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1.
Sex Transm Infect ; 91(8): 615-20, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26056389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2004, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has supported the tremendous scale-up of HIV prevention, care and treatment services, primarily in sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluate the impact of antiretroviral treatment (ART), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programmes on survival, mortality, new infections and the number of orphans from 2004 to 2013 in 16 PEPFAR countries in Africa. METHODS: PEPFAR indicators tracking the number of persons receiving ART for their own health, ART regimens for PMTCT and biomedical prevention of HIV through VMMC were collected across 16 PEPFAR countries. To estimate the impact of PEPFAR programmes for ART, PMTCT and VMMC, we compared the current scenario of PEPFAR-supported interventions to a counterfactual scenario without PEPFAR, and assessed the number of life years gained (LYG), number of orphans averted and HIV infections averted. Mathematical modelling was conducted using the SPECTRUM modelling suite V.5.03. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2013, PEPFAR programmes provided support for a cumulative number of 24 565 127 adults and children on ART, 4 154 878 medical male circumcisions, and ART for PMTCT among 4 154 478 pregnant women in 16 PEPFAR countries. Based on findings from the model, these efforts have helped avert 2.9 million HIV infections in the same period. During 2004-2013, PEPFAR ART programmes alone helped avert almost 9 million orphans in 16 PEPFAR countries and resulted in 11.6 million LYG. CONCLUSIONS: Modelling results suggest that the rapid scale-up of PEPFAR-funded ART, PMTCT and VMMC programmes in Africa during 2004-2013 led to substantially fewer new HIV infections and orphaned children during that time and longer lives among people living with HIV. Our estimates do not account for the impact of the PEPFAR-funded non-biomedical interventions such as behavioural and structural interventions included in the comprehensive HIV prevention, care and treatment strategy used by PEPFAR countries. Therefore, the number of HIV infections and orphans averted and LYG may be underestimated by these models.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Cooperação Internacional , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Parcerias Público-Privadas/organização & administração , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 60 Suppl 3: S120-6, 2012 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22797733

RESUMO

Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is fundamental to global HIV program implementation and has been a cornerstone of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). Rapid results were crucial to demonstrating feasibility and scalability of HIV care and treatment services early in PEPFAR. When national HIV M&E systems were nascent, the rapid influx of funds and the emergency expansion of HIV services contributed to the development of uncoordinated "parallel" information systems to serve donor demands for information. Close collaboration of PEPFAR with multilateral and national partners improved harmonization of indicators, standards, methods, tools, and reports. Concurrent PEPFAR investments in surveillance, surveys, program monitoring, health information systems, and human capacity development began to show signs of progress toward sustainable country-owned systems. Awareness of the need for and usefulness of data increased, far beyond discussions of indicators and reporting. Emphasis has turned toward ensuring the quality of data and using available data to improve the quality of care. Assessing progress toward an AIDS-free generation requires that the global community can measure the reduction of new HIV infections in children and adults and monitor the coverage, quality, and outcomes of highly efficacious interventions in combination. Building national M&E systems requires sustained efforts over long periods of time with effective leadership and coordination. PEPFAR, in close collaboration with its global and national partners, is well positioned to transform the successes and challenges associated with early rapid scale-up into future opportunities for sustainable, cost-effective, country-owned programs and systems.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População/métodos , Parcerias Público-Privadas/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Cooperação Internacional , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/tendências , Parcerias Público-Privadas/tendências , Estados Unidos
5.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 44(4): 429-34, 2007 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17224849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV-infected children in China have not been well studied. This national survey describes the demographic characteristics and the associated diagnostic and antiretroviral treatment (ART) efforts directed toward surviving HIV-infected children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the 6 provinces with the highest HIV prevalence: 4 former plasma donation (FPD) provinces and 2 intravenous drug use (IDU) provinces. A survey on demographics and treatment-related issues was distributed to the parents or guardians of all living HIV-infected children identified through the national case reporting system. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed on completed surveys. RESULTS: Six hundred ninety-two (62.4%) of the total 1108 surveys were returned, and 650 were eligible for analysis. The average age in FPD provinces (mean +/- SD: 8.1 +/- 3.2 years) was significantly older than in IDU provinces (mean +/- SD: 5.4 +/- 2.2 years; P < 0.001). The average lag time from the probable date of transmission to a diagnosis for patients with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) was 6.7 +/- 3.1 years in the FPD provinces and 4.7 +/- 1.9 years in the IDU provinces (P < 0.001). On the basis of the CD4 cell count or World Health Organization staging, 29.8% (144 of 484) of children from all 6 provinces who were not on ART needed it. CONCLUSIONS: This first national pediatric survey indicates that the age and time required for diagnosis were greater in HIV-infected children from FPD provinces compared with those from IDU provinces. In addition, this survey highlights the prolonged delay in the diagnosis and initiation of ART for children in China. Aggressive efforts to identify HIV-positive pregnant women, scale up prevention of MTCT activities, and expand early diagnosis and treatment are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Análise de Variância , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Troca Plasmática/estatística & dados numéricos
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