheets, resulting in the formation of multiple reactive oxygen species (ROS) under simulated solar light irradiation. As a result, photoexcited MoS2 QDs show remarkably enhanced antibacterial activity, and the ROS-mediated oxidative stress plays a dominant role in the antibacterial mechanism. The in vivo experiments showed that MoS2 QDs are efficacious in wound healing under simulated solar light irradiation and exert protective effects on normal tissues, suggesting good biocompatibility properties. Our findings provide a full description of the photochemical behavior of MoS2 QDs and the resulting antibacterial activity, which might advance the development of MoS2-based nanomaterials as photodynamic antibacterial agents under environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Dissulfetos , Molibdênio , Pontos Quânticos , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/efeitos da radiação , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dissulfetos/química , Dissulfetos/farmacologia , Dissulfetos/toxicidade , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Molibdênio/química , Molibdênio/farmacologia , Molibdênio/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Processos Fotoquímicos , Pontos Quânticos/química , Pontos Quânticos/efeitos da radiação , Pontos Quânticos/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Infecção dos Ferimentos
4.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 16(1): 86, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are attracting interest as potential therapeutic agents to treat inflammatory diseases, but their anti-inflammatory mechanism of action is not clear yet. In addition, the effect of orally administered AuNPs on gut microbiota has been overlooked so far. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic and gut microbiota-modulating effects, as well as the anti-inflammatory paradigm, of AuNPs with three different coatings and five difference sizes in experimental mouse colitis and RAW264.7 macrophages. RESULTS: Citrate- and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized 5-nm AuNPs (Au-5 nm/Citrate and Au-5 nm/PVP) and tannic acid (TA)-stabilized 5-, 10-, 15-, 30- and 60-nm AuNPs were intragastrically administered to C57BL/6 mice daily for 8 days during and after 5-day dextran sodium sulfate exposure. Clinical signs and colon histopathology revealed more marked anti-colitis effects by oral administration of Au-5 nm/Citrate and Au-5 nm/PVP, when compared to TA-stabilized AuNPs. Based on colonic myeloperoxidase activity, colonic and peripheral levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and peripheral counts of leukocyte and lymphocyte, Au-5 nm/Citrate and Au-5 nm/PVP attenuated colonic and systemic inflammation more effectively than TA-stabilized AuNPs. High-throughput sequencing of fecal 16S rRNA indicated that AuNPs could induce gut dysbiosis in mice by decreasing the α-diversity, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, certain short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria and Lactobacillus. Based on in vitro studies using RAW264.7 cells and electron spin resonance oximetry, AuNPs inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase expression and NO production via reduction of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and attenuated LPS-induced nuclear factor kappa beta activation and proinflammatory cytokine production via both TLR4 reduction and catalytic detoxification of peroxynitrite and hydrogen peroxide. CONCLUSIONS: AuNPs have promising potential as anti-inflammatory agents; however, their therapeutic applications via the oral route may have a negative impact on the gut microbiota.

5.
Toxicol Sci ; 158(2): 302-318, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28525602

RESUMO

In a previous study, the oral administration of an Aloe vera whole leaf extract induced dose-related mucosal and goblet cell hyperplasia in the rat colon after 13 weeks and colon cancer after 2 years. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether or not the administration of aloin, a component of the Aloe vera plant leaf, would replicate the pathophysiological effects that were observed in rats in the previous study with an Aloe vera whole leaf extract. Groups of 10 male F344/N rats were administered aloin at 0, 6.95, 13.9, 27.8, 55.7, 111, 223, and 446 mg/kg drinking water for 13 weeks. At the end of study, rat feces were collected, and the composition of fecal bacteria was investigated by next generation sequencing of the PCR-amplified V3/V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. At necropsy, blood was collected by cardiac puncture and organs and sections of the large intestine were collected for histopathology. Aloin induced dose-related increased incidences and severities of mucosal and goblet cell hyperplasia that extended from the cecum to the rectum, with increased incidences and severities detected at aloin doses ≥55.7 mg/kg drinking water. Analysis of the 16S rRNA metagenomics sequencing data revealed marked shifts in the structure of the gut microbiota in aloin-treated rats at each taxonomic rank. This study highlights the similarities in effects observed for aloin and the Aloe vera whole leaf extract, and points to a potential mechanism of action to explain the observed pathological changes via modulation of the gut microbiota composition.


Assuntos
Aloe/química , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Emodina/análogos & derivados , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Emodina/administração & dosagem , Emodina/toxicidade , Fezes/microbiologia , Crescimento , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344
6.
Photochem Photobiol ; 93(4): 1096-1114, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28130778

RESUMO

Cosmetic products that contain retinyl palmitate are popular as antiaging skin treatments; however, recent studies suggest a risk for enhanced skin tumor development with topical retinyl palmitate applications and exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). In this study, we investigated the potential of retinyl palmitate to enhance UVR-induced photo-co-carcinogenesis. Groups of 36 male and 36 female SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed to simulated solar light (SSL) and treated with the control cream or creams containing retinyl palmitate, 5 days per week for 40 weeks. Other groups of mice were exposed to SSL and received no cream treatment or received cream treatments and were exposed to ultraviolet-A or ultraviolet-B. Mice were monitored for the development of skin tumors, and the incidences and multiplicities of squamous cell neoplasia were determined by histopathology. In both the absence and presence of SSL, mice administered the control cream developed skin tumors earlier and had higher incidences and multiplicities of skin squamous cell neoplasms than mice that received no cream treatment. Compared to the control cream groups, mice exposed to SSL and administered the retinyl palmitate creams demonstrated earlier onsets of skin tumors and had increased incidences and multiplicities of squamous cell skin neoplasms.

7.
Nanotoxicology ; 10(9): 1373-84, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27441588

RESUMO

The physicochemical characteristics of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) may greatly alter their toxicological potential. To explore the effects of size and coating on the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of AgNPs, six different types of AgNPs, having three different sizes and two different coatings, were investigated using the Ames test, mouse lymphoma assay (MLA) and in vitro micronucleus assay. The genotoxicities of silver acetate and silver nitrate were evaluated to compare the genotoxicity of nanosilver to that of ionic silver. The Ames test produced inconclusive results for all types of the silver materials due to the high toxicity of silver to the test bacteria and the lack of entry of the nanoparticles into the cells. Treatment of L5718Y cells with AgNPs and ionic silver resulted in concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, mutagenicity in the Tk gene and the induction of micronuclei from exposure to nearly every type of the silver materials. Treatment of TK6 cells with these silver materials also resulted in concentration-dependent cytotoxicity and significantly increased micronucleus frequency. With both the MLA and micronucleus assays, the smaller the AgNPs, the greater the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The coatings had less effect on the relative genotoxicity of AgNPs than the particle size. Loss of heterozygosity analysis of the induced Tk mutants indicated that the types of mutations induced by AgNPs were different from those of ionic silver. These results suggest that AgNPs induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in a size- and coating-dependent manner. Furthermore, while the MLA and in vitro micronucleus assay (in both types of cells) are useful to quantitatively measure the genotoxic potencies of AgNPs, the Ames test cannot.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Camundongos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Mutagênicos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Prata/química , Nitrato de Prata/química , Nitrato de Prata/toxicidade , Propriedades de Superfície
8.
Toxicol Sci ; 150(1): 131-60, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26732888

RESUMO

There are concerns within the regulatory and research communities regarding the health impact associated with consumer exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). This study evaluated particulate and ionic forms of silver and particle size for differences in silver accumulation, distribution, morphology, and toxicity when administered daily by oral gavage to Sprague Dawley rats for 13 weeks. Test materials and dose formulations were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering, and inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Seven-week-old rats (10 rats per sex per group) were randomly assigned to treatments: AgNP (10, 75, and 110 nm) at 9, 18, and 36 mg/kg body weight (bw); silver acetate (AgOAc) at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg bw; and controls (2 mM sodium citrate (CIT) or water). At termination, complete necropsies were conducted, histopathology, hematology, serum chemistry, micronuclei, and reproductive system analyses were performed, and silver accumulations and distributions were determined. Rats exposed to AgNP did not show significant changes in body weights or intakes of feed and water relative to controls, and blood, reproductive system, and genetic tests were similar to controls. Differences in the distributional pattern and morphology of silver deposits were observed by TEM: AgNP appeared predominantly within cells, while AgOAc had an affinity for extracellular membranes. Significant dose-dependent and AgNP size-dependent accumulations were detected in tissues by ICP-MS. In addition, sex differences in silver accumulations were noted for a number of tissues and organs, with accumulations being significantly higher in female rats, especially in the kidney, liver, jejunum, and colon.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/farmacocinética , Prata/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Feminino , Íons , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Caracteres Sexuais , Prata/sangue , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Propriedades de Superfície , Fatores de Tempo , Distribuição Tecidual
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26338542

RESUMO

Short-term phototoxicity testing is useful in selecting test agents for the longer and more expensive photocarcinogenesis safety tests; however, no validated short-term tests have been proven reliable in predicting the outcome of a photocarcinogenesis safety test. A transgenic, hairless, albino (THA) mouse model was developed that carries the gpt and red/gam [Spi(-)] genes from the gpt delta mouse background and the phenotypes from the SKH-1 mouse background to use as a short-term test in lieu of photocarcinogenesis safety tests. Validation of the THA mouse model was confirmed by exposing groups of male mice to sub-erythemal doses of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation for three consecutive days emitted from calibrated overhead, Kodacel-filtered fluorescent lamps and measuring the mutant frequencies (MFs) in the gpt and red/gam (Spi(-)) genes and types of mutations in the gpt gene. The doses or irradiation were monitored with broad-spectrum dosimeters that were calibrated to a NIST-traceable standard and cumulative CIE-weighted doses were 20.55 and 41.0mJ/cm(2) (effective). Mice were sacrificed 14 days after the final UVB exposure and MFs in both the gpt and red/gam genes were evaluated in the epidermis. The exposure of mice to UVB induced significant ten- to twelve-fold increases in the gpt MF and three- to five-fold increases in the Spi(-) MF over their respective background MF, 26±3×10(-6) and 9±1×10(-6). The gpt mutation spectra were significantly different between that of the UVB-irradiated and that of non-irradiated mice although the mutation spectra of both groups were dominated by C→T transitions (84% and 66%). In mice exposed to UVB, the C→T transitions occurred almost exclusively at dipyrimidine sites (92%), whereas in non-irradiated control mice, the C→T transitions occurred at CpG sites (86%). These results suggest that the newly developed THA mice are a useful and reliable model for testing UVB-induced mutagenicity in skin tissue. The application of this model for short-term prediction of solar-induced skin carcinogenicity is presently under investigation.


Assuntos
Epiderme/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Camundongos Pelados , Camundongos Transgênicos/genética , Modelos Animais , Taxa de Mutação , Pentosiltransferases/genética , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Epiderme/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Pentosiltransferases/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
10.
Nanotoxicology ; 9(3): 279-89, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24877679

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are widely used for their antibacterial properties. Incorporation of AgNP into food-related products and health supplements represents a potential route for oral exposure to AgNP; however, the effects of such exposure on the gastrointestinal system are mostly unknown. This study evaluated changes in the populations of intestinal-microbiota and intestinal-mucosal gene expression in Sprague-Dawley rats (both male and female) that were gavaged orally with discrete sizes of AgNP (10, 75 and 110 nm) and silver acetate. Doses of AgNP (9, 18 and 36 mg/kg body weight/day) and silver acetate (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day) were divided and administered to rats twice daily (∼10 h apart) for 13 weeks. The results indicate that AgNP prompted size- and dose-dependent changes to ileal-mucosal microbial populations, as well as, intestinal gene expression and induced an apparent shift in the gut microbiota toward greater proportions of Gram-negative bacteria. DNA-based analyses revealed that exposure to 10 nm AgNP and low-dose silver acetate caused a decrease in populations of Firmicutes phyla, along with a decrease in the Lactobacillus genus. Analysis of host gene expression demonstrated that smaller sizes and lower doses of AgNP exposure prompted the decreased expression of important immunomodulatory genes, including MUC3, TLR2, TLR4, GPR43 and FOXP3. Gender-specific effects to AgNP exposure were more prominent for the gut-associated immune responses. These results indicate that the oral exposure to AgNP alter mucosa-associated microbiota and modulate the gut-associated immune response and the overall homeostasis of the intestinal tract.


Assuntos
Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/química , Animais , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/imunologia , Íleo/microbiologia , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Biomaterials ; 34(3): 765-73, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23103160

RESUMO

Gold nanoparticles have received a great deal of interest due to their unique optical and catalytic properties and biomedical applications. Developing applications as well as assessing associated risks requires an understanding of the interactions between Au nanoparticles (NPs) and biologically active substances. In this paper, electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) was used to investigate the catalytic activity of Au NPs in biologically relevant reactions. We report here that Au NPs can catalyze the rapid decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is accompanied by the formation of hydroxyl radicals at lower pH and oxygen at higher pH. In addition, we found that, mimicking SOD, Au NPs efficiently catalyze the decomposition of superoxide. These results demonstrate that Au NPs can act as SOD and catalase mimetics. Since reactive oxygen species are biologically relevant products being continuously generated in cells, these results obtained under conditions resembling different biological microenvironments may provide insights for evaluating risks associated with Au NPs.


Assuntos
Ouro/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Radical Hidroxila/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Catálise , Ouro/química , Humanos , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Oxirredução , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
13.
Toxicol Sci ; 131(1): 26-39, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22968693

RESUMO

Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is an herbal remedy promoted to treat a variety of illnesses; however, only limited data are available on the safety of this dietary supplement. Drinking water exposure of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract (1, 2, and 3%) for 13 weeks resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine in both species. Based upon this observation, 2-year drinking water studies were conducted to assess the carcinogenic potential of an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract when administered to F344/N rats (48 per sex per group) at 0.5, 1, and 1.5%, and B6C3F1 mice (48 per sex per group) at 1, 2, and 3%. Compared with controls, survival was decreased in the 1.5% dose group of female rats. Treatment-related neoplasms and nonneoplastic lesions in both species were confined primarily to the large intestine. Incidences of adenomas and/or carcinomas of the ileo-cecal and cecal-colic junction, cecum, and ascending and transverse colon were significantly higher than controls in male and female rats in the 1 and 1.5% dose groups. There were no neoplasms of the large intestine in mice or in the 0 or 0.5% dose groups of rats. Increased incidences of mucosa hyperplasia of the large intestine were observed in F344/N rats, and increased incidences of goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine occurred in B6C3F1 mice. These results indicate that Aloe vera whole-leaf extract is an intestinal irritant in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and a carcinogen of the large intestine in F344/N rats.


Assuntos
Aloe/química , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Intestinais/induzido quimicamente , Intestino Grosso/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Carcinogenicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Hiperplasia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Intestino Grosso/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Especificidade da Espécie , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Biomaterials ; 33(30): 7547-55, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22809647

RESUMO

Many of the chemical and biological effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are attributed to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ESR spectroscopy was used to provide direct evidence for generating ROS during decomposition of H(2)O(2) assisted by Ag NPs. Hydroxyl radical formation was observed under acidic conditions and was accompanied by dissolution of Ag NPs. In contrast, evolution of O(2) was observed in alkaline solutions containing H(2)O(2) and Ag NPs; however, no net dissolution of Ag NPs was observed due to re-reduction of Ag(+) as evidenced by a cyclic reaction. Since H(2)O(2) is a biologically relevant product being continuously generated in cells, these results obtained under conditions mimicking different biological microenvironments may provide insights for finding new biomedical applications for Ag NPs and for risk assessment.


Assuntos
Radical Hidroxila/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Oxigênio/química , Prata/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferro/química , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
15.
Toxicol Pathol ; 39(7): 1065-74, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21937742

RESUMO

Aloe vera is one of the most commonly used botanicals for various prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. Recently, NTP/NCTR has demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in large intestinal tumors in F344 rats chronically exposed to Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) non-decolorized whole leaf extract (AVNWLE) in drinking water. The morphological and molecular pathways of AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors in the F344 rats were compared to human colorectal cancer (hCRC) literature. Defined histological criteria were used to compare AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors with hCRC. The commonly mutated genes (Kras, Ctnnb1, and Tp53) and altered signaling pathways (MAPK, WNT, and TGF-ß) important in hCRC were evaluated within AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors. Histological evaluation of the large intestinal tumors indicated eight of twelve adenomas (Ads) and four of twelve carcinomas (Cas). Mutation analysis of eight Ads and four Cas identified point mutations in exons 1 and 2 of the Kras gene (two of eight Ads, two of four Cas), and in exon 2 of the Ctnnb1 gene (three of eight Ads, one of four Cas). No Tp53 (exons 5-8) mutations were found in Ads or Cas. Molecular pathways important in hCRC such as MAPK, WNT, and TGF-ß signaling were also altered in AVNWLE-induced Ads and Cas. In conclusion, the AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors in F344 rats share several similarities with hCRC at the morphological and molecular levels.


Assuntos
Aloe/química , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Intestinais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Intestinais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Adenoma/induzido quimicamente , Adenoma/metabolismo , Adenoma/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Histocitoquímica , Humanos , Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Intestino Grosso/patologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Photochem Photobiol ; 83(2): 409-24, 2007 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17576350

RESUMO

Vitamin A (retinol), an essential human nutrient, plays an important role in cellular differentiation, regulation of epidermal cell growth and normal cell maintenance. In addition to these physiological roles, vitamin A has a rich photochemistry. Photoisomerization of vitamin A, involved in signal transduction for vision, has been extensively investigated. The biological effects of light-induced degradation of vitamin A and formation of reactive species are less understood and may be important for light-exposed tissues, such as the skin. Photochemical studies have demonstrated that excitation of retinol or its esters with UV light generates a number of reactive species including singlet oxygen and superoxide radical anion. These reactive oxygen species have been shown to damage a number of cellular targets, including lipids and DNA. Consistent with the potential for damaging DNA, retinyl palmitate has been shown to be photomutagenic in an in vitro test system. The results of mechanistic studies were consistent with mutagenesis through oxidative damage. Vitamin A in the skin resides in a complex environment that in many ways is very different from the chemical environment in solution and in in vitro test systems. Relevant clinical studies or studies in animal models are therefore needed to establish whether the pro-oxidant activity of photoexcited vitamin A is observed in vivo, and to assess the related risks.


Assuntos
Pele/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Vitamina A/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Modelos Biológicos , Fotobiologia , Fotoquímica , Retinoides/química , Retinoides/metabolismo , Retinoides/efeitos da radiação , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Vitamina A/química
17.
Vitam Horm ; 75: 223-56, 2007.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17368318

RESUMO

The skin is similar to other organs in how it absorbs, stores, and metabolizes vitamin A. However, because of the anatomical location of skin and the specialized physiological roles it plays, there are ways in which the skin is rather unique. The stratified structure of the epidermis results from the orchestration of retinoid-influenced cellular division and differentiation. Similarly, many of the physiological responses of the skin, such as dermal aging, immune defense, and wound healing, are significantly affected by retinoids. While much is known about the molecular events through which retinoids affect the skin's responses, more remains to be learned. Interest in the effects of retinol, retinyl palmitate, and other retinoids on the skin, fueled in part by the promise of improved dermatologic and cosmetic products, will undoubtedly make the effects of retinoids on skin a subject for continued intense investigation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Vitamina A/análogos & derivados , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina A/química , Vitamina A/farmacologia , Vitamina A/fisiologia
18.
Toxicol Lett ; 168(2): 165-75, 2007 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17197137

RESUMO

Aloe vera whole leaf extracts are incorporated into a wide variety of topically applied commercial products. Aloe vera whole leaf extracts may contain anthraquinones, which have been shown to generate reactive oxygen species in the presence of ultraviolet A (UVA) light. Exposure to UVA light alone can also generate reactive oxygen species and is associated with photo-damaged and photo-aged skin in humans. This paper examines the photochemical properties of two Aloe vera whole leaf extracts that differed in their anthraquinone content. In the presence of methyl linoleate, the UVA irradiation of Aloe vera leaf extracts induced lipid peroxidation. The amounts of lipid peroxides formed were higher in the Aloe vera leaf extract that contained lower amounts of anthraquinones. Superoxide dismutase and sodium azide inhibited and deuterium oxide enhanced the formation of lipid peroxides, suggesting that singlet oxygen and superoxide were involved in the mechanism. Spin trapping electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the generation of free radicals by the UVA photo-irradiated Aloe vera plant extracts. ESR measurements indicated that the UVA photo-irradiation of Aloe vera plant extracts produced carbon-centered free radicals. These results suggest that humans exposed to products that contain Aloe vera whole leaf extracts may have enhanced sensitivity to ultraviolet light.


Assuntos
Aloe/metabolismo , Aloe/efeitos da radiação , Radicais Livres/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos da radiação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Superóxidos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Emodina/análogos & derivados , Emodina/química , Emodina/efeitos da radiação , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Ácidos Linoleicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 3(2): 185-90, 2006 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16823091

RESUMO

We have previously reported that photoirradiation of retinyl palmitate (RP), a storage and ester form of vitamin A (retinol), with UVA light resulted in the formation of photodecomposition products, generation of reactive oxygen species, and induction of lipid peroxidation. In this paper, we report our results following the photoirradiation of RP in ethanol by an UV lamp with approximately equal UVA and UVB light. The photodecomposition products were separated by reversed-phase HPLC and characterized spectroscopically by comparison with authentic standards. The identified products include: 4-keto-RP, 11-ethoxy-12-hydroxy-RP, 13-ethoxy-14-hydroxy-RP, anhydroretinol (AR), and trans- and cis-15-ethoxy-AR. Photoirradiation of RP in the presence of a lipid, methyl linoleate, resulted in induction of lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation was inhibited when sodium azide was present during photoirradiation which suggests free radicals were formed. Our results demonstrate that, similar to irradiation with UVA light, RP can act as a photosensitizer leading to free radical formation and induction of lipid peroxidation following irradiation with UVB light.


Assuntos
Ácidos Linoleicos/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina A/análogos & derivados , Óxido de Deutério/química , Etanol/química , Etanol/efeitos da radiação , Ácidos Linoleicos/efeitos da radiação , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Azida Sódica/química , Vitamina A/química , Vitamina A/efeitos da radiação
20.
Toxicol Ind Health ; 22(4): 181-91, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16786840

RESUMO

Retinyl esters are the storage form of vitamin A in skin, and retinyl palmitate (RP) accounts for the majority of the retinyl esters endogenously formed in skin. RP is also obtained exogenously through the topical application of cosmetic and skin care products that contain RP. There is limited information on the penetration and distribution of RP and vitamin A within the stratified layers of the skin. The purpose of these studies was to determine the time course for accumulation and disappearance of RP and retinol in the stratified layers of skin from female SKH-1 mice that received single or repeated topical applications of creams containing 0.5 or 2% of RP. We developed an HPLC method with detection limits of 5.94 and 1.62 ng, to simultaneously quantify the amount of RP and retinol, respectively, in skin samples. Our results showed that RP rapidly diffuses into the stratum corneum and epidermal skin layers within 24 h following the application of RP-containing creams. Of the three skin layers, the highest level of RP and retinol per weight unit (ng/mg) at all time points was found in the epidermis. Levels of RP and retinol were lowest in the dermal layer and intermediate in the stratum corneum. The levels of RP and retinol in the separated skin layers and in the intact skin decreased with time, but levels of RP remained higher than control values for a period of up to 18 days. Our results indicate that the application of RP to mouse skin alters the normal physiological levels of RP and retinol in the skin.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Vitamina A/análogos & derivados , Vitamina A/química , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Camundongos , Absorção Cutânea , Distribuição Tecidual , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Vitamina A/farmacocinética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA