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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851291

RESUMO

In the present study, five NPs (containing ZnO, Au-ZnO, Cu-ZnO, TiO2, and Au-TiO2) were characterized using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, in order to observe their behavior under environmental change. The applicability of NPs for degradation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including benzo(a)pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzanthracene, using UV irradiation showed the high photocatalytic efficiency of doped NPs for the removal of the study pollutants. To predict the environmental impact and interaction between NPs and PAHs on marine organisms, Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels were exposed to concentrations of each chemical (50 and 100 µg/L) for 14 days. The mussel's response was determined using the oxidative stress biomarker approach. Measured biomarkers in the mussel's digestive gland showed possible oxidative mechanisms in a concentration-dependent manner occurring after exposure to PAHs and NPs separately. Overall, this finding provides an interesting combination to remove PAHs in water, and the incorporation of chemical element into the crystallographic structure of NPs and the combination of two different NPs to form a binary hybrid NPs are promising materials.

2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 167: 112361, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873039

RESUMO

On March 2020, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was recommended as a treatment for COVID-19 high risk patients. Following the massive and widespread use of HCQ worldwide, a discernible high quantity is anticipated to end-up through the sewage systems in marine coastal areas. A closed microcosm study was undertaken herein for 30 days where meiobenthic nematodes were exposed to a range of HCQ concentrations (3.162, 31.62 and 63.24 µg.ml-1). After one month of exposure in HCQ, the total abundances and Shannon-Wiener index of the assemblages decreased, whereas the individual mass and the Trophic Diversity Index increased at the highest concentrations. Overall, a numerical negative impact was observed for the epistrate feeders and non-selective deposit feeders, however, this benefited to the omnivores-carnivores, and particularly to the Oncholaimids. Such responses of the nematodes 2B and the corresponding taxa are bioindicative of current- or post-COVID-19 crisis risks in relation with the bioaccumulation of HCQ in seafood.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694119

RESUMO

The toxicity of copper, cadmium, and dieldrin in adult Gammarus locusta (a marine amphipod) is currently unclear. Thus, G. locusta from the North Lake of Tunis were subjected to acute toxicity tests to assess LC50s at 48-96 h and to biomarker response tests through the assessment of catalase and acetylcholinesterase activities and malondialdehyde levels. The present study demonstrated the abilities of a chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide (dieldrin) induce to oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. The comparison of metal toxicity showed that G. locusta was more sensitive to cadmium than copper. The three stressors caused significant inductions of all three biomarkers in a concentration-dependent manner. Catalase induction was dependent on exposure duration for all pollutants, while only copper led to increased malondialdehyde with longer exposure times. Catalase induction and malondialdehyde increase appeared to be sex dependent for all three pollutants. The neurotoxic effects of the pollutants were concentration dependent according to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. In conclusion, catalase, malondialdehyde, and acetylcholinesterase are efficient biomarkers of copper, cadmium, and dieldrin in G. locusta.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116759, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639491

RESUMO

The majority of experimental studies carried out to date, regarding the effects of pollutants on meiofauna have been conducted by means of closed systems, and rarely using open ones. The current work explored the impact of three Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), anthracene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene, applied alone or combined, on meiobenthic nematodes using both systems. The results revealed that single PAHs impacted the nematofauna similarly in closed or open systems with a higher toxicity observed for benzo[a]pyrene. However, the closed microcosms contaminated with PAHs became organically enriched, resulting in more non-selective deposit feeders and omnivores-carnivores. Taxonomic and functional effects related to combinations of PAHs were close to those of individual treatments in closed systems, however, for open ones, the outcomes were different. The caudal morphology influenced the response of taxa during their avoidance/endurance of hydrocarbons in open systems where the effects of PAHs mixtures appeared not only additive but also synergetic. Based on the results of the study, the use of open systems is preferred to closed ones as the research outcomes were more accurate and representing better conditions prevailing in nature.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Animais , Antracenos/toxicidade , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Pirenos
5.
Environ Pollut ; 277: 116727, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640809

RESUMO

The response taxonomic and trophic of meiobenthic organisms, especially marine nematodes to polybrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47) was studied using a community from Bizerte lagoon (Nord-East Tunisia). Four concentrations of BDE-47 [D1 (2.5 µg/kg dw), D2 (25 µg/kg dw), D3 (50 µg/kg dw), and D4 (100 µg/kg dw)] were applied, and responses were determined 30 days after exposure. Species abundance and all univariate indices were significantly affected in all treated microcosms compared to the control. The non-parametric cluster based on species abundance separated the nematode population into two groups: control + all treated microcosms. After grouping nematode species according to their trophic diversity, their abundance showed differential responses. The non-metric multi-dimensional scaling analysis and cumulative k-dominance based on the abundance of trophic groups abundances reflected significant separation between the control microcosm and each treatment condition. The correspondence analysis 2D plot generated from nematode species and trophic groups abundance showed the control microcosm was dominated by microvores, represented by two species of Terschellingia. However, when treated with the highest concentration of BDE-47, the community was occupied by the resistant trophic groups of facultative predators and epigrowth feeders represented by Metoncholaimus pristiurus and Paracomesoma dubium, respectively.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados , Nematoides , Animais , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Tunísia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560507

RESUMO

Numerous studies have focused on the response of meiofauna after exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but none has been devoted to their uptake into nematode body compartments. The present study monitored PAH uptake by Oncholaimus campylocercoides which was selected after 40 days in the laboratory through original protocols from natural sediments collected in the Old Harbor of Bizerte, Tunisia. To achieve the mono-species level, a grain size magnification was applied by gradually adding a biosubstrate made from either the crushed shells of Mytilus galloprovincialis or minced leaves of Posidonia oceanica. After selection, O. campylocercoides was cultured and fed with earthworm powder (560 mg.l-1). Thereafter, it was exposed for 3 weeks to phenanthrene and chrysene (38, 116, and 348 ppb). Fluorescence microscopy revealed higher intensities of PAHs at the spicules, mouths, and pharynges compared with the other organs considered. Moreover, the buccal fluorescence showed a significant correlation with that measured in the biosubstrate made with shells of M. galloprovincialis.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145251, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508666

RESUMO

Trophic web structuring in aquatic sediments is dependent on the biological interactions between metazoans and microbial communities. The presence of pollutants in these biotas can therefore impact the meiofauna structure via the modification of the microbial communities. The current study examined in a laboratory bioassay the response of meiobenthic communities, particularly marine nematode taxa from the Bizerte Lagoon to the effect of the most detected polybrominated diphenyl ether in this aquatic environment, BDE-47. Four doses [D1 (2.5 ppb Dry weight (DW)), D2 (25 ppb DW), D3 (50 ppb DW), and D4 (100 ppb DW)] were gradually applied and sediment microcosms were incubated for 30 days in the presence or absence of meiofauna. Our results show that BDE-47-enriched sediments decreased the meiofaunal taxa and bacterial abundance. A lower taxonomic diversity of the nematodes' general structure was observed with all doses used. The numerical analysis of the two dimensional (2D) non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) plots and the evolution of the relative abundances of each functional group of nematode genus assemblages revealed that the abundance of all biological traits was modified. Nevertheless, only three of the functional traits, adult length, feeding group, and amphid shape, showed a clear difference between the control and the treated microcosms. The similarity percentage analysis (SIMPER) revealed that the average dissimilarity between nematode genera communities and biological traits increased with BDE-47-enriched sediments. The nMDS second-stage ordination of inter-matrix rank correlations for matrices including genera and biological traits showed that the amphid shape was the functional trait closest to the generic distribution. Finally, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for the nematode biological traits and bacteria indicated a positive correlation of these microbes with the functional groups [1A, Cr, and ef], and a negative correlation only with the "cla"-type tail shape.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bactérias , Sedimentos Geológicos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(14): 18176-18185, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410041

RESUMO

Several studies have been performed on the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic life. However, most of them investigated marine organisms, not freshwater organisms. This study investigated biomarker responses after exposure for 48 h and 7 days to newly made gold and titanium dioxide (Au/TiO2) metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) (100 and 200 µg·L-1) using the freshwater bivalve mussel Unio ravoisieri. Biochemical analysis of the gills and digestive glands showed induction of oxidative stress following exposure of the bivalve to Au/TiO2 MNPs. After 2 or 7 days of exposure to Au/TiO2 MNPs, both utilized concentrations of Au/TiO2 MNPs induce an overproduction of H2O2. Catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities and the malonedialdehyde content significantly increased in the presence of Au/TiO2 MNPs, depending on the concentration and target organ. In contrast, acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly inhibited, indicating a discernible disturbance of the cholinergic system in the presence of Au/TiO2 MNPs. The behavior of the freshwater mussel was altered by reducing the clearance rate. Therefore, U. ravoisieri can be used as a model species in laboratory studies to mirror the presence of MNPs, and the biomarker approach is important for detecting the effects of Au/TiO2 MNPs. In addition, digestive gland is the target organ of Au/TiO2NPs contamination.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Unio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Titânio/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411276

RESUMO

In this study, a microcosm experiment was conducted for 30 days to assess the impact of the presence of juvenile gray shrimp Crangon crangon on meiofauna. The results suggested that juvenile shrimp had a significant negative impact on the abundance of nematodes and copepods, but no effect on polychaetes. Moreover, nematodes showed a significant decline in individual weight. The collected nematodes were taxonomically identified and assigned to five functional traits: shapes of the tail and amphid, life history, feeding types, and adult length. The nematode traits were affected by the number of shrimp introduced, and descriptors followed normal or inversed bell-shaped curves. When no shrimp were present, the nematofauna had a higher species richness compared with treatments of 4, 8, and 12 shrimp. Bell-shaped curve patterns were common in relation to the two phases of feeding for C. crangon. During the first phase, C. crangon consumed the nematode species Oncholaimus campylocercoides; thereafter, shrimp fed mostly on the nematode Anticoma eberthi and copepods.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010015

RESUMO

Meiobenthic nematodes are well-known bioindicators in aquatic ecosystem health programs. However, the explored taxa are still limited and practically devoted to the community level. The present study provided a new method of experimental isolation of a species from a pristine nematofauna. In our method, the nematofauna faced two types of sediment, namely, the leaves of Posidonia oceanica and shells of Mytilus galloprovincialis, under controlled laboratory conditions, and several changes in species composition occurred through gradual selection of the most adaptable nematode taxa to the new environments, which were previously defaunated. We used the selected nematode taxon, Marylynnia puncticaudata (Cyatholaimidae), to examine the possible effects of organic enrichment, and the results clearly showed that the body size of the nematodes significantly increased and they became fat when after enrichment using a powder made of marine agar (1200 mg l-1) and cuticles of Crangon crangon (900 mg l-1), but their relative body growth showed no discernible changes.

11.
Aquat Toxicol ; 228: 105632, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010638

RESUMO

An experiment was carried out using microcosms to evaluate the impact of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic on nematode trophic groups structure and bacterial abundance. Sediment samples were experimentally enriched with four increasing doses of ciprofloxacin [D1 (50 ppm), D2 (100 ppm), D3 (200 ppm) and D4 (500 ppm)] and compared to non-enriched sediments (used as control). Ciprofloxacin changed the trophic composition of nematodes taxa where the relative abundance of microvores (M), epigrowth feeders (EF) and ciliate consumers (CF), raised in a control microcosm, was highly affected and significantly decreased in response to the increasing doses. Nevertheless, the abundance of deposit feeders (DF), optional predators (FP) and exclusive predators (Pr) showed a significant increase. Results from the multivariate analysis showed a clear impact of this antibiotic on nematode trophic assemblages. Microcosms treated with the three highest doses [D2, D3 and D4] were different from the control. The exceptions were those treated with the lowest dose, D1, and which were grouped with the control. The SIMPER analysis results showed that the average dissimilarity continuously increased in the treated microcosms compared to the control. Furthermore, our results have shown that ciprofloxacin also leads to a significant decrease in bacterial density with the highest dose, which could explain the results obtained for nematode trophic groups distribution. Thus, the bacteriophages nematodes only use bacteria as a nutrition source and the lack or presence in small quantity of this food could induce a decrease in their abundance as well as changing of nematodes groups repartition. Our work demonstrates that the nematode responses were dependent on sediment enrichment with ciprofloxacin and opens new perspectives on the potential impact of antibiotics on functional nematode diversity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciprofloxacino/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Nematoides/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise por Conglomerados , Geografia , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Região do Mediterrâneo , Análise Multivariada , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Densidade Demográfica , Análise de Componente Principal , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111084, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810644

RESUMO

A microcosm experiment was conducted to evaluate the impacts of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin on meiobenthic taxa abundance, nematode genus structure, and functional trait parameters. Sediment samples were experimentally enriched with four different doses of ciprofloxacin [D1 (50 ppm Dry weight 'DW'), D2 (100 ppm DW), D3 (200 ppm DW), and D4 (500 ppm DW)] and were then compared with non-enriched sediments (controls). After one month of exposure, the data showed that ciprofloxacin had altered the meiofaunal taxa abundance. A change in the structure of nematofaunal genera was observed, particularly with the highest dose (D4), which was characterized by the lowest taxonomic diversity. The SIMPER analysis revealed that the average dissimilarity between nematode communities increased with increasing doses of ciprofloxacin. Two dimensional (2D) non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) plots and relative abundances of functional groups of nematode genus assemblages revealed that all functional trait abundances were affected, particularly with the highest dose. However, only the amphid shape and feeding group functions showed a clear distribution separation between the control and ciprofloxacin treatments. The nMDS second-stage ordination of inter-matrix rank correlations for matrices including genus and functional traits showed that the tail shape was the closest functional trait to the generic distribution. Thus, only the curves of cumulative dominance related to the tail shape mirrored discernibly the sedimentary concentrations in ciprofloxacin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Ciprofloxacino , Nematoides , Animais , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Análise Multivariada
13.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115263, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768926

RESUMO

A microcosm experiment was carried out to study the ecotoxicity and interactions between heavy metals and polyvinyl chloride microplastics. Fifteen treatments were tested and results were examined after one month. In details, this work aims to study the ecotoxicological effects of cadmium (10 and 20 mg kg-1 Dry Weight DW), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and its modified forms; PVC-DETA (PD) and PVC-TETA (PT) (20 and 40 mg kg-1 DW), separately and in mixtures, on meiofauna from Bizerte lagoon (NE Tunisia) with focus on nematode features. The results obtained showed that individual treatments were toxic for meiofauna and particularly for free-living nematodes. No clear trends characterized the numerical responses but significant reductions were observed for diversity indices. Moreover, the binary combinations of contaminants have a lesser toxic effect compared to their individual effects. This effect could be related to the high-capacity chelating ability of PVC and its polymers against cadmium.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Cloreto de Polivinila , Animais , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Tunísia
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 157: 111375, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658716

RESUMO

At the end of March 2020, ivermectin was confirmed as a drug for COVID-19 treatment. A significant amount of ivermectin could deposit into sediments of the semi-closed Mediterranean Sea, where three European COVID-19 epicenters are located: Italy, Spain, and France. Meiobenthic nematodes were exposed to three ivermectin doses (1.8 ng.g-1, 9 ng.g-1, and 18 ng.g-1) for 10 days. Ivermectin caused a great reduction in abundance. However, the diversity indices decreased only at high doses. Ivermectin disadvantaged the 1B-Cr-Id functional type (non-selective deposit feeders and nematodes with circular or indistinct amphids) and benefited the 2A-REL-Sp type (epistrate feeders and nematodes with rounded or elongated loop amphids). Thus, Trophic Diversity and Amphideal Diversity index values increased with sedimentary ivermectin enrichment. Large amphideal foveas were more efficient for 2A-REL-Sp nematodes to avoid ivermectin. The responses of the functional type 2A-REL-Sp and corresponding taxa predict post-COVID-19 environmental concerns and the bioaccumulation of ivermectin in seafoods.


Assuntos
Antivirais/toxicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus , Ivermectina , Nematoides , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , França , Humanos , Itália , Ivermectina/toxicidade , Mar Mediterrâneo , Espanha
15.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt B): 114529, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283405

RESUMO

Meiobenthic nematodes have been designated as sensitive global models in the development of biomonitoring and ecotoxicology monitoring programs howbeit the sensitivity of these organisms against oxidative stress biomarkers have never been addressed. The present study aimed to decipher this research axis after selecting and culturing a single nematode species from an entire community through original laboratory protocols. The purpose of this investigation was to change the grain size of the sediment into the immediate environment of nematodes by progressively adding a biosubstrate made from Sepia officinalis endoskeletton. At the end of the experiment, Metoncholaimus pristiurus became the unique component of the nematode species when the sediment was enriched with 80% of S. officinalis powder. After the mono-species level had been achieved, the selected species was fed on an another biosubstrate made from bodies of Porcellio scaber under the identical laboratory controlled conditions of light and temperature adopted during the selection process. Accordingly, the bioassay protocol this study layed new foundations for the study of meiobenthic nematodes in the biomarker field. Our results revealed that, in case of M. pritiurus, discernible oxidative stress responses are valid for catalase and gluthatione S-transferase. Indeed, for both enzymes, a clear increase in the activity was recorded, and the response was more reinforced when zinc and permethrin were administrated in combination. The relevance of the protocols proposed in this work parallels their global applicability to reach and maintain the monospecific level in laboratory by using biosubstrates made from animals widely distributed. It is true also that our data provided the first results in terms of biochemical biomarkers for meiobenthic nematodes and showed that the selected taxa, M. pristiurus, could be one of the first marine taxa responding early to the tested stressors, zinc and permethrin, even at very low concentrations.


Assuntos
Isópodes , Nematoides , Animais , Biomarcadores , Catalase , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estresse Oxidativo
16.
Environ Pollut ; 262: 114350, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197121

RESUMO

A laboratory bioassay was conducted to investigate the ecotoxicity of a chromium-enriched superfood, Spirulina platensis, on the meiofauna collected from the Ghar El Melh lagoon, Tunisia. After 1 month of exposure, the abundances of meiobenthic taxa and the taxonomic and morpho-functional diversity of nematodes showed significant differences between the Spirulina and Spirulina + chromium groups. The nematodes were more tolerant of all types of stressors compared to harpacticoids, polychaetes, and oligochaetes, and the lowest taxonomic and morpho-functional diversity of nematodes was observed in the highest sedimentary concentration of S. platensis (50% DW). The mixed treatments may have been richer in micro-habitats and subject to low selective pressure, thereby hosting nematodes with a wide range of adaptations. The responses of the nematode species differed depending on their functional traits. Spirulina enriched with chromium induced two responses for the same feeding group: high toxicity for Daptonema fallax and low toxicity for two Theristus species (T. flevensis and T. modicus). The ecotoxicity of the Spirulina/chromium mixtures were lower than that of Spirulina alone, suggesting mutual neutralization between these two elements. The association between functional traits and taxonomic diversity showed that the effects of the mixtures were not additive and that one of the stressors camouflaged the effect of the other. Our findings should encourage the commercialization of chromium-enriched S. platensis owing to its lower ecotoxicity than Spirulina alone.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Spirulina , Animais , Cromo , Ecossistema , Tunísia
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(10): 11403-11412, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965497

RESUMO

Organic enrichment due to human impact is one of the major threats that affect benthic communities in semi-enclosed marine ecosystems, such as the Mediterranean Sea. However, many emerging sources of organic pollutants, such as those released to nature through human practices related to esthetics and cosmetics, remain underestimated, despite being an increasingly important source of organic matter input following a decade of expansion by the cosmetic industry. Therefore, an experiment was designed to explore the influence of collagen, the main component of commercialized skin anti-aging products, on a Mediterranean community of free-living marine nematodes from a beach in Rimel, northeast Tunisia. The effects of exposure for 30 days to a control treatment and three test treatments, corresponding to three levels of sedimentary enrichment with collagen (3, 6, and 12 ppm dry weight (DW)), were examined using a microcosm approach. Reductions in abundance and diversity were noted with an increase in collagen enrichment, together with a slight increase in individual weight. The presence of three species characteristic of control microcosms, Ptycholaimellus ponticus, Theristus modicus, and Kraspedonema reflectans, was clearly affected at the lowest dose; these were therefore classified as "collagen-sensitive." In contrast, the numbers of "collagen-tolerant" species, including Sigmophoranema rufum, Lauratonema hospitum, Enoploides spiculohamatus, and Trichotheristus mirabilis, increased significantly in the treated microcosms.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Nematoides , Animais , Bioensaio , Colágeno , Ecossistema , Humanos , Mar Mediterrâneo , Tunísia
18.
Ecol Evol ; 9(3): 1211-1226, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805154

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing has the potential to describe biological communities with high efficiency yet comprehensive assessment of diversity with species-level resolution remains one of the most challenging aspects of metabarcoding studies. We investigated the utility of curated ribosomal and mitochondrial nematode reference sequence databases for determining phylum-specific species-level clustering thresholds. We compiled 438 ribosomal and 290 mitochondrial sequences which identified 99% and 94% as the species delineation clustering threshold, respectively. These thresholds were evaluated in HTS data from mock communities containing 39 nematode species as well as environmental samples from Vietnam. We compared the taxonomic description of the mocks generated by two read-merging and two clustering algorithms and the cluster-free Dada2 pipeline. Taxonomic assignment with the RDP classifier was assessed under different training sets. Our results showed that 36/39 mock nematode species were identified across the molecular markers (18S: 32, JB2: 19, JB3: 21) in UClust_ref OTUs at their respective clustering thresholds, outperforming UParse_denovo and the commonly used 97% similarity. Dada2 generated the most realistic number of ASVs (18S: 83, JB2: 75, JB3: 82), collectively identifying 30/39 mock species. The ribosomal marker outperformed the mitochondrial markers in terms of species and genus-level detections for both OTUs and ASVs. The number of taxonomic assignments of OTUs/ASVs was highest when the smallest reference database containing only nematode sequences was used and when sequences were truncated to the respective amplicon length. Overall, OTUs generated more species-level detections, which were, however, associated with higher error rates compared to ASVs. Genus-level assignments using ASVs exhibited higher accuracy and lower error rates compared to species-level assignments, suggesting that this is the most reliable pipeline for rapid assessment of alpha diversity from environmental samples.

19.
Ecotoxicology ; 25(6): 1160-9, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27230096

RESUMO

Trophic structure of free living nematode from Bizerte lagoon was tested by a microcosmic study after 30 days of exposure with 5 increasing doses of pharmaceutical penicillin G (D1: 3 mg L(-1), D2: 30 mg L(-1), D3: 300 mg L(-1), D4: 600 mg L(-1), D5: 700 mg L(-1)). Results showed significant differences between nematode assemblages from undisturbed controls and those from penicillin G treatments. Selective deposit-feeders (1A) or nonselective deposit-feeders (1B), very abundant in the control microcosm, were significantly affected and their dominance declined significantly. Epistrate feeders (2A) were significantly gradual increase for all microcosms treated with penicillin G, appeared to be more tolerant to the antibiotic and to take advantage of the growing scarcity of other trophic groups. Compared to the control microcosms, omnivorous-carnivorous (2B) was found to be higher in all treated microcosms, with the exception of those treated with D5. Trophic index (Σθ(2)) was significantly reduced in all microcosms treated whereas trophic ratio 1B/2A appears to be insignificant.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Nematoides/fisiologia , Penicilina G/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Cadeia Alimentar , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade
20.
J Nematol ; 47(3): 198-206, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26527841

RESUMO

From the late 19th century, Africa has faced heavy exploitation of its natural resources with increasing land/water pollution, and several described species have already become extinct or close to extinction. This could also be the case for marine nematodes, which are the most abundant and diverse benthic group in marine sediments, and play major roles in ecosystem functioning. Compared to Europe and North America, only a handful of investigations on marine nematodes have been conducted to date in Africa. This is due to the scarcity of experienced taxonomists, absence of identification guides, as well as local appropriate infrastructures. A pivotal project has started recently between nematologists from Africa (Tunisia), India, and Europe (Italy) to promote taxonomic study and biodiversity estimation of marine nematodes in the African continent. To do this, as a first step, collection of permanent slides of marine nematodes (235 nominal species and 14 new to science but not yet described) was recently established at the Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte (Tunisia). Capacity building of next generation of African taxonomists have been carried out at level of both traditional and molecular taxonomy (DNA barcoding and next-generation sequencing [NGS]), but they need to be implemented. Indeed, the integration of these two approaches appears crucial to overcome lack of information on the taxonomy, ecology, and biodiversity of marine nematodes from African coastal waters.

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