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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(5): e28228, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124552

RESUMO

Seventeen children at six institutions with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2)-related vestibular schwannomas received bevacizumab. Eight of the 13 patients with initial hearing loss (61%) showed objective hearing improvement within six months of treatment. No patients showed hearing deterioration during therapy; however, only two patients showed objective radiological response. Seven of eight patients had tumor progression or worsening hearing loss upon cessation of treatment. Bevacizumab was well tolerated with no patients discontinuing therapy. Bevacizumab appears to postpone hearing loss in childhood NF2-associated vestibular schwannomas, but responses are not durable, suggesting that either longer maintenance therapy or new strategies are required.

2.
Neuro Oncol ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129445

RESUMO

Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a rare, highly malignant central nervous system cancer arising in infants and younger children, historically considered to be homogenous, monogenic and incurable. Recent use of intensified therapies has modestly improved survival for ATRT, however, a majority of patients will still succumb to their disease. While ATRTs almost universally exhibit loss of SMARCB1 (BAF47/INI1/SNF5), recent whole genome, transcriptome and epigenomic analyses of large cohorts reveal previously under-appreciated molecular heterogeneity. These discoveries provide novel insights into how SMARCB1 loss drives oncogenesis and confer specific therapeutic vulnerabilities, raising exciting prospects for molecularly stratified treatment for patients with ATRT.

3.
Neuro Oncol ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055852

RESUMO

Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system tumors occurring in children and adults with neurofibromatosis type I (NF1). Over the past decade, discoveries of the molecular basis of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) have led to new approaches for diagnosis and treatments. However, these new understandings have not been fully applied to the management of NF1-associated gliomas. A consensus panel consisting of experts in NF1 and gliomas was convened to review the current molecular knowledge of NF1-associated low grade "transformed" and high-grade gliomas; insights gained from mouse models of NF1-LGGs; challenges in diagnosing and treating older patients with NF1-associated gliomas; and advances in molecular targeted treatment and potential immunologic treatment of these tumors. Next steps are recommended to advance the management and outcomes for NF1-associated gliomas.

4.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 20(3): 293-303, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917601

RESUMO

Introduction: Embryonal brain tumors (EBTs) are highly aggressive malignancies predominantly affecting children. They include medulloblastoma (MB), atypical rhabdoid/teratoid tumors (ATRT), pineoblastoma (PB), embryonal tumor multiple rosettes (ETMR)/C19MC-altered tumors, and newly recognized embryonal tumors with FOXR2 activation or BCOR alteration.Areas covered: This review will provide a comprehensive overview and updated of the literature on each of these EBTs. The evolution from location- and histopathology-based diagnosis to more specific and robust molecular-based classification schemes, as well as treatment modalities, will be discussed.Expert commentary: The subgrouping of EBTs with multi-omic profiling has had important implications for risk stratification and discovery of targetable driver pathways. However, these innovations are unlikely to significantly improve survival among high-risk patients until robust preclinical studies are conducted, followed by validation in biology-informed clinical trials.

5.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(2): 269-278, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654785

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the practice patterns and outcomes of intracranial germ cell tumors (IGCT) in adolescents and young adults according to different therapeutic approaches. METHODS AND MATERIALS: One-hundred twelve patients with IGCT aged 15 to 39 years were managed at either XX or the XY center from 1975 to 2015. The charts were retrospectively reviewed and data collected. RESULTS: Median duration of follow-up was 8.3 years. Ninety-four patients had germinomas, and 18 had nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCT). The primary disease sites were pineal gland (37 of 94 germinoma, 14 of 18 NGGCT) and suprasellar region (23 of 94 germinoma, 2 of 18 NGGCT). Eleven patients with germinoma (12%) and 2 patients with NGGCT (11%) had radiographic spinal metastases or positive lumbar cerebrospinal fluid cytology. Event-free survival (EFS) was 84% and overall survival (OS) was 90% at 10 years for germinoma; EFS was 71% and OS was 86% at 10 years for NGGCT. For patients with germinoma, 10-year EFS was 100% after craniospinal radiation therapy (CSRT) with chemotherapy (N = 10); 100% after whole-ventricular radiation therapy (WVRT), whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT), or focal radiation therapy (FRT) with chemotherapy (N = 22); 90% after CSRT alone (N = 46); and 41% after WVRT, WBRT, or FRT alone (N = 16) (P < .0005). Ten-year OS was 100%, 100%, 90%, and 72%, respectively (P = .032). For patients with NGGCT, 10-year EFS was 80% after CSRT, WBRT, or WVRT plus chemotherapy (N = 10) versus 58% after FRT plus chemotherapy (N = 8) (P = .31); 10-year OS was 90% versus 58%, respectively (P = .16). CONCLUSIONS: We report excellent overall outcomes according to treatment approach in the largest study of IGCT in adolescents and young adults to our knowledge. EFS and OS were inferior after non-CSRT without chemotherapy in germinoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Institutos de Câncer , Gonadotropina Coriônica Humana Subunidade beta/sangue , Gonadotropina Coriônica Humana Subunidade beta/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Radiação Cranioespinal , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Germinoma/diagnóstico , Germinoma/mortalidade , Germinoma/secundário , Germinoma/terapia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/secundário , Glândula Pineal , Pinealoma/diagnóstico , Pinealoma/mortalidade , Pinealoma/terapia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/secundário , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Testiculares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Testiculares/secundário , Neoplasias Testiculares/terapia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , alfa-Fetoproteínas/análise , alfa-Fetoproteínas/líquido cefalorraquidiano
6.
Acta Neuropathol ; 139(2): 259-271, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802236

RESUMO

Pineoblastoma is a rare embryonal tumor of childhood that is conventionally treated with high-dose craniospinal irradiation (CSI). Multi-dimensional molecular evaluation of pineoblastoma and associated intertumoral heterogeneity is lacking. Herein, we report outcomes and molecular features of children with pineoblastoma from two multi-center, risk-adapted trials (SJMB03 for patients ≥ 3 years; SJYC07 for patients < 3 years) complemented by a non-protocol institutional cohort. The clinical cohort consisted of 58 patients with histologically diagnosed pineoblastoma (SJMB03 = 30, SJYC07 = 12, non-protocol = 16, including 12 managed with SJMB03-like therapy). The SJMB03 protocol comprised risk-adapted CSI (average-risk = 23.4 Gy, high-risk = 36 Gy) with radiation boost to the primary site and adjuvant chemotherapy. The SJYC07 protocol consisted of induction chemotherapy, consolidation with focal radiation (intermediate-risk) or chemotherapy (high-risk), and metronomic maintenance therapy. The molecular cohort comprised 43 pineal parenchymal tumors profiled by DNA methylation array (n = 43), whole-exome sequencing (n = 26), and RNA-sequencing (n = 16). Respective 5-year progression-free survival rates for patients with average-risk or high-risk disease on SJMB03 or SJMB03-like therapy were 100% and 56.5 ± 10.3% (P = 0.007); respective 2-year progression-free survival rates for those with intermediate-risk or high-risk disease on SJYC07 were 14.3 ± 13.2% and 0% (P = 0.375). Of patients with average-risk disease treated with SJMB03/SJMB03-like therapy, 17/18 survived without progression. DNA-methylation analysis revealed four clinically relevant pineoblastoma subgroups: PB-A, PB-B, PB-B-like, and PB-FOXR2. Pineoblastoma subgroups differed in age at diagnosis, propensity for metastasis, cytogenetics, and clinical outcomes. Alterations in the miRNA-processing pathway genes DICER1, DROSHA, and DGCR8 were recurrent and mutually exclusive in PB-B and PB-B-like subgroups; PB-FOXR2 samples universally overexpressed the FOXR2 proto-oncogene. Our findings suggest superior outcome amongst older children with average-risk pineoblastoma treated with reduced-dose CSI. The identification of biologically and clinically distinct pineoblastoma subgroups warrants consideration of future molecularly-driven treatment protocols for this rare pediatric brain tumor entity.

7.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(3): e28102, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793190

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is characterized by a short history of brainstem symptoms and well-known magnetic resonance imaging features with a fatal outcome. However, we report three unusual cases of brainstem tumors with an initial indolent and protracted course, which subsequently developed the classical imaging and clinical features of DIPG. Our findings support this notion that K27M is an early event in development and suggest that the emergence of additional events resulted in rapid progression after a long period of latency. Identification of such markers of aggressive behavior in the context of an indolent course is needed for better characterization and treatment management.

8.
Neuro Oncol ; 22(2): 290-297, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) is a common complication following resection of posterior fossa tumors, most commonly after surgery for medulloblastoma. Medulloblastoma subgroups have historically been treated as a single entity when assessing CMS risk; however, recent studies highlighting their clinical heterogeneity suggest the need for subgroup-specific analysis. Here, we examine a large international multicenter cohort of molecularly characterized medulloblastoma patients to assess predictors of CMS. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of 370 molecularly characterized medulloblastoma subjects with available neuroimaging from 5 sites globally, including Great Ormond Street Hospital, Christian Medical College and Hospital, the Hospital for Sick Children, King Hussein Cancer Center, and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital. Age at diagnosis, sex, tumor volume, and CMS development were assessed in addition to molecular subgroup. RESULTS: Overall, 23.8% of patients developed CMS. CMS patients were younger (mean difference -2.05 years ± 0.50, P = 0.0218) and had larger tumors (mean difference 10.25 cm3 ± 4.60, P = 0.0010) that were more often midline (odds ratio [OR] = 5.72, P < 0.0001). In a multivariable analysis adjusting for age, sex, midline location, and tumor volume, Wingless (adjusted OR = 4.91, P = 0.0063), Group 3 (adjusted OR = 5.56, P = 0.0022), and Group 4 (adjusted OR = 8.57 P = 9.1 × 10-5) tumors were found to be independently associated with higher risk of CMS compared with sonic hedgehog tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Medulloblastoma subgroup is a very strong predictor of CMS development, independent of tumor volume and midline location. These findings have significant implications for management of both the tumor and CMS.

9.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(3): 223-231, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774708

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nodular desmoplastic medulloblastoma (ND) and medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity (MBEN) have been associated with a more favorable outcome in younger children. However, treatment-related neurotoxicity remains a significant concern in this vulnerable group of patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ACNS1221 was a prospective single-arm trial of conventional chemotherapy for nonmetastatic ND and MBEN based on a modified HIT SKK 2000 regimen excluding intraventricular methotrexate, aiming to achieve similar outcome (2-year progression-free survival [PFS] ≥ 90%) with reduced treatment-related neurotoxicity. Secondary objectives included feasibility of timely central pathology review and evaluation of tumor molecular profile. RESULTS: Twenty-five eligible patients (15 males and 10 females; median age, 18.7 months) were enrolled. Eighteen patients had ND and 7 had MBEN histology. Three patients had residual disease at baseline. The study closed early because of a higher than expected relapse rate. Twelve patients experienced relapse-local (n= 6), distant (n = 3), and combined (n = 3)-at a median of 9.8 months from diagnosis (range, 8.9-13.7 months), and 2 patients died of disease. Two-year PFS and overall survival rates were 52% (95% CI, 32.4% to 71.6%) and 92% (95% CI, 80.8% to 100.0%) respectively. Patients older than 12 months of age (P = .036) and ND histology (P = .005) were associated with worse PFS. No patients with MBEN histology experienced relapse. All tumor samples clustered within the sonic hedgehog (SHH) group. Methylation analysis delineated 2 subgroups, SHH-I and SHH-II, which were associated with 2-year PFS rates of 30.0% (95% CI, 1.6% to 58.4%) and 66.7% (95% CI, 44.0% to 89.4%), respectively (P = .099). CONCLUSION: The proposed modified regimen of conventional systemic chemotherapy without serial intraventricular methotrexate injection failed to achieve the targeted 2-year PFS of 90%. With this cohort, we prospectively confirmed the existence of two SHH subgroups and observed a trend toward worse outcome for SHH-I patients.

10.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(5): 454-461, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774710

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Proton radiotherapy (PRT) may lessen the neuropsychological risk traditionally associated with cranial radiotherapy for the treatment of pediatric brain tumors by reducing the dose to normal tissue compared with that of photon radiotherapy (XRT). We examined the change in intellectual scores over time in patients with pediatric medulloblastoma treated with craniospinal PRT versus XRT. METHODS: Intelligence test scores were obtained for a sample of pediatric patients treated between 2007 and 2018 on the same medulloblastoma protocols that differed only in radiotherapy modality (PRT v XRT). Growth curve analyses compared change in scores over time since diagnosis between groups. RESULTS: Longitudinal intelligence data from 79 patients (37 PRT, 42 XRT) were examined. Groups were similar on most demographic/clinical variables, including sex (67.1% male), age at diagnosis (mean, 8.6 years), craniospinal irradiation dose (median, 23.4 Gy), length of follow-up (mean, 4.3 years), and parental education (mean, 14.3 years). Boost dose (P < .001) and boost margin (P = .001) differed between groups. Adjusting for covariates, the PRT group exhibited superior long-term outcomes in global intelligence quotient (IQ), perceptual reasoning, and working memory compared with the XRT group (all P < .05). The XRT group exhibited a significant decline in global IQ, working memory, and processing speed (all P < .05). The PRT group exhibited stable scores over time in all domains with the exception of processing speed (P = .003). CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare intellectual trajectories between pediatric patients treated for medulloblastoma with PRT versus those treated with XRT on comparable, contemporary protocols. PRT was associated with more favorable intellectual outcomes in most domains compared with XRT, although processing speed emerged as a vulnerable domain for both groups. This study provides the strongest evidence to date of an intellectual sparing advantage with PRT in the treatment of pediatric medulloblastoma.

11.
Cancer Med ; 9(2): 447-459, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the global impact of medulloblastoma on health related quality of life (HRQL) is critical to characterizing the broad impact of this disease and realizing the benefits of modern treatments. We evaluated HRQL in an international cohort of pediatric medulloblastoma patients. METHODS: Seventy-six patients were selected from 10 sites across North America, Europe, and Asia, who participated in the Medulloblastoma Advanced Genomics International Consortium (MAGIC). The Health Utilities Index (HUI) was administered to patients and/or parents at each site. Responses were used to determine overall HRQL and attributes (ie specific subdomains). The impact of various demographic and medical variables on HRQL was considered-including molecular subgroup. RESULTS: The majority of patients reported having moderate or severe overall burden of morbidity for both the HUI2 and HUI3 (HUI2 = 60%; HUI3 = 72.1%) when proxy-assessed. Self-care in the HUI2 was rated as higher (ie better outcome) for patients from Western versus Eastern sites, P = .02. Patients with nonmetastatic status had higher values (ie better outcomes) for the HUI3 hearing, HUI3 pain, and HUI2 pain, all P < .05. Patients treated with a gross total resection also had better outcomes for the HUI3 hearing (P = .04). However, those who underwent a gross total resection reported having worse outcomes on the HUI3 vision (P = .02). No differences in HRQL were evident as a function of subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: By examining an international sample of survivors, we characterized the worldwide impact of medulloblastoma. This is a critical first step in developing global standards for evaluating long-term outcomes.

12.
Acta Neuropathol ; 139(2): 223-241, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820118

RESUMO

Pineoblastomas (PBs) are rare, aggressive pediatric brain tumors of the pineal gland with modest overall survival despite intensive therapy. We sought to define the clinical and molecular spectra of PB to inform new treatment approaches for this orphan cancer. Tumor, blood, and clinical data from 91 patients with PB or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNETs/CNS-PNETs), and 2 pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation (PPTIDs) were collected from 29 centres in the Rare Brain Tumor Consortium. We used global DNA methylation profiling to define a core group of PB from 72/93 cases, which were delineated into five molecular sub-groups. Copy number, whole exome and targeted sequencing, and miRNA expression analyses were used to evaluate the clinico-pathologic significance of each sub-group. Tumors designated as group 1 and 2 almost exclusively exhibited deleterious homozygous loss-of-function alterations in miRNA biogenesis genes (DICER1, DROSHA, and DGCR8) in 62 and 100% of group 1 and 2 tumors, respectively. Recurrent alterations of the oncogenic MYC-miR-17/92-RB1 pathway were observed in the RB and MYC sub-group, respectively, characterized by RB1 loss with gain of miR-17/92, and recurrent gain or amplification of MYC. PB sub-groups exhibited distinct clinical features: group 1-3 arose in older children (median ages 5.2-14.0 years) and had intermediate to excellent survival (5-year OS of 68.0-100%), while Group RB and MYC PB patients were much younger (median age 1.3-1.4 years) with dismal survival (5-year OS 37.5% and 28.6%, respectively). We identified age < 3 years at diagnosis, metastatic disease, omission of upfront radiation, and chr 16q loss as significant negative prognostic factors across all PBs. Our findings demonstrate that PB exhibits substantial molecular heterogeneity with sub-group-associated clinical phenotypes and survival. In addition to revealing novel biology and therapeutics, molecular sub-grouping of PB can be exploited to reduce treatment intensity for patients with favorable biology tumors.

14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(24): 7303-7311, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811016

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pediatric low-grade glioma (pLGG) is the most prevalent childhood brain tumor. Patients with BRAF V600 mutation-positive pLGG may benefit from treatment with dabrafenib. Part 2 of a phase I/IIa study, open-label study (NCT01677741) explores the activity and safety of dabrafenib treatment in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients ages 1 to <18 years who had BRAF V600-mutant solid tumors (≥1 evaluable lesion) with recurrent, refractory, or progressive disease after ≥1 standard therapy were treated with oral dabrafenib 3.0 to 5.25 mg/kg/day (part 1) or at the recommended phase II dose (RP2D; part 2). Primary objectives were to determine the RP2D (part 1, results presented in a companion paper) and assess clinical activity (part 2). Here, we report the clinical activity, including objective response rates (ORRs) using Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria and safety across parts 1 and 2. RESULTS: Overall, 32 patients with pLGG were enrolled (part 1, n = 15; part 2, n = 17). Minimum follow-up was 26.2 months. Among all patients, the ORR was 44% [95% confidence interval (CI), 26-62] by independent review. The 1-year progression-free survival rate was 85% (95% CI, 64-94). Treatment-related adverse events (AE) were reported in 29 patients (91%); the most common was fatigue (34%). Grade 3/4 treatment-related AEs were reported in 9 patients (28%). CONCLUSIONS: Dabrafenib demonstrated meaningful clinical activity and acceptable tolerability in patients with BRAF V600-mutant pLGG.

15.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1250, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGG) are the most frequent brain tumors in children. Up to 50% will be refractory to conventional chemotherapy. It is now known that the majority of PLGG have activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway. The same pathway is also activated in plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) which are low-grade tumors involving peripheral nerves in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). These lesions are known to be refractory to chemotherapy. Specific MEK inhibitors such as trametinib are now available and have been approved for other cancers harboring mutations in the MAPK/ERK pathway such as melanoma. We have observed significant responses to trametinib in patients with refractory PLGG in our institutions and results from the phase I study are promising. The treatment appears not only efficacious but is also usually well tolerated. We hypothesize that we will observe responses in the majority of refractory PLGG and PN treated with trametinib in this phase 2 study. METHODS: The primary objective is to determine the objective response rate of trametinib as a single agent for treatment of progressing/refractory tumors with MAPK/ERK pathway activation. The TRAM-01 study is a phase II multicentric open-label basket trial including four groups. Group 1 includes NF1 patients with progressing/refractory glioma. Group 2 includes NF1 patients with plexiform neurofibroma. Group 3 includes patients with progressing/refractory glioma with KIAA1549-BRAF fusion. Group 4 includes other patients with progressing/refractory glioma with activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway. Eligible patients for a given study group will receive daily oral trametinib at full dose for a total of 18 cycles of 28 days. A total of 150 patients will be enrolled in seven Canadian centers. Secondary objectives include the assessment of progression-free survival, overall survival, safety and tolerability of trametinib, serum levels of trametinib and evaluation of quality of life during treatment. DISCUSSION: Trametinib will allow us to target directly and specifically the MAPK/ERK pathway. We expect to observe a significant response in most patients. Following our study, trametinib could be integrated into standard treatment of PLGG and PN. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03363217 December 6, 2017.

17.
Brain Pathol ; 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630459

RESUMO

We performed genome-wide methylation analysis on 136 pediatric low-grade gliomas, identifying a unique cluster consisting of three tumors with oligodendroglioma-like histology, BRAF p.V600E mutations and recurrent whole chromosome gains of 7 and loss of 10. Morphologically, all showed similar features, including a diffusely infiltrative glioma composed of round nuclei with perinuclear halos, a chicken-wire pattern of branching capillaries and microcalcification. None showed astrocytic features or characteristics suggestive of high-grade tumors including necrosis or mitotic figures. All tumors harbored multiple chromosomal copy number abnormalities (>10 chromosomes altered), but none showed 1p/19q co-deletion or IDH1 p.R132H mutation. Hierarchical clustering and t-stochastic neighbor embedding analyses from DNA methylation data cluster them more closely to previously described pediatric-type low-grade gliomas and separate from adult gliomas. These tumors exhibit distinct clinical features; they are temporal lobe lesions occurring in adolescents and young adults with a prolonged history of seizures and all are alive with no recurrence (follow-up 3.2 to 13.2 years). We encountered another young adult case with quite similar pathological appearance and molecular status except for TERT promoter mutation. Although the series is small, these may represent a new category of IDH wild-type low-grade gliomas which may be confused with "molecular GBM." Further, they highlight the heterogeneity of IDH wild-type gliomas and the relatively indolent behavior of "pediatric-type" gliomas.

18.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 144, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639040

RESUMO

After publication of the original article [1], authors have requested to add a 'J' as middle name for Richard Gilbertson. Hence, full name should be Richard J Gilbertson.

19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(24): 7294-7302, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506385

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The 2-part, phase I/IIa, open-label study (NCT01677741) sought to determine the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary activity of dabrafenib in pediatric patients with advanced BRAF V600-mutated cancers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This phase I dose-finding part treated patients ages 1 to <18 years with BRAF V600 mutation-positive tumors with oral dabrafenib 3 to 5.25 mg/kg/day to determine the RP2D based on safety and drug exposure target. RESULTS: Between May 2013 and November 2014, 27 patients [12 male; median age, 9 years (range, 1-17 years)] with BRAF V600-mutant solid tumors recurrent/refractory to treatment (low- or high-grade glioma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, neuroblastoma, or thyroid cancer) were enrolled. The median treatment duration was 75.6 weeks (range, 5.6-148.7 weeks), with 63% treated for >52 weeks and 52% undergoing treatment at data cutoff date. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events suspected to be related to study drug were maculopapular rash and arthralgia (2 patients each). No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Pharmacokinetic analyses showed a dose-dependent increase in AUC0-12 and achievement of adult exposure levels at the recommended phase II doses of 5.25 mg/kg/day (age <12 years) and 4.5 mg/kg/day (age ≥12 years) divided into 2 equal doses daily, not exceeding 300 mg daily. CONCLUSIONS: In this first clinical trial in pediatric patients with pretreated BRAF V600-mutant tumors, dabrafenib was well tolerated while achieving target exposure levels; the average treatment duration was >1 year with many patients still on treatment. The phase II component is also closed and will be reported separately.

20.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 117, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histological grading of choroid plexus tumors (CPTs) remains the best prognostic tool to distinguish between aggressive choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) and the more benign choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) or atypical choroid plexus papilloma (aCPP); however, these distinctions can be challenging. Standard treatment of CPC is very aggressive and often leads to severe damage to the young child's brain. Therefore, it is crucial to distinguish between CPC and less aggressive entities (CPP or aCPP) to avoid unnecessary exposure of the young patient to neurotoxic therapy. To better stratify CPTs, we utilized DNA methylation (DNAm) to identify prognostic epigenetic biomarkers for CPCs. METHODS: We obtained DNA methylation profiles of 34 CPTs using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip from Illumina, and the data was analyzed using the Illumina Genome Studio analysis software. Validation of differentially methylated CpG sites chosen as biomarkers was performed using pyrosequencing analysis on additional 22 CPTs. Sensitivity testing of the CPC DNAm signature was performed on a replication cohort of 61 CPT tumors obtained from Neuropathology, University Hospital Münster, Germany. RESULTS: Generated genome-wide DNAm profiles of CPTs showed significant differences in DNAm between CPCs and the CPPs or aCPPs. The prediction of clinical outcome could be improved by combining the DNAm profile with the mutational status of TP53. CPCs with homozygous TP53 mutations clustered as a group separate from those carrying a heterozygous TP53 mutation or CPCs with wild type TP53 (TP53-wt) and showed the worst survival outcome. Specific DNAm signatures for CPCs revealed AK1, PER2, and PLSCR4 as potential biomarkers for CPC that can be used to improve molecular stratification for diagnosis and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that combining specific DNAm signature for CPCs with histological approaches better differentiate aggressive tumors from those that are not life threatening. These findings have important implications for future prognostic risk prediction in clinical disease management.

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